Adam C. Powell - History

Adam C. Powell - History

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Adam C. Powell

1909- 1972

Politician/Civil Rights Activist

The son of a clergyman, Adam Clayton Powell became an outspoken politician and civil rights activist. Although he was admired as a dynamic orator on issues of civil rights, he was criticized for using demogogical techniques. In 1945, he was elected to the House of Representatives as a Democrat representing the Harlem District of New York, and served as a chairman of the House Committee on Education and Labor.

In 1960, Powell was sued by a woman whom he accused of being a "bag woman" for police graft. After the scandal surrounding the lawsuit, he maintained a home in the Bahamas. In 1967, he was unseated by a House committee based on charges of misusing public funds. Nevertheless, Powell was reelected in a special election and returned to Congress in 1969, although he was fined $25,000 and deprived of his seniority.

In the same year, the Supreme Court overturned his expulsion from the House, although he was defeated in 1970 when he ran for reelection.


Adam By Adam: The Autobiography of Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.

Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.

Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. loomed as a giant in the Black community of Harlem, not only as the pastor of the Abyssinian Baptist Church, but also as a community activist and the first African-American to represent New York in the United States House of Representatives.

Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. was born in New Haven, Connecticut on November 29, 1908. He was the son of Adam Clayton Powell, Sr., then a Baptist minister in New Haven and his wife Mattie Buster Shaffer. He had an older sister Blanche and the family was of mixed racial origins African, European and Native American. Powell Sr. had graduated from Wayland Seminary, Yale University and Virginia Seminary and was chosen to pastor the Abyssinian Baptist Church in Harlem, eventually growing the church to more than 10,000 members.

Adam Jr., because of his father’s success, grew up in a rather wealthy household and attended Townsend Harris High School before studying at City College of New York and then Colgate University (his father sent him to Colgate, a Baptist school, to put Adam on the right path and to get him away from the nightlife and nightclubs that he avidly frequented). He was a handsome young man and because of his fair skin and hazel eyes, he was often able to pass as being white (at birth his hair was blonde), often allowing him to avoid much of the racial strife that was directed towards his Black classmates. This caused a great deal of anger on their part towards him because he withheld his racial background from his classmates, even joining a white fraternity (very uncommon in those days).

His father encouraged him to follow in his footsteps as a minister. Adam Jr. (Adam) received his Bachelor’s degree from Colgate in 1930 and then received an M.A. in Religious Education from Columbia University a year later. Although he had originally planned to pursue a job in the field of medicine, he realized that the church would provide him with a ready-made career. Following his ordination, Adam assisted his father at the church, both preaching to the congregation and in growing the outreach to the community (primarily in charitable endeavors), and took over for his father as Head Pastor of the church in 1938. He married Isabel Washington, a star dancer at the Cotton Club, in 1933, and adopted her son Preston. He was deeply committed to the church, its parishioners and the community around him and was now the pastor of the largest protestant congregation in the United States.

He became prominent in political activism, fighting for employment opportunities and fair housing. He became the Chairman of the Coordinating Committee for Employment, mounting pressure on local businesses to hire Blacks on all levels of employment. He led very noteworthy protests including a “Shop Only Where You Can Work” boycott of all of stores along 125th, shutting most of them down, thereby forcing them to hire Black workers. During the World’s Fair of 1939, his protesters picketed in front of the Fair’s headquarters at the Empire State Building, which resulted in a 250% increase in Black hiring. Two years later, he led the bus boycott of the New York Transit authority, leading to 200 additional jobs for Black constituents. His activism on the part of the community led him to run for the New York City Council and he was elected in 1941, the first Black to serve on the Council.

Three years later he ran for a seat in the United States House of Representatives. He ran on a campaign of fighting for the civil rights of Blacks, including seeking a ban on obstacles for voting rights (such as poll taxes), fair employment opportunities and a ban on lynching. Running as a Democrat, he was elected in 1944, representing the 22nd Congressional district (which included Harlem) and was the first Black Congressman from the state of New York. He did not try to ease his way in quietly and instead directly addressed issues that affected his constituents. With Jim Crow being the law of the land in the south and almost all of the southern Congressmen being segregationists, there had been no one willing to stand on the House floor and raise issues that affected Blacks throughout the nation. Powell would be the man to do so.

Powell did not make many friends, especially among the southern Congressmen, but he stood up and addressed issues facing Blacks. One particularly noteworthy incident occurred when he stood on the House floor and chastised Congressman John Rankin of Mississippi. A tradition within the House was that freshmen Congressmen did not speak on the House floor during their first year. On this occasion, however, when Rankin used the word “nigger” on the House floor, Powell stood and announced “the time has arrived to impeach Rankin, or at least expel him from the party.” To take on a Congressman as powerful as Rankin demonstrated that Powell would be a force to be reckoned with. Powell would take particular delight in irritating Rankin. Rankin had called Powell’s election to the house “a disgrace” and when Rankin made it known that he did not want to sit anywhere near Powell, Adam would find any opportunity possible to sit close to the Mississippi Congressman. On one occasion he followed him from seat to seat until Rankin had moved five times.

In 1945, having divorced Isabel, Powell married Hazel Scott, a jazz singer and pianist. The two had a son whom they named Adam Clayton Powell III. Powell served with only one other Black Congressman (William Levi Dawson of Illinois) until 1955 and they were both subject to numerous informal barriers within Congressional offices. Powell protested and refused to defer to the bans on the “Whites Only” House restaurant, the Congressional Barber Shop, the House gymnasium and other facilities. He constantly battled segregationists on both policy and decorum and found allies within the Black community and with organizations like the NAACP to push for equality for Blacks throughout the United States.

One method he used to attain his goals was referred to as the “Powell Amendments.” On any proposed legislation that would call for federal expenditures, he would offer an amendment that required that federal funds be denied to any jurisdiction that maintained segregation. This grated on both liberal allies and conservative foes but it gradually seeped into the mindsets of the politicians, as they realized that Powell was not going to stop and was not going away. Some were not ready to give up their fight, however. During a 1955 meeting of the Education and Labor Committee, Powell was punched in the face by West Virginia Congressman Cleveland Bailey, a segregationist who was so incensed by Powell’s persistent use of the “Powell Amendment” rider.

His willingness to anger even his allies led him to buck the party ticket in 1956 and throw his support behind Republican President Dwight D. Eisenhower. Powell was dissatisfied with the Democratic Party platform on civil rights and made sure that he was not seen as a rubber stamp for the Democratic Party. He also sailed against mainstream opinions when he travelled to Indonesia for the 1955 Asian-African Conference, which celebrated the recent move to independence from colonialism for countries that included Ghana, Sierra Leone and Indonesia. The State Department had asked him to not attend, but he did so as an observer and ended up speaking of the need to end colonialism abroad and segregation at home while also defending the United States against the communist talking points being used against his country. Powell returned home to a warm reception, honored as “Man of the Year” by the Veterans of Foreign Wars, and was invited to speak with President Eisenhower. He offered the opinion that the United States was wasting an opportunity to truly compete with the Soviet Union by trotting out ballet companies and symphonies to tour around the world. Instead, he thought, the country should focus on presenting more current and popular American offerings such as jazz music, which was an American created style of music, appealing to and engaged in by members of various races. Powell suggested sending well-known jazz musicians to tour abroad, spreading the American art form to catch the ear of younger citizens of the world. The State Department agreed and set up such a goodwill tour including well-known musicians such as Dizzy Gillespie. Gillespie headlined the tour, which many referred to as “Jazz Diplomacy.” The musicians were able to meet with high-ranking officials as well as with the “common man” and the tour was considered a great success. One man who attended a concert in Zagreb, Yugoslavia stated, “What this country needs is fewer ambassadors and more jam sessions!”

In 1960, having divorced Hazel, Adam married again, this time to Yvette Flores Diago, the daughter of the Mayor of San Juan, Puerto Rico. They had a son whom he also named Adam Clayton Powell (this son would later change his name to Adam Clayton Powell, IV).

After serving the House of Representatives for 15 years, Powell was finally granted a committee chairmanship in 1961 when he became the Chairman of the House Education and Labor Committee. The committee’s stated purpose is “to ensure that Americans’ needs are addressed so that students and workers may move forward in a changing school system and a competitive global economy.” Under his leadership, the committee created federal programs addressing Medicaid, minimum wage and equal pay for women, as well as education for the disabled, support for libraries and vocational training. Much of this legislation was incorporated into President John F. Kennedy’s “New Frontier” program as well as President Lyndon Johnson’s “Great Society” and “War on Poverty” programs.

Some of his greatest triumphs involved passing legislation to protect the rights of Blacks, particularly those affected by Jim Crow laws in the south. He authored bills to criminalize lynching, dismantle public school segregation and to abolish the Southern practice of charging a Poll Tax to Black voters. This tax was applied to voters in many southern states, but a grandfather clause allowed those adult males whose father or grandfather had voted prior to emancipation to be exempt from the tax. As such, white male voters were allowed to vote, while many Black voters who could not afford to pay the tax were prevented from engaging in the electoral process. The Civil Rights Act of 1965 included many of these provisions and called for enforcement of them.

His growing power made him a target for his political enemies. Unfortunately, in many ways, Powell made himself an easier target through his spending of committee funds, his legal problems, his erratic behavior, his habit of constantly traveling and his often being absent from the House. Without a doubt, many of the southern House members opposed him simply because of his race and looked for any opportunity to punish him. Unfortunately for Powell, although he had fought so hard against unfair treatment by House members, he had also given them plenty of ammunition to use against him.

In 1958, Powell was indicted by a Federal grand jury for income tax evasion. The trial ended in a hung jury but the Federal government continued to investigate his finances. In 1960, Powell gave a television interview in which he accused a Harlem widow named Esther James of being a “bag woman” for corrupt police payoffs. James sued him and was awarded $211,500.00 in a jury award. Powell refused to pay the damages and instead would only return to his district in Harlem on Sundays when he when he could not be served by court officials (the award was eventually paid out years later after he was cited for criminal contempt, but the matter damaged him significantly). In 1967, a House committee suspended Powell’s third wife, Yvette Diago, and accused her of being on the House payroll without doing any work. Diago, in fact, admitted that she had moved to Puerto Rico in 1961, but was paid from Powell’s Congressional payroll from that time until January of 1967 when the allegation came to light and she was fired.

He also travelled a great deal, with stays in Florida as well as a vacation home he owned in Bimini in the Bahamas. House opponents accused him of using House funds to pay for this travel, including once when he was accompanied by two young women at the expense of the Federal government (the women were Tamara Wall, a staff attorney and secretary Corinne Huff, the first Black Miss Ohio, with whom Powell was romantically involved). As such, the House Democratic Caucus stripped him of his committee leadership in January of 1967 and the full House refused to seat him until the Judiciary Committee completed an investigation of him. On March 1, 1967, by a vote of 307 to 116, the House voted to exclude him from its proceedings. Powell decided to sue to retain his seat. Although he won a Special Election to fill his vacant seat (by a margin of 7-1), he refused to take it, preferring to challenge his removal in court. In the meantime, in November of 1968, his constituents in Harlem defiantly re-elected him with overwhelming support. The House had no choice but to seat him now, but did so while at the same time denying him seniority and fining him $25,000.00. On June 16, 1969, the United States Supreme Court decided 7-1 in Powell vs. McCormack that the House had violated his constitutional rights in refusing to seat him, as he was a duly elected member of Congress. Unfortunately, after his Supreme Court victory, he seemed to rub it in the faces of his foes, showing up for only nine roll calls out of 177, a record for absenteeism. He was the most powerful Black politician of his time, but like many great men, it seemed that hubris was to become his most destructive opponent.

Regarding his travel expenditures, Powell defended himself saying, “I will always do just what every other Congressman and committee chairman has done and is doing and will do.” His constituents had grown weary of their Representative always seeming to have to put out fires, whether in the form of lawsuits, political fights or embarrassing scandals. He was defeated in the Democratic primary in 1970 by Charles Rangel by a mere 150 votes. He attempted to get on the November ballot as an independent through a signature campaign, but failed to do so and resigned from his position at the Abyssinian Baptist Church and retired to his home in Bimini.

In April 1972, Powell’s health began faltering and he was rushed from Bimini to Miami, Florida where he was hospitalized. He died on April 4, 1972 due to acute prostatitis, an inflammation of the prostate gland. His funeral was held at the Abyssinian Baptist Church in Harlem and his ashes were spread by his son, Adam III, over the waters of Bimini.

Over the years, numerous public schools have been named after him as has an office building in Harlem on Seventh Avenue and an area north of Central Park in New York City was renamed Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. Boulevard. His real legacy, though, is as a confident political figure when many Blacks were afraid to speak out against the racism and poverty that they saw. He was a bright and engaging leader who would not back down from his opponents and led the fight to change things in a turbulent society. Most of all, he is seen as a man who opened the doors for a number of minorities who would follow in his footsteps as politicians in the Untied States Congress.

Adam C. Powell, Ph.D.

Adam C. Powell, Ph.D. is Partner and President of Payer+Provider, a consulting firm which uses teams of economists, health services researchers, and physicians to provide precise answers to operational challenges faced by health insurance companies and hospitals. A healthcare economist and published author, Dr. Powell's specialty is using statistical techniques to examine issues concerning technology, operations, and firm decision making. He holds a Doctorate and Master&rsquos degree from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, where he studied Health Care Management and Economics. He also holds Bachelor's degrees in Management Science and Writing from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Outside of work, he exhibits his art and studies Mandarin Chinese.

Dr. Powell&rsquos career is focused both on using economic techniques to examine the provision and financing of healthcare, and on bringing theory to life by working with clients in those industries. He has consulted for three of America&rsquos top five health insurance networks, and founded the payer consulting practice of Penn Biotech Group prior to founding Payer+Provider. Over the course of his consulting career, Dr. Powell has helped multiple health insurers understand and react to the Affordable Care Act (America&rsquos 2010 healthcare reform) by examining issues including how health insurance can be sold at retail locations, how it can be sold to individuals, and how it can best be marketed to small businesses. His research on healthcare providers has addressed topics including how hospitals decide which medical devices to buy, how reductions in service quality due to high workload impact hospital reimbursements, and how hospitals&rsquo costs are impacted by substituting nurses for physicians. Prior to founding Payer+Provider, Dr. Powell worked for Humana (a health insurer), Microsoft, Oliver Wyman Health & Life Sciences, and UBS.

Dr. Powell&rsquos research has been published in a wide variety of venues, ranging from Manufacturing & Service Operations Management to The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, and his economic commentary has been featured in the popular media through sites including Becker&rsquos Hospital Review, KevinMD, Minyanville, Reuter&rsquos, Seeking Alpha, and Yahoo! Finance. Dr. Powell is a former recipient of the National Research Service Award.

2246 Adam C Powell Boulevard, New York, NY 10027

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Sales & Property History for 2246 Adam C Powell Boulevard

Sales history, mortgages, liens, and pre-foreclosures for 2246 Adam C Powell Boulevard. The complete property history is available in a single place, including buyer and seller information, detailed mortgage & lien records, distressed property records.

Title Documents for 2246 Adam C Powell Boulevard

Records go back to 1966 and include the complete history of deeds, mortgages, assignments of leases and rents, and more! Plus, document images are one-click away.

Doc rec date Doctype Document amount Party1 name Party2 name Link to doc with redirect
12/17/2010 - D Agreement
12/17/2010 - D Release
01/14/2009 - R Ucc3 Amendment
12/23/2008 - D Release
12/23/2008 - D Partial Release Of Mortgage
12/23/2008 - D Partial Release Of Mortgage
12/23/2008 - D Partial Release Of Mortgage
12/23/2008 - D Partial Release Of Mortgage
12/29/2008 - D Mortgage
12/29/2008 - D Agreement

R: Recorded date
D: Document date

Property Taxes for 2246 Adam C Powell Boulevard

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Assessment History for 2246 Adam C Powell Boulevard

Here's the assessment & property tax history for 2246 Adam C Powell Boulevard, including the evolution of the total tax rate and corresponding property tax.

Year Building class Market value Assessed value Taxable Tax rate% Base tax Property tax
2020/21 C7 $1,302,000 $585,900 $157,680 12.267% $71,872 $19,343
2019/20 C7 $1,318,400 $593,280 $157,253 12.473% $71,581 $19,614
2018/19 C7 $1,648,000 $741,600 $154,430 12.612% $70,239 $19,477
2017/18 C7 $1,434,000 $645,300 $155,876 12.719% $70,730 $19,826
2016/17 C7 $1,147,000 $516,150 $157,648 12.892% $66,382 $20,324
2015/16 C7 $1,153,000 $518,850 $156,621 12.883% $61,422 $20,177
2014/15 C7 $981,000 $441,450 $157,680 12.885% $56,881 $20,317
2013/14 C7 $952,000 $428,400 $157,680 13.145% $56,313 $20,727
2012/13 C7 $910,000 $409,500 $157,570 13.181% $53,976 $20,769
2011/12 C7 $827,000 $372,150 $98,172 13.433% $49,991 $13,187
2010/11 C7 $904,000 $406,800 $401,956 13.353% $53,673 $53,673
2009/10 C7 $1,510,000 $679,500 $287,614 13.241% $38,083 $38,083
2008/09 C7 $715,000 $321,750 $164,773 12.596% $20,755 $20,755
2007/08 C7 $328,600 $147,870 $109,073 11.928% $13,010 $13,010
2006/07 C7 $367,000 $165,150 $95,760 12.737% $12,197 $12,197
2005/06 C7 $350,000 $157,500 $69,480 12.396% $8,613 $8,613
2004/05 C7 $160,000 $72,000 $43,830 12.216% $5,354 $5,354

Permits for 2246 Adam C Powell Boulevard

Assess the condition of a property with access to the history of permits filed, including new construction or demolition permits, plus any work pertaining to plumbing, heating, sprinkler systems, and more! Data goes back to 1990.

Pre filing date Job type Job status Job description Document Building type
03/03/2006 Alteration type 1
04/30/2002 Alteration type 3
04/06/2001 Alteration type 3
02/23/2001 Alteration type 2
01/09/1997 Alteration type 2
03/04/1996 Alteration type 3
03/18/1992 Alteration type 2

Harlem residential market stats

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Adam Clayton Powell Sr. (1865-1953)

Adam Clayton Powell, Sr. was born on May 5, 1865, in Franklin County, Virginia to former slaves of African American, Native American, and German ancestry. He was raised in a family of seventeen children.

During his youth, Powell lived a reckless life filled with gambling. At the age of nineteen, Powell experienced a religious conversion to Christianity at a revival meeting. After failing to gain entrance into Howard University School of Law, he decided to study religion. In 1888, he enrolled in a theology program at Wayland Seminary and College in Washington, D.C., earning his degree in 1892.

On July 30, 1889, Powell married Mattie Fletcher. They had two children, Blanch and Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. Powell held several ministerial positions. In 1893, he became pastor of Ebenezer Baptist Church in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Under his leadership, the once small congregation of 25 increased to 600 members.

In 1908, Powell became pastor of Abyssinian Baptist Church in lower Manhattan, New York. His energetic preaching style attracted over 1,500 members. Powell’s conservative social message warned against social immorality, but his liberal activist preaching urged black parishioners to engage in protest against racial discrimination.

Powell’s activism reached beyond his pulpit as a member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and the National Urban League. On July 28, 1917, Powell, along with other religious leaders and civil rights activists, organized a “silent protest parade” in response to the East St. Louis, Illinois, Massacre as well as anti-black mob violence in Memphis, Tennessee, and Waco, Texas.

In 1923, Powell moved Abyssinian Baptist to a new sanctuary at 132 West 138th Street in Harlem, New York. With its new location in the center what became the largest black urban community in the nation, Powell attracted more new members to Abyssinian Baptist. In the 1930s, the church membership swelled to 14,000, making it the single largest church congregation in the United States. During the Great Depression, Powell waged successful campaigns to feed the poor and to create better employment opportunities and city services for African Americans.

In 1936, Powell retired as pastor and his son, Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. replaced him on November 1. Adam Clayton Powell, Sr. died in New York City, on June 12, 1953 at the age of 88.

Adam C. Powell - History

In the Charles Schwager Papers, 1909-1948, 0.25 linear foot.

Correspondents include Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.

In the Edward Costikyan Collection, 1961-1962, 3 letters.

Correspondents include Adam Clayton Powell. The letters are from April 12 and 25, 1961, and December 5, 1962. A finding aid is available in the repository.

Oral Histories and Papers:

The following oral history interview include discussion regarding Adam Clayton Powell: James Hagerty and William Rogers. Adam Clayton Powell is also represented in President Eisenhower's papers documenting his cabinet, legislative meetings, and diaries.

Adam Clayton Powell is represented in President Ford's congressional papers, as well as in the papers of Robert Hartmann and Edward Hutchinson.

Oral Histories and Papers:

Adam Clayton Powell is represented in the following oral history interviews: Morris Abram, Horace Busby, S. Douglass Cater, Ramsey Clark, James Farmer, Harry McPherson, Louis Martin, Wilbur Mills, Laurence O'Brien, John Siegenthaler, and Stewart Udall. Papers which document Adam Clayton Powell include President Johnson's telephone conversations and presidential diaries, and in the papers of S. Douglas Cater and Drew Pearson.

Oral Histories and Papers:

Oral history interviews discussing Adam Clayton Powell include: Anthony B. Akers and Howard Petersen. President Kennedy's news conferences and speeches, as well as his public opinion mail from 1963, contain mentions of Adam Clayton Powell.

In the Committee on Education and Labor Records, 80th-89th Congresses, amount unknown.

Adam Clayton Powell served on the Committee on Education and Labor from the 80th through the 89th Congress, however, he was chairman from the 87th-89th congresses.

In the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs Records, 84th-86th Congresses, amount unknown.

Adam Clayton Powell served on the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs from the 84th-86th Congreses.

Portraits of Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., mainly from his congressional years through his exile to Bimini and his return to the U.S. The collection includes views of Powell preaching at the Abyssinian Baptist Church, speaking to UCLA students, at the Lincoln Memorial, holding press conferences, with wife Hazel Scott Powell and their son Adam III, campaigning, surrounded by crowds, attending political functions, blowing out birthday candles, participating in an awards ceremony, and posing with attorneys.

Adam Clayton Powell is discussed in tape recorded conversations between President Nixon and John Dean on February 28, 1973.

Papers which include mention of Adam Clayton Powell are as follows: Edward Folliard, Philleo Nash, David K. Niles, Brigadier General Louis H. Renfrow, and President Eisenhower's White House central files from 1945.

In the Abyssinian Baptist Church Correspondence with Marian Anderson, 1957-1959, 6 items.

Correspondents include Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.

In Cyrus Eaton Papers, 1901-1978, approximately 422 feet.

Persons represented include Adam Clayton Powell. A finding aid is available in the repository.

Extended Bibliography

  • "Adam Clayton Powell, Jr." in Black Americans in Congress, 1870-2007. Prepared under the direction of the Committee on House Administration by the Office of History & Preservation, U.S. House of Representatives. Washington: Government Printing Office, 2008.
  • Alexander, E. Curtis. Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.: A Black Power Political Educator. New York: ECA Associates, 1983.
  • Brooks, Albert N.D. "Profile of a Fighter." Negro History Bulletin 20 (May 1957).
  • Capeci, Dominic J., Jr. "From Different Liberal Perspectives: Fiorello La Guardia, Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., and Civil Rights in New York City, 1941-1943." Journal of Negro History 62 (April 1977): 160-73.
  • ___. "From Harlem to Montgomery: The Bus Boycotts and Leadership of Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. and Martin Luther King." Historian 41 (August 1979): 721-37.
  • ___. The Harlem Riot of 1943. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1977.
  • Coleman, Emmett. The Rise, Fall, and . of Adam Clayton Powell. New York: Bee-Line Books, 1967.
  • Dionisopoulos, P. Allan. Rebellion, Racism, and Representation: The Adam Clayton Powell Case and Its Antecedents. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1970.
  • Gunther, Lenworth A., III. "Flamin' Tongue: The Rise of Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., 1908-1941." Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, 1985.
  • Hamilton, Charles V. Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.: The Political Biography of An American Dilemma. New York: Atheneum, 1991.
  • Hapgood, David. The Purge That Failed: Tammany vs. Powell. New York: Holt, 1959.
  • Haskins, James. Adam Clayton Powell: Portrait of a Marching Black. New York: Dial Press, 1974.
  • Haygood, Wil. King of the Cats: The Life and Times of Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. New York: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1993.
  • Hickey, Neil, and Ed Edwin. Adam Clayton Powell and the Politics of Race. New York: Fleet Publishing Corp., 1965.
  • Jacobs, Andy. The Powell Affair: Freedom Minus One. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1973.
  • Jacoubek, Robert E. Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. New York: Chelsea House, 1988.
  • Kindregan, Charles P. "The Cases of Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. and Julian Bond: The Right of Legislative Bodies to Exclude Members-Elect." Suffolk University Law Review 2 (Winter 1968): 58-80.
  • Kinney, John W. "Adam Clayton Powell, Sr. and Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.: A Historical Exposition and Theological Analysis." Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, 1979.
  • Lewis, Claude. Adam Clayton Powell. Greenwich, Conn.: Fawcett Publications, Inc. 1963.
  • McAndrews, Lawrence J. "The Rise and Fall of the Powell Amendment." Griot 12 (Spring 1993): 52-64.
  • Nutting, Charles B. "The Powell Case and Separation of Powers." American Bar Association Journal 54 (May 1968): 503-5.
  • Paris, Peter J. Black Leaders in Conflict: Joseph H. Jackson, Martin Luther King, Jr., Malcolm X, Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. Princeton, N.J.: Pilgrim Press, 1978.
  • Powell, Adam Clayton, Jr. Adam by Adam: The Autobiography of Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. New York: Dial Press, 1971 [Revised Edition], With a New Foreword by Adam Clayton Powell, III. Secaucus, NJ: Carol Publishing Group, 1994.
  • ___. Keep the Faith, Baby! New York: Triden Press, 1967.
  • ___. Marching Blacks: An Interpretive History of the Rise of the Black Common Man. 1945. Revised, New York: Dial Press, 1973.
  • Reeves, Andr?? E. Congressional Committee Chairmen: Three Who Made An Evolution. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1993.
  • U.S. Congress. House. "Additional Views of Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., on Minority Report.". 79th Cong., 2 sess. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1946.
  • U.S. Congress. House. The New Image in Education: A Prospectus for the Future by the Chairman of the Committee on Education and the Labor, Adam C. Powell. 87th Cong., 2nd sess. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1962.
  • U.S. Congress. House. Adam Clayton Powell.Hearings, February 8, 14, 16, 1967. 90th Cong., 1st sess. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1967.
  • Weeks, Kent M. Adam Clayton Powell and the Supreme Court. New York: Dunellen, 1971.
  • Wilson, James Q. "Two Negro Politicians: An Interpretation." Midwest Journal of Political Science 4 (November 1960): 346-69.

Age, Height & Measurements

Adam Clayton Powell Jr. has been died on Apr 4, 1972 (age 63). Adam born under the Sagittarius horoscope as Adam's birth date is November 29. Adam Clayton Powell Jr. height 5 Feet 4 Inches (Approx) & weight 393 lbs (178.2 kg) (Approx.). Right now we don't know about body measurements. We will update in this article.

Height5 Feet 6 Inches (Approx)
Weight208 lbs (94.3 kg) (Approx)
Body Measurements
Eye ColorBlue
Hair ColorBlonde
Dress SizeXL
Shoe Size11.5 (US), 10.5 (UK), 46 (EU), 29 (CM)

Adam Clayton Powell

Adam C. Powell, IV is an Associate Professor in the Mechanical Engineering department who joined the WPI faculty in August 2018. His field is materials processing, and research focuses on validated mathematical modeling of metal process development for clean energy and energy efficiency. His research group is developing new projects whose goals are to reduce vehicle body weight, lower solar cell manufacturing cost with improved safety, reduce or eliminate environmental impact of aerospace emissions, and improve grid stability with up to 100% renewables.

Powell's research has resulted in 67 publications across materials classes: metal extraction/refining and product development, thin films, ceramic coatings, polymer membranes, batteries, and electromagnetic propulsion. He is the author of nine open source computational tools in materials processing, microstructure and thermodynamics modeling.

Powell is fluent in Japanese, and as a University of Tokyo Foreign Collaborative Researcher, gives technical talks in Japanese to industry, government and academic audiences.

Meet Reverend Adam Clayton Powell, Sr.

Adam Clayton Powell, Sr. was pastor of Harlem's famous Abyssinian Baptist Church for 29 years.

A bum, a drunkard, a gambler, a gun-toting juvenile delinquent with brass knuckles &mdash Adam Clayton Powell, Sr. walked away from it all to lead one of America's largest churches.

It was a frosty Sunday in December 1930. Throngs filled every seat and aisle in Harlem's Abyssinian Baptist Church, forcing an overflow of more than a thousand people to wedge themselves into the downstairs meeting room. The choir music was glorious and the organ thunderous, but the people had all come for one thing &mdash to hear the Reverend Adam Clayton Powell, Sr.'s sermon.

Powell was an imposing man, six foot three, 190 pounds, with dark bushy hair and a mustache to match. His topic that week was "A Hungry God," and with a deep, sonorous voice, he mesmerized his audience for more than 30 minutes. The topic was timely. Already at the start of that bitter winter, people by the thousands were losing their jobs, and money for food was scarce. For Powell, the imperative was clear: "To feed my sheep." He announced that the church would provide an unemployment relief fund and a free food kitchen, and to begin, he would contribute four months of his salary. Before the sermon was finished, people were pulling money from their pockets to match Powell's pledge.

Powell was born in May of 1865, just two weeks after the end of the Civil War. The child of an African Cherokee slave woman and a Southern slave owner later killed on a Civil War battlefield, Powell was raised by his stepfather, also an ex-slave, who instilled in him the religious beliefs that would drive him to the pulpit of the biggest Protestant church in the country.

A Church Grows in Harlem

But Powell's path to the pulpit was not without detours. By his own account, in his late teens he was "a bum, a drunkard, a gambler, and a juvenile delinquent," who carried a gun and brass knuckles. One Saturday night in a small town in Ohio, a gambling binge cost him his money and his overcoat. The following morning, on this way to gamble again, he stumbled upon a Baptist revival meeting. Not long after, he entered the ministry.

The Abyssinian Baptist Church was celebrating its 100th birthday when Powell became its pastor. It was founded in 1808 by a group of educated, prosperous traders from Abyssinia (modern Ethiopia) who were outraged when they were ushered into a church one Sunday and forced to sit in the slave loft. The second-oldest Baptist church in New York City, Abyssinian was also the first Baptist church to be nonsegregated.

In 1923, Powell moved the church to Harlem and a newly constructed building. Under his leadership, the new Abyssinian became more than a house of worship, more than a social center for the Harlem community, more than the largest black church in America. Powell's church symbolized what he called "the social gospel," a message that urged his followers not to wait for reward in the afterlife, but to work aggressively to improve their own lives and their community's social conditions.

Tending His Flock

Abyssinian's educational program reflected both the spiritual and the social side to Powell's mission. "I want to establish the kingdom of social justice," he said, describing his desire to build the world's largest religious, social, and educational institution. Bible classes were central to the curriculum, but there was also a school of education that offered teacher training, literacy classes, and instruction in dressmaking, nursing, and business. The church also opened a home for retired people who were no longer able to support themselves. Powell even instituted sex-education classes, taught by doctors. To critics he replied: "Why dodge the sex question? It is because of ignorance that so many diseases have spread."

Every day was a busy one at Abyssinian, but Sunday was the busiest. At 6 a.m., the Sunday Morning Praying Band met, followed by Sunday School, the church service, Sunday dinner, meetings of the Women Christian Temperance Union and Baptist Young Peoples Union. An evening service concluded the hectic day. "A good many people stay in church all day there they take their dinner, cooked and served hot by a special committee," noted one church member.

Services at Abyssinian Baptist Church were joyful events. Spontaneous cries and shouts of "Amen!" "Hallelujah!" and "Praise the Lord!" perpetually punctuated the services and resounded throughout the church as worshippers gave voice to their faith. "Emotionalism," Powell explained, was the heart of religious experience. "It is the electric current in the organized Christian Church. Confine it to batteries, and this wild and frightful something could run our trains, drive our automobiles, and bring New York and South Africa within whispering distance of each other."

For 29 years, Powell so electrified his congregation and much of Harlem that it was only in 1937, on his third attempt, that the church agreed to let him retire. Powell turned over the pulpit to his son, Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. who in 1945 became New York's first black congressman. Powell Sr. died in 1953, leaving behind a church that endures as one of Harlem's most important institutions.

Adam C. Powell - History

Adam C. Powell

aka Curbee
aka 001
aka FM001
aka zer0zer0one

April 27, 1980 &ndash June 24, 2016

Adam Carlton Powell died suddenly on Friday evening, June 24th, 2016 in Huntsville, AL from an apparent heart embolism. He was a loving father and a very talented digital musician. He had just finished his first album set as Zer0zer0one (001) and was getting it ready to publish. He is survived by his son, Cohen Audio Powell, his parents, Carl and Susan Powell, his brother, Lee, and his sister, Claire, all of Huntsville, AL.

Adam was taken too soon and we are convinced he did not intend to leave us. Earlier in the day, he talked on the phone to his Dad and had a pleasant conversation. His Dad was going to see his grandfather and was bringing back a piece of audio equipment for Adam. They discussed the equipment and what it could do. Adam was very excited about trying it out to make more samples for his music. He had also made plans to pick up his son to be with him for the weekend. He laid down to take a nap. After a couple of hours others in the house checked on hm and he was found unresponsive. All efforts to revive him were ineffective. He was pronounced dead at Crestwood Hospital sometime after 8 pm that evening.

UPDATE July 7, 2016 - On Saturday, July 2nd, 2016 about 50 of Adam's friends and family met at Braham Spring Park to celebrate his life and to say goodbye. It was a great time, with 001 music playing while everyone caught up and remembered. Thanks to all who had a part of this event and especially to those who drove many miles to attend. It was good to see so many on whom Adam had an impact!

Watch the video: Rev Adam Clayton Powell (October 2022).

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