Ancient Greek Clapper

Ancient Greek Clapper

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Cheesecake was invented in Ancient Greece, was served to the athletes at the first Olympic Games

Who doesn’t want a piece of cheesecake? Cheesecake is one of the most famous and most delicious desserts. Many people think that cheesecake originated in northern Europe, and that it travelled to America with the European migration and settled in New York, hence the famous baked New York cheesecake.

But the ancient Greeks had their version of cheesecake thousand years before New York even existed as a city.

In ancient Greece, cheesecake was given to the athletes at the first Olympic games in 776 B.C. to provide them with energy.

New York-style cheesecake with strawberry. Photo Credit

Cheesecake was also used in ancient Greece as a wedding cake. Greek brides baked and served cheesecake to her new husband’s friends as a gesture of hospitality. This tradition of making wedding cakes continues even today.

The first earliest recorded Greek cheesecake recipe was made by the writer Athenaeus in 230 A.D. This is the oldest known surviving Greek recipe. The recipe itself was pretty simple: pound the cheese until it is smooth mix it in a brass pan with honey and spring wheat flour, heat the cheesecake “in one mass”, allow to cool, then serve.

When Romans conquered Greece, they modified the cheesecake recipe by adding crushed cheese and eggs, and they served it warm. They called their cheesecake “libuma” and served it on special occasions. Eventually, the recipe spread to Northern and Eastern Europe. Locals began to experiment, with every region using its native ingredients to put their own unique spin on cheesecake.

Baked cheesecake with raspberries and blueberries. Photo Credit

When the first cookbook was printed in 1545, the cheesecake was described as a flour-based sweet food.

In the late 19th century in New York, cream cheese was invented, which quickly became the most popular type of cheese used for cheesecakes.

Through the years, the ingredients and the process of baking have evolved, and now there are countless recipes for how to prepare cheesecake, but everyone still owes this divine treat to the Greeks.

Ancient Greek Clapper - History

Religion was important to the ancient Greeks because they believed that it would make their lives better while they were living. They also believed the gods would take care of them when they died.

The Ancient Greeks believed in many different gods and goddesses. The Greeks believed that these gods and goddesses controlled everything in their lives and the environment. There was a god for every aspect of their lives. It was important to please the gods happy gods helped you, but unhappy gods punished you. People had special places in their homes where they could pray to the gods. There were also public shrines in all sorts of places where people could pray and leave presents.

The Greeks, to show the gods how important they were, built temples in every town for one god or goddess. The temples were not like modern places of worship, for ordinary people to pray in. They were homes for statues of gods, which were cared for by priests. Religious ceremonies and festivals went on outside the temple.

Priests were important people in the community. They were believed to have the power to talk to the gods and so were respected and trusted.

There were only two ways you could become a priest. Either your mother or father was a priest or you were made a priest by a dying priest.

A priest main job was to look after the temples and the visitors to the temples.

The Ancient Greeks believed that all the gods came from Gaia (the Earth) and Uranos (the sky).They thought they were like adult humans - always falling in love, arguing, having children, playing music and partying. Like the Romans, the Greeks believed that different gods were responsible for different things.

Mount Olympus

The Greeks believed that twelve most important gods and goddesses lived at the top of Mount Olympus.They were a family and, just like a human family, they argued as well as looking after each other.

Mount Olympus, in northern Greece, is the highest mountain in the country. It was believed to be the home of the gods, because it was often so cloudy and no-one could see its summit.

Who was the ruler of the Greek gods?

The ruler of the gods was Zeus. His symbol was the thunderbolt.

  • Many festivals were held in honour of the gods.
  • The Greeks built temples to be the gods and goddesses homes. The temples showed how wealthy and powerful the city was. Rich cities, like Athens, built temples of the best stone, and decorated them with paintings, statues and carvings.
  • People prayed and gave offerings to gods to grant their wishes for a good harvest, a good journey, for their children to become beautiful etc

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All the materials on these pages are free for homework and classroom use only. You may not redistribute, sell or place the content of this page on any other website or blog without written permission from the author Mandy Barrow.

Medieval Torture Wanted to Extract Confessions

One of the main goals of torture was to extract a confession. Therefore, Medieval torture devices were seldom designed to actually kill their victims. As demonstrated by the rack, a torture device could be used to inflict either physical or psychological pain on its victim and make him/her confess.

Some methods were fatal, but they were generally a last resort. One of the most infamous of these was burning at stake, which served as both a torture device and execution method normally reserved for heretics and those accused of practicing witchcraft . A person accused of these crimes had no way of escaping the flames. If the victim did not confess, the torture would continue, and would result in death.

Burning witches, with others held in Stocks. ( Public Domain )

On the other hand, if he/she confessed, he/she would be executed. The only difference was that those who confessed were strangled before the fire was lit, supposedly sparing them the agony of the flames. Burning someone of the stake is often linked to the Inquisition. The Inquisitors themselves, however, did not execute heretics, and the harshest sentence they could give was life imprisonment. Nevertheless, they could hand heretics over to civil authorities to be burnt at stake.

Ancient Greek Clapper - History

The earliest Greek civilizations thrived nearly 4,000 years ago. The Ancient Greeks lived in Greece and the countries that we now call Bulgaria and Turkey.

The Ancient Greece empire spread over Europe as far as France in the East. The Greek Empire was most powerful between 2000 BC and 146 BC

The ancient Greeks developed new ideas for government, science, philosophy, religion, and art.

Ancient Greece was split into many different states, each one was ruled in its own way. Each state had its own laws, government and money but they shared the same language and religion. The two most important city states were Athens and Sparta.

Legacy of the Ancient Greeks - (How Ancient Greece influenced modern day culture.)

The influence of the Ancient Greeks are still felt by us today. The major impact in our lives today are in the arts, in philosophy, and in science, math, literature and politics.

Trial by Jury

Greek Myths

The word 'democracy' is Greek. It means 'government by the people. We have a form of democracy in Britain, and this is a legacy of the Athenians and their assemblies and councils.

Tragedy and Comedy

The word 'theatre' is Greek. Most modern theatres follow the Greek plan.

The Olympics
The first Olympic Games were held in 776 BC at the Greek city of Olympia.

Pheidippides ran from Athens to Sparta to ask for help against the Persians just before the Battle of the Marathon (490 BC).

Building styles (Architecture)
Throughout the world, buildings have been constructed in the style of Ancient Greece. The British Museum is an example of this.

© Copyright - please read
All the materials on these pages are free for homework and classroom use only. You may not redistribute, sell or place the content of this page on any other website or blog without written permission from the author Mandy Barrow.

Ancient Greek Clapper - History

Documents on Greek Slavery, c. 750 - 330 BCE

  • Hesiod: Works and Days, c. 750 BCE
  • Strabo: Geographia, [written c. 20 A.D.], circa 550 BCE
  • Antiphon: On the Choreutes, c. 430 BCE
  • Demosthenes: Against Timocrates. c. 350 BCE
  • Aristotle: The Politics, On Slavery, c. 330 BCE

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Suicide in ancient Greece

The theme of suicide appears several times in ancient Greek literature. However, each such reference acquires special significance depending on the field from which it originates. Most of the information found in mythology, but the suicide in a mythological tale, although in terms of motivation and mental situation of heroes may be in imitation of similar incidents of real life, in fact is linked with the principles of the ancient Greek religion. In ancient drama and mainly in tragedies suicide conduces to the tragic hypostasis of the heroes and to the evolution of the plot and also is a tool in order to be presented the ideas of poets for the relations of the gods, the relation among gods and men and the relation among the men. In ancient Greek philosophy there were the deniers of suicide, who were more concerned about the impact of suicide on society and also these who accepted it, recognizing the right of the individual to put an end to his life, in order to avoid personal misfortunes. Real suicides will be found mostly from historical sources, but most of them concern leading figures of the ancient world. Closer to the problem of suicide in the everyday life of antiquity are ancient Greek medicines, who studied the phenomenon more general without references to specific incidents. Doctors did not approve in principal the suicide and dealt with it as insane behavior in the development of the mental diseases, of melancholia and mania. They considered that the discrepancy of humors in the organ of logic in the human body will cause malfunction, which will lead to the absurdity and consequently to suicide, either due to excessive concentration of black bile in melancholia or due to yellow bile in mania. They believed that greater risk to commit suicide had women, young people and the elderly. As therapy they used the drugs of their time with the intention to induce calm and repression in the ill person, therefore they mainly used mandragora. In general, we would say that there were many reasons to suicide someone in antiquity. Very important factor was to avoid captivity and the consequent overcrowding of indignity, especially for politicians and military leaders. Also intention in these circumstances was to avoid torture and the disgrace of rape. Strong grief is another reason, as in case of death of family members. The erotic disappointment had place in ancient suicides, which concerned both men and women, while there were also suicide for financial reasons. Especially for the elderly, the despair of the anility in conjunction with physical illness and cachexia, were important factors for these people to decide thee suicidal. Finally, the methods of suicide fitted their epoch, but bear resemblance to those of the modern time. Poisoning was very common to both men and women but equally popular in both sexes was also the hanging. It was not unusual to fall from a high in order to reach the death, while stabbing a sword in the body for self killing was widespread in men and soldiers.

Fancy equipment is not necessary to get in peak physical condition. Use push-ups and pull-ups in your routines to help build upper body strength. Chopping or splitting logs and log throwing is also an effective way to train the entire body. Tire flipping, dead-lifting, car pushing or carrying heavy objects to a predetermined destination are all examples of modern day Ancient Greek strength training.

Individuals who prefer to train in a gym can still do intense weight training similar to the Ancient Greeks by using mostly free weights and incorporating Olympic and power lifts in your training to build explosive strength such as power cleans, hang cleans, snatch, squats, deadlifts and bench press according to the American Council on Exercise.

Cooking Methods

As several of our current cooking methods were not invented thousands of years ago, the ancient Greeks cooked their food using what was available around them. The most common cooking methods were done over an open fire, such as boiling, frying, simmering, stewing, grilling, and roasting on a spit where meat like goat or lamb was tied to a stick and rotated by hand over the fire. This method is still used today (often with a motorized spit) in both Greece and other parts of the world, particularly when cooking an Easter lamb.

The earliest cooking pots were made of clay, and similar pots (glazed and fired) are still used today in many parts of the world. The Greeks would place ingredients like lamb and vegetables in a clay pot, seal it tightly, and either cook in a clay oven for several hours or bury in the ground underneath hot coals. These clay ovens are somewhat similar to the pizza ovens we are familiar with, and can still be found in villages throughout Greece.

Out of necessity (because refrigeration was nonexistent), in addition to cooking, ancient Greeks preserved foods by smoking, drying, salting, and storing in syrups and fat. Foods were often stored with a topping of oil to keep air out.

Diagnosing Mental Illness in Ancient Greece and Rome

Gods-given hallucinations and suppressing anger for the greater good: How what's considered "abnormal" has changed.

"The Death of Socrates" (Jacques-Louis David)

We can put a man on the moon a rover on Mars but we’re still figuring out our own brains. Mental illness is stigmatized, potentially overdiagnosed, and often misunderstood. Scientists are still learning new things about where conditions come from, while sufferers figure out how to cope.

William V. Harris, a professor of history and director of the Center for the Ancient Mediterranean at Columbia University, studies mental illness in the classical world—ancient Rome and Greece. Though the body of knowledge we have at our disposal is still not totally sufficient to understand mental illness today, there’s an added level of difficulty involved in trying to apply today’s knowledge to earlier civilizations. Or in understanding those civilizations’ concepts of mental illness in a time when the gods were thought to be involved in everyday life, and hallucinations weren’t something to worry about.

Harris is the author of several books, and most recently edited Mental Disorders in the Classical World, published last summer. I spoke with him over email about how the ancient Greeks and Romans approached mental illness and what we can learn from them today.

Could you start by explaining how attitudes toward mental illness were different in the classical world than they are today?

Many people in antiquity thought that mental disorders came from the gods. The Greek gods are a touchy lot, quick to take offense. For instance, they took a hard line with Orestes after his matricide. [Ed. Note: After killing his mother, Orestes was tormented by the Furies.] And in a world where many important phenomena such as mental illness were not readily explicable, the whims of the gods were the fallback explanation.

Physicians and others fought against this idea from an early date (the 5th century B.C.), giving physiological explanations instead. Many people sought magical/religious remedies—such as going to spend the night in a temple of the healing god Asclepius, in the hope that he would work a cure or tell you how to get cured—[while physicians sought] mainly medical ones. No one thought that it was the duty of the state to care for the insane. Either their families looked after them, or they ended up on the street—a nightmare situation.

In the introduction you wrote to Mental Disorders in the Classical World, you talk about "medicalizing mental illness." When and why did people start to be seen as sick instead of crazy?

Some time in the late 5th century B.C., some member of the school of Hippocrates wrote a treatise "On the Sacred Disease," in which he argued that the "sacred disease," i.e. epilepsy, was a physiological syndrome, and very soon all doctors and scientists (in so far as such a category existed) came to think that crazy people were sick (but not that they were not crazy).

Greek doctors did not distinguish sharply between physical and mental disorders, and they did not have concepts that correspond simply with "depression" or "schizophrenia." Roberto Lo Presti, in the book we are talking about, examines at length the development of Greek thinking about epilepsy. Greek doctors always tended to think that what we call psychoses were physiological in nature.

How did doctors diagnose the mentally ill back then? What were the criteria they used? And how did they go about treating them?

They were mostly (not entirely) concerned with psychoses (externalizing disorders such as antisocial personality disorder and drug and alcohol use disorders) rather than neuroses (internalizing disorders such as depression and anxiety), and they took into account a full range of hard-to-define symptoms including inappropriate behavior in public, delusions, delirium, and hallucinations. Treatments also covered a whole range from physical restraint to counseling they did not make much use of pharmaceuticals.

In the essay you contributed about hallucinations, you mention that in the classical world, people often saw gods and otherworldly things. Was there an evolution of hallucinations from being seen as a supernatural experience to as a symptom of something medically wrong?

There was no simple evolution: the Hippocratic doctors already recognized hallucinations as a purely human phenomenon, but many ordinary people went on supposing that the gods were involved.

Does this mean that hallucinations were more commonplace and less stigmatized than today?

No more commonplace, I think. Less stigmatized, yes, somewhat. One would not have sought treatment.

Socrates had hallucinations, right? Did that affect how he was perceived?

Socrates seems to have had recurrent hallucinations of one particular type: A voice spoke to him, usually advising him not to do things. His disciples were in awe of this phenomenon, but some of his later admirers thought they needed to explain it away—they thought it suggested that he was slightly cracked.

One of your older books is about rage—why was anger seen as an illness, or something to be controlled?

It took me about 400 pages to answer this question! Partly because it was seen as dangerous in the state, partly because it was seen as a danger in the family (especially because of slavery), partly later because excessive anger came to be seen as a personal moral failure.

Anger was dangerous to the state above all because it led to political violence, including tyrannical behavior by absolute rulers dangerous to the family because of its potential to cause feuding and violence (as for slavery, the angry slave-owner could generally treat the slaves as he wished—but they might and did react). The moral idea arises out of these concrete political and social imperatives I think, but it also forms part of the widespread ancient idea that the essence of good behavior is self-control.

Are there difficulties applying today's conceptions of what is "abnormal" to historical figures? Or vice versa?

There sure are, both ways. The conceptual and moral differences are huge. People have argued that, for example, Herod the Great and Caligula were schizophrenics, but tracing the way they actually behaved is rendered difficult by the inadequate sources [available]. And in the Roman world, a great deal of violence was normal, as was much of what we consider pedophilia. But this makes the work of scholars such as me more interesting as well as more difficult.

Are there any ideas the ancient Greeks or Romans held that would be helpful for us to think about in the discussion surrounding mental illness today?

Yes, as far as neuroses are concerned, see in particular Chris Gill's
contribution to the book I edited, with his emphasis on character. He looks at the idea that we should train our characters so that we are ready for life's disasters and can face them robustly.

Watch the video: Master of Egypt Ancient Greek in Action!. Athenaze Chapter 1 Preparation (October 2022).

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