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Is this a Caesar silver coin?

Is this a Caesar silver coin?


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A friend showed me a coin he found a number of years a go, but it is hard to identify if it is a Roman coin.

Can someone help me identify when it is from?

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It is a Caesar denarius minted in 49 BC. This was the first type of coin Caesar had minted. The obverse is an elephant trampling a snake with CAESAR beneath. The reverse features the fetishes of the Pontifex Maximus, a title Caesar held at the time. See Roman Republican Coinage by Michael Crawford.


Licence: Creative Commons Share Alike Attribution 2.5 - Classical Numismatic Group, Inc.


The EID MAR Denarius Coin - Beware the Ides of March

One of the most famous coins of all time is the EID MAR denarius issued by Marcus Junius Brutus in 43/42 BC. When Julius Caesar crossed the Rubicon, he threw Rome into more than three years of civil war, eliminating his opponents along the way. In 49 BC, many leading citizens, including some sixty Roman Senators, had come to see Caesar as a power-grabber who wanted to make himself king. This state of affairs was an unacceptable situation for men like Brutus, who wished to retain their beloved Republic.


Coin of the week: The Caius Julius Caesar Elephant Denarius

Caius Julius Caesar Elephant Denarius – 49BC-48BC

Julius Caesar, was a military general who used his military prowess and political skills to bring down the Roman Republic, and set the foundation for the establishment of the mighty Roman Empire. Having being extremely successful in military campaigns in Gaul, the Senate became worried about his power and ambition. In January 49BC, the Roman Senate ordered Caesar to disband his armies. Julius Caesar ignored this order and crossed the river Rubicon in northern Italy with his legions on his way to Rome. This was a declaration of war against Rome and over the next four years Caesar fought a fierce civil war against his main enemy Gnaeus Pompey Magnus.

Julius Caesar, bronze sculpture in Rome.

Caesar’s military campaigns were financially costly, and he needed vast sums of silver to pay his legions. Caesar took over the State treasury at the Temple of Saturn in Rome, and stripped it bare. From this hoard Caesar minted the “Elephant” denarius, and used them to fund his armies and campaigns. For the first time since the introduction of coinage in Rome, a military leader claimed the right to mint coins on his own will.

The Battle of Pharsalus, fought on the 9th of August 48 BC, it was the turning point that gave Caesar’s victory in Rome’s civil war, taking control of the empire from Pompey and effectively ending the Republican government under which it had been run for hundreds of years.

These coins therefore have huge historical importance – they were minted by Caesar to pay his troops, to fight the civil war that led to the setting up of the Roman Empire.

The symbol of an elephant on the obverse has three possible meanings, all pointing to Caesar striking this coin as part of self-promotion: 1) Legend had it that the founder of Caesar’s family killed an elephant single-handedly. 2) Caesar’s rival Pompey had recently tried to enter Rome on a chariot drawn by 4 elephants, since the gate was too narrow, the entrance was a huge flop. This coin was designed to highlight Pompey’s shortcomings. 3) The elephant represents the might of Caesar and his legions, trampling a snake which represents the enemy. The elephant defeating the snake is symbolising the fight of good versus evil.

Obverse: Depiction of an elephant trampling a snake. The inscription ‘CAESAR’ below the elephant.

Reverse: Depicts a number of priestly implements, symbolising Caesar’s position as High Priest of Jupiter. Shown are a ladle (simpulum), a holy water sprinkler (aspergillum), a sacrificial axe (securis)and a priest’s cap (apex).

If you are interested to learn more about Roman coinage, or to build your own Roman coin collection – our experts are available to help. Call Free on 0330 024 1001, or leave a comment below and we will be in touch!


Stash of more than 600 Roman-era silver coins discovered in Turkey

Archaeologists in Turkey have unearthed a hoard of Roman-era silver coins in a jug buried near a stream.

The 651 coins are about 2,100 years old, but despite their age, the text and imagery engraved on them is still legible, said Elif Özer, an archaeologist at Pamukkale University in Turkey who helped excavate the coin jug in Aizanoi, an ancient Greek city in Turkey's western Kütahya province.

"It was an extremely exciting discovery," Özer told Live Science in an email. It's likely that "a high-ranking soldier came to Aizanoi . and he must have buried these coins here for a reason we do not know yet."

Archaeologists found the jug buried on the banks of a stream in Aizanoi in September 2019. After examining the cash hoard, they identified 439 pieces as denarii, or ancient Roman coins minted on silver, and 212 as cistophori, silver coins from Pergamum, an ancient Greek city located in modern-day northwestern Turkey.

Many of the coins were minted in southern Italy, Özer noted, and all of the coins dated to between 75 B.C. and 4 B.C. Portraits of Roman emperors decorate the silver coins, she added.

Caesar, Brutus, Mark Antony and Augustus Young are depicted on the coins, and the back of each coin "tells a different story," she said. For example, one type of coin shows a scene with Aeneas &mdash a Trojan hero who is the son of the goddess Aphrodite and Anchises, a cousin of the Trojan king, according to Greco-Roman mythology Aeneas is also known as the ancestor of Remus and Romulus, twin brothers considered to be the founders of Rome. In the scene engraved on the coin, Aeneas carries Anchises on his back, Özer said, illustrating the famous scene in Virgil's "Aeneid" in which Aeneas carries his family out of burning Troy. (It's a famous scene that was also immortalized in the "Aeneas, Anchises, and Ascanius" sculpture by the Italian sculptor Gian Lorenzo Bernini.)

The vast collection of denarii and cistophori are known as a "coin album," because they feature rulers from the late Roman Republic, Özer said.

After the team finished their inventory of the rare find, they sent the hoard to the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations in Ankara, where the coins will go on display.


Caesar: A Historical Overview

RRC 458
Obverse: Head of Venus right, wearing diadem. Border of dots.
Reverse: Aeneas left, carrying palladium in right hand and Anchises on left shoulder on right, CAESAR downwards. Border of dots.

The 'Marius' Statue (Munich Glyptothek)

RRC 443
Obverse: Elephant right, trampling dragon in exergue, CAESAR. Border of dots.
Reverse: Pontifical emblems &ndash culullus, aspergillum, axe and apex. Border of dots.

RRC 480/4
Obverse: Wreathed head of Caesar right, behind crescent before, CAESAR·IM downwards behind P M upwards. Border of dots.
Reverse: Venus left, holding Victory in right hand and sceptre in left hand behind, L·AEMILIVS downwards before, BVCA upwards. Border of dots.

C. Julius Caesar was born in 100 BC to a patrician family who had recently regained some political influence through an advantageous marriage between his aunt Julia and the famous general C. Marius. His family traced its history back to the first kings of Rome as well as to Venus and Aeneas (RRC 458).

Caesar was initially married to the daughter of Marian supporter L. Cornelius Cinna and appointed Flamen Dialis in 87 BC, an important priesthood, but one that prevented further political advancement. The rise to dominance of Sulla, the chief opponent of Marius, put Caesar in an untenable situation. In 82 BC he was stripped of his role as Flamen Dialis, and ordered to divorce his Marian wife Cornelia. Caesar refused. He subsequently spent his next ten years in Asia studying and gaining military distinctions including the corona civica.

After the death of Sulla in 78 BC, Caesar prosecuted Sullan supporters, winning fame as an orator. In 73 BC he became a pontifex and in 69 BC he was elected as quaestor. The death of his wife and aunt before his departure to Spain allowed him to advertise his family and political inheritance through his aunt's funeral oration (Suet, Div. Iul. 6.1). It was at her funeral that he displayed as an image of Marius thus clearly affirming his political affiliations. Upon his return to Rome Caesar supported Pompey's extraordinary commands against the pirates and the war against Mithridates VI in 67-66 BC. At the same time Caesar won the favour of L. Licinius Crassus, who provided him financial support, particularly in his aedileship in 65 BC. This support provided Caesar with funds for large-scale bribery in the elections of 63 BC, when he obtained the office of Pontifex Maximus.

In 62 BC, while praetor, Caesar was embroiled in religious controversy. The presence of P. Clodius Pulcher at the exclusively female festival of the Bona Dea (held on Caesar's property) caused Caesar to divorce his second wife Pompeia to avoid suspicion of impropriety. He travelled to Spain as a propraetor heavy with debt. Through warfare and subsequent booty in his year in Spain Caesar cleared his debts and won a triumph for his success against the independent Spanish tribes. He was, however, forced to choose between the triumph and election to the consulship. To ensure his election to the consulship Caesar rallied support from Pompey and Crassus. Caesar's consulship in 59 BC proved difficult owing to his hostile partner in office M. Calpurnius Bibulus.

The use of illegal methods during his consulship forced Caesar to continue his alliance with Pompey and Crassus to avoid prosecution. The alliance was sealed with Pompey's marriage to Caesar’s daughter Julia and in turn, Caesar's marriage to Calpurnia, the daughter of L. Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus, consul in 58 BC. From this alliance, Caesar gained the proconsulship of Illyricum, Cisalpine and Transalpine Gaul for five years. During this time he successfully waged war in Gaul, providing him with money, prestige and loyal soldiers. In 56 BC after attempts to recall Caesar for prosecution, Pompey, Caesar and Crassus met at Luca to renew their alliance. Caesar's command was extended while Crassus and Pompey were to govern Syria and Spain respectively. To achieve this Pompey and Crassus were to be co-consuls in 55 BC. However the deaths of Julia in 54 BC and Crassus in 53 BC gave Pompey the impetus to break his alliance with Caesar. In 49 BC, ostentatiously to protect the tribunate, but in reality to avoid prosecution, Caesar crossed the Rubicon and began a civil war.

During the war, Caesar held many political and military offices traceable on his coinage. He first began to mint coins in his own name upon his return to Rome in 49 BC (RRC 443) and continued to mint until his death in 44 BC. Caesar quickly regained control of Italy and pursued Pompey and his supporters to Greece. He defeated Pompey at Pharsalus in 48 BC. Caesar pursued him to Egypt, where he met Cleopatra VII and helped her to secure the throne. Caesar then left Egypt to reorganise the eastern provinces and defeat Pharnaces II, King of Bosporus, at Zela in September 47 BC. Meanwhile the death of Pompey did not mean the end of the Republican cause. Republican strongholds in Africa and Spain continued to provide resistance. Caesar finally obtained control of Africa and returned to Rome in September 46 BC to celebrate four triumphs. While he celebrated his victories, Pompey's sons Gnaeus and Sextus raised thirteen legions in Spain. Caesar defeated their forces at Munda in March 45 BC. He returned to Rome to celebrate a triumph for his victory and was awarded many honours including dictatorship for life and the title parens patriae. In 44 BC his portrait appeared on Roman coinage (RRC 480/4).

Caesar's power and unrivalled position created many enemies amongst his peers. While outwardly rejecting the title rex, Caesar adopted some of the symbols of monarchy, such as the dress and ornaments of the Roman kings. His monopoly of power led to his assassination on 15 March 44 BC, at the hands of a large group of men, including Cassius and Brutus, who believed his death would restore the republic. However, the death of Caesar led to unrest and further civil war. Antony, Lepidus, and Caesar's adopted son Octavian, fought over Caesar's legacy. Antony and Octavian used Caesar's image and their relationship with him to build support from his veteran armies. In November 43 BC the three men joined forces to consolidate their power, and through the lex Titia formed the Triumviri Rei Publicae Constituendae (III VIR RPC, the three men for the restoration of the republic). Once their power was established they undertook a campaign to punish the assassins of Caesar. The main body of conspirators had fled to Greece and Macedonia where they attempted to gain support for the restoration of Libertas. In 42 BC Antony and Octavian defeated the republican forces at Philippi, finally avenging the murder of Caesar.


Is this a Caesar silver coin? - History

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Ancient Coins & Artifacts:

Ancient Coins of Julius Caesar for Sale

The coinage available here do not depict Julius Caesar's face, as it had not been acceptable in ancient Rome to depict a living person on coinage. It was only at the very end of his life, and following his death, that coins depicted his likeness. Instead, these coins were struck following his defeat of Gaul. They depict an elephant, symbolizing the might of Rome, crushing a serpent, symbolizing Gaul. The reverse of the coins depict emblems of the pontificate: a simpulum, aspergillum, securis, and apex.
See Also: All Roman Coin Categories

Julius Caesar, 100-44 BC. Silver denarius, struck April-August 49 BC. Elephant advancing right, trampling on horned serpent, CAESAR in exergue / Emblems of the pontificate: simpulum, aspergillum, securis, and apex. ref: Crawford 443/1 cf. CRI 9 cf. Sydenham 1006 cf. RSC 49. Near VF, some dark areas. 18 mm, 3.42 g. Nice detail! #21516: $825 SOLD

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Octavian, silver denarius, struck 30-29 BC to commemorate the defeat of Marc Antony and Cleopatra at the battle of Actium! Struck just as his transition from Octavian to Augustus. Bare head of Octavian right / Octavian in quadriga facing on triumphal arch for Victory at Actium inscribed IMP CAESAR. ref: RSC 123, RIC 267, sear5 #1558. 20 mm, 3.57 g. Fantastic piece! GV0697x2: $750 SOLD
Julius Caesar, 100-44 BC. Silver denarius, struck April-August 49 BC. Military mint traveling with Caesar. Elephant advancing right, trampling on horned serpent, CAESAR in exergue / Emblems of the pontificate: simpulum, aspergillum, securis, and apex. 19 mm, 3.53 g. ref: Crawford 443/1 cf. CRI 9 cf. Sydenham 1006 cf. RSC 49. #35749: $575 SOLD
Julius Caesar, 100-44 BC. Silver denarius, struck April-August 49 BC. Elephant advancing right, trampling on horned serpent, CAESAR in exergue / Emblems of the pontificate: simpulum, aspergillum, securis, and apex. 18.5 mm, 3.51 g. ref: Crawford 443/1 CRI 9 Sydenham 1006 RSC 49. Fine, nicely centered, excellent detail! #CR2591: $950 SOLD
Julius Caesar. Rare silver denarius struck 46-45 BC, Spanish mint. Diademed head of Venus right, Cupid on her shoulder / CAESAR below Gallia & Gaulish captive seated beneath trophy of Gallic arms. 18 mm, 3.09 g. ref: RIC 542, RSC 13, sear5 #1404, Syd 1014, Crawford 468/1. Small banker's mark on Venus' cheek. Nice detail, better than photo! #CR2792: SOLD
Julius Caesar, 100-44 BC. Silver denarius, struck April-August 49 BC. Elephant advancing right, trampling on horned serpent, CAESAR in exergue / Emblems of the pontificate: simpulum, aspergillum, securis, and apex. ref: Crawford 443/1 cf. CRI 9 cf. Sydenham 1006 cf. RSC 49. Near VF, test cut on edge. 19.5 mm, 3.39 g. #19728: $899 SOLD
Julius Caesar. Excellent silver denarius, slabbed, graded and certified by ANACS. Graded AU! Julius Caesar, 100-44 BC. Silver denarius, struck April-August 49 BC. Elephant advancing right, trampling on horned serpent, CAESAR in exergue / Emblems of the pontificate: simpulum, aspergillum, securis, and apex. ref: Crawford 443/1 cf. CRI 9 cf. Syd. 1006 cf. RSC 49. Gorgeous! ex-Frank S. Robinson collection. #CR2092x2: $1100 SOLD
Julius Caesar, 100-44 BC. Silver denarius, struck April-August 49 BC. Elephant advancing right, trampling on horned serpent, CAESAR in exergue / Emblems of the pontificate: simpulum, aspergillum, securis, and apex. 19.4 mm, 3.64 g. ref: Crawford 443/1 cf. CRI 9 cf. Sydenham 1006 cf. RSC 49. Fine, some graniness, nice silvery tone with some dark areas. Sharp detail on the elephant! ex-Santa Barbara county, CA scholastic collection. #CR2862: $399 SOLD
Julius Caesar, 100-44 BC. Silver denarius, struck April-August 49 BC. Elephant advancing right, trampling on horned serpent, CAESAR in exergue / Emblems of the pontificate: simpulum, aspergillum, securis, and apex. 16 mm, 3.48 g. ref: Crawford 443/1 cf. CRI 9 cf. Sydenham 1006 cf. RSC 49. Near VF, nice light silvery tone. ex-Numismatik Naumann, Germany. Lovely coin, terrible dark and grainy photo. #CR2745: $650 SOLD

2,000 year-old Julius Caesar 'assassination coin' surfaces, may be worth millions

Fox Business Flash top headlines are here. Check out what's clicking on FoxBusiness.com.

An extremely rare Roman coin commemorating the assassination of Julius Caesar has surfaced and may be worth millions of dollars, according to coin experts.

“It was made in 42 B.C., two years after the famous assassination, and is one of the most important and valuable coins of the ancient world," said Mark Salzberg, chairman of Sarasota, Fla.-based Numismatic Guaranty Corporation, which confirmed the coin’s authenticity, in a statement obtained by Fox News. The front has a portrait of Marcus Junius Brutus, one of Caesar’s assassins, and the other side dramatically has two daggers and the words EID MAR, a Latin abbreviation for Ides of March."

Numismatic Guaranty explains that nearly 100 Ides of March coins in silver are known, but the coin is only the third known example in gold.

The mint condition coin, which had been in a private collection in Europe, will be auctioned by London-based Roma Numismatics on Oct. 29.

The Roman coin commemorating the assassination of Julius Caesar (Photo credit: Numismatic Guaranty Corporation)

"The conservative pre-auction estimate is £500,000 ($647,173, €548,511), but considering the coin’s rarity, artistry, and fabled place in history I would not be surprised if it sold for several million,” Salzberg added in the statement.

In October 2019, a pair of 2,000-year-old Roman scrolls believed to have belonged to Caesar's family that were buried and charred during Vesuvius' eruption, were virtually "unwrapped" for the first time ever.

Ancient coins have been garnering plenty of attention in recent years. Earlier this year, for example, a rare coin from an ancient Jewish revolt against the Roman Empire was discovered in Jerusalem.

In 2018, a 2,200-year-old gold coin was uncovered in Egypt.

In 2017, a rare Roman coin was discovered on a remote Scottish island.

Fox News' Chris Ciaccia contributed to this story. Follow James Rogers on Twitter @jamesjrogers


What is a denarius, a shekel, a stater and a widow’s mite?

What is a denarius, a shekel, a stater and a widow's mite?

Bible Answer:

Three coins that appear in the gospels are the denarius, shekel, stater and the widow’s mite. The denarius appears most often and the shekel and widow’s mite appear only once.

The Denarius Coin

The denarius is the coin that appears most often in the gospels. It occurs five times in the gospel of Matthew (Matthew 20:2, 9, 10, 13 22:19). It occurs once in Mark (Mark 12:15), once in Luke (Luke 20:24) and once in Revelation (Revelation 6:6). This silver coin was normally minted in the city of Rome and carried the image of a caesar on one side.[1]

The coin was valued at the amount of money an average laborer would earn in one day or the pay for a Roman soldier.[2] That is, the denarius was the normal wage for one day of labor. For example, in the parable of the laborers in the vineyard in Matthew 20:2, a worker was hired for one day and his pay was one denarius.

For the kingdom of heaven is like a landowner who went out early in the morning to hire laborers for his vineyard. When he had agreed with the laborers for a denarius for the day, he sent them into his vineyard. Matthew 20:1-2 (NASB)

In Matthew 22:19 Mark 12:15 and Luke 20:24 the denarius was also the poll-tax that Jesus told Peter to pay. Jesus asked Peter whose image was on the coin and Peter said it was the image of Caesar.

But Jesus perceived their malice, and said, “Why are you testing Me, you hypocrites? Show Me the coin used for the poll-tax.” And they brought Him a denarius. And He said to them, “Whose likeness and inscription is this?” They said to Him, “Caesar’s.” Then He said to them, “Then render to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s and to God the things that are God’s.” And hearing this, they were amazed, and leaving Him, they went away. Matthew 22:18-22 (NASB)

The Shekel Coin

The work shekel or half of a stater was the amount of money paid to Judas for his betrayal of Jesus Christ (Matthew 26:15).

In Matthew 26:15 it is referred to as thirty pieces of silver.

Then one of the twelve, named Judas Iscariot, went to the chief priests and said, “What are you willing to give me to betray Him to you?” And they weighed out thirty pieces of silver to him. From then on he began looking for a good opportunity to betray Jesus. Matthew 26:14-16 (NASB)

The Widow’s Mite or Copper Coins

The third coin that appears in the gospels is the widow’s mite in Mark 12:42 and Luke 21:2.

And He looked up and saw the rich putting their gifts into the treasury. And He saw a poor widow putting in two small copper coins. And He said, “Truly I say to you, this poor widow put in more than all of them for they all out of their surplus put into the offering but she out of her poverty put in all that she had to live on.” Luke 21:1-4 (NASB)

The King James Version and New King James Version Bibles use the term “mites” because she gave two coins. The new Bibles use the the phrase “copper coins.”

Conclusion:

The widow’s mite communicates an important thought about the coin. It was very small. The coin was less than the smallest coin that Rome made and was valued at 1/64 of a denarius. The widow had 1/64 of a day-laborer’s wage since the denarius was a soldier’s and laborer’s wage.[3] The shekel varied in value depending upon the price of gold. It has been estimated that three denarius coins equaled a shekel. Therefore, Judas was paid almost three months of wages to betray Jesus.

References:

1. “Coins.” Holman Bible Dictionary. Bible Publishers. 1991. p. 274-275.
2. Ibid.
3. Kenneth Bressett. Money of the Bible. Whitman Publishing. 2013. p. 74.


The Switch to Steam Power

The 19th century ushered in the use of steam power, and big changes in coin production. In 1816, rollers and cutting presses were the first machines powered by a steam engine. Then in 1833, the Mint hired Franklin Peale to travel to mints in Europe to observe their processes. He brought back many ideas for advancements to the Mint and its equipment.

Two years after Peale returned, the Mint built steam-powered coining presses modeled after those used in Europe. A single person operated a press, dropping blank coins down a tube to feed between the dies. Coin production became a lot less labor-intensive, opening up many jobs to women.

The new presses dramatically increased production numbers, with each press capable of making around 100 coins per minute. That, combined with the opening of other branch Mints, brought coinage to the levels needed for the country’s circulation. In 1857, Congress passed a law to ban all foreign coins from circulation.

When branch Mints opened in Charlotte, Dahlonega, and New Orleans in 1838, there became a need for mint marks to distinguish the coins. All the branch Mints used mint marks, but Philadelphia – as the original Mint – did not. It wasn’t until 1942 that Philadelphia’s “P” mint mark appeared briefly for the first time on the nickel. Since 1980 all of Philadelphia’s coins, except the cent, receive the “P” mint mark.

Mint Branch Mint Mark Years Mark Used
Carson City (NV) CC 1870-1893
Charlotte (NC) C 1838-1861
Dahlonega (GA) D 1838-1861
Denver (CO) D 1906-Present
New Orleans (LA) O 1838-1861, 1879-1909
Philadelphia (PA) P 1942-45, 1979-Present
San Francisco (CA) S 1854-1955, 1968-Present
West Point (NY) W 1984-Present


The Twelve Caesars Coin Set

If you are not entirely happy with anything you have purchased from the online shop, please contact Customer Services within 14 days of delivery.

A set of 12 Roman coin replicas, moulded from originals.

These pewter replica coins depict the Roman emperors who were referred to as 'The Caesars'. Julius Caesar was the first living Roman to have his portrait on the current coinage of the official mint. This was a sign both of his power and of the break with tradition, and the practice was continued by his successors.

The pack contains 12 denarii (ancient Roman silver coins). The coins are from the reigns of Julius Caesar, Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, Nero, Galba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian, Titus and Domitian.

A fascinating and highly detailed historical gift.

  • Product Code: CMCN444770
  • Theme: Ancient Rome
  • Dimensions: Coins Dia.1.5cm
  • Brand: British Museum
  • Material: Pewter
  • Postage Weight: 0.07 Kg

A set of 12 Roman coin replicas, moulded from originals.

These pewter replica coins depict the Roman emperors who were referred to as 'The Caesars'. Julius Caesar was the first living Roman to have his portrait on the current coinage of the official mint. This was a sign both of his power and of the break with tradition, and the practice was continued by his successors.

The pack contains 12 denarii (ancient Roman silver coins). The coins are from the reigns of Julius Caesar, Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, Nero, Galba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian, Titus and Domitian.


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