New

What calendar was used by the kingdom of Ireland?

What calendar was used by the kingdom of Ireland?


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

For a research project I have, I need to identify some important dates. In order to do that, I'd like to know which calendar was used by the Kingdom of Ireland, specifically during the Irish rebellion of 1641.

So, does anyone know which calendar it was? I'd rather have an answer with a reference, if possible.

If possible, I'd also be glad to have any information on this calendar - holidays, months and their synonyms,…


Ireland at the time was under British rule and Britain didn't adopt the Gregorian calendar until 1752 so it would still officially be on the Julian calender and written records would use this.

Since Catholic countries adopted the Gregorian calender much sooner (it being introduced by pope Gregory) it's possible that Catholic church sources, especially those writing to people on continental Europe might have used Gregorian calender.

Rural areas and 'peasant' farmers (not technically accurate in Ireland) would probably have mostly used saint's days and religious feasts for everyday calender and quarter days for rents and official purposes.

The kingdom of Ireland was still run from Britain, Catholics were excluded from any official office and certainly weren't in charge of making any decisions about calenders. Remember that date/time was vital for navigation and so was controlled by naval observatories with the same sort of military security that GPS has today. Any written history, court proceedings, laws, etc will almost certainly be written using British standards.


Calendars exhibit

One of the most hotly contested issues of the 1754 election was calendar reform. The orange banner on the left of Hogarth’s painting carries a protest against the Gregorian calendar. It reads, "Give us our eleven days."

In most societies a calendar reform is an extraordinary event. Adoption of a calendar depends on the forcefulness with which it is introduced and on the willingness of society to accept it. For example, the acceptance of the Gregorian calendar as a worldwide standard spanned more than three centuries.

The legal code of the United States does not specify an official national calendar. Use of the Gregorian calendar in the United States stems from an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom in 1751, which specified use of the Gregorian calendar in England and its colonies. However, its adoption in the United Kingdom and other countries was fraught with confusion, controversy, and even violence (Bates, 1952 Gingerich, 1983 Hoskin, 1983). It also had a deeper cultural impact through the disruption of traditional festivals and calendrical practices (MacNeill, 1982).


Calendar Structure

Months in the Jewish Calendar

Month NamesNumber of Days
Nisan30
Iyar29
Sivan30
Tammuz29
Av30
Elul29
Tishrei30
Marcheshvan (Cheshvan)29 or 30
Kislev30 or 29
Tevet29
Shevat30
Adar29

A year in the Hebrew calendar can be 353, 354, 355, 383, 384, or 385 days long.

Regular common years have 12 months with a total of 354 days. Leap years have 13 months and are 384 days long. Months with uneven numbers usually have 30 days, while months with even numbers have 29 days.

In addition to these regular (kesidrah) year lengths, both common and leap years can be a day shorter (cheserah or deficient year with 353/383 days) or a day longer (shlemah or complete year with 355/385 days).

These alterations are designed to prevent Rosh Hashana and other holidays from falling on certain days of the week. In practice, a day is added to the 8th month (Marcheshvan) or subtracted from the 9th month (Kislev).

In civil contexts, a new year in the Jewish calendar begins on Rosh Hashana on Tishrei 1. However, for religious purposes, the year begins on Nisan 1.


Number of Lost Days Varied

The papal bull issued by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582 decreed that 10 days be skipped when switching to the Gregorian calendar. However, only five countries adopted the new calendar system that year&mdashnamely, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Spain, and most of France.

Since the discrepancy between the Julian calendar year and the astronomical seasons kept growing over time in the centuries that followed, more days had to be skipped in countries that switched to the Gregorian calendar in later years. Some countries, such as Russia, Greece, and Turkey, switched calendars as late as the early 20th century, so they had to omit 13 days (see table).


Political process

All citizens 18 years of age or older are eligible to vote. Members of both the Seanad and the Dáil are chosen at least once every five years. The members of the Dáil are elected in three- to five-member constituencies by single transferable vote, a form of proportional representation. Of the 60 members of the Seanad, 11 are appointed by the prime minister, 6 are elected by the Irish universities, and 43 are elected to represent various economic, vocational, and cultural interests. Women have made significant political gains. Although during the 1990s women won only about one-eighth of the seats in the Dáil and constituted about one-fifth of the Seanad, the country twice elected female presidents, Mary Robinson in 1990 and Mary McAleese in 1997. However, with the proportion of women in the Oireachtas remaining at roughly the same levels in the early 21st century, there were some calls for the introduction of quotas for female representation.


1916 Easter Rising: Background

With the Acts of Union in 1800 (ratified in 1801), Ireland (which had been under some form of English control since the 12th century) merged with Great Britain to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. As a result, Ireland lost its parliament in Dublin and was governed by a united parliament from Westminster in London. During the 19th century, groups of Irish nationalists opposed this arrangement in varying degrees.

Did you know? After the Easter Rising, one of the rebels, American-born Eamon de Valera, was sentenced to death. However, he ended up serving only a brief prison term and went on to become one of Ireland’s leading political figures, with a career spanning half a century.

Some moderate nationalists advocated for home rule, under which Ireland would remain part of the United Kingdom but also have some form of self-government. Several home rule bills were defeated in Parliament in the late 1800s before one finally passed in 1914. However, implementation of home rule was suspended due to the outbreak of World War I (1914-18).

Meanwhile, members of a secret revolutionary organization called the Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB), who believed home rule wouldn’t go far enough and instead sought complete independence for Ireland, began planning what would become the Easter Rising. They hoped their rebellion would be aided by military support from Germany, which was fighting the British in World War I. Roger Casement (1864-1916), an Irish nationalist, arranged for a shipment of German arms and ammunition for the rebels however, shortly before the insurrection began, the British detected the ship and it was scuttled by its captain. Casement was charged with treason and executed in August 1916


The Megaliths of Stonehenge

Stonehenge’s sarsens, of which the largest weighs more than 40 tons and rises 24 feet, were likely sourced from quarries 25 miles north of Salisbury Plain and transported with the help of sledges and ropes they may even have already been scattered in the immediate vicinity when the monument’s Neolithic architects first broke ground there. 

The smaller bluestones, on the other hand, have been traced all the way to the Preseli Hills in Wales, some 200 miles away from Stonehenge. How, then, did prehistoric builders without sophisticated tools or engineering haul these boulders, which weigh up to 4 tons, over such a great distance?

According to one longstanding theory, Stonehenge’s builders fashioned sledges and rollers out of tree trunks to lug the bluestones from the Preseli Hills. They then transferred the boulders onto rafts and floated them first along the Welsh coast and then up the River Avon toward Salisbury Plain alternatively, they may have towed each stone with a fleet of vessels. More recent hypotheses have them transporting the bluestones with supersized wicker baskets or a combination of ball bearings, long grooved planks and teams of oxen.

As early as the 1970s, geologists have been adding their voices to the debate over how Stonehenge came into being. Challenging the classic image of industrious Neolithic builders pushing, carting, rolling or hauling the craggy bluestones from faraway Wales, some scientists have suggested that glaciers, not humans, did most of the heavy lifting. 

The globe is dotted with giant rocks known as glacial erratics that were carried over long distances by moving ice floes. Perhaps Stonehenge’s mammoth slabs were snatched from the Preseli Hills by glaciers during one of the Ice Ages and deposited a stone’s throw away𠅊t least comparatively𠅏rom Salisbury Plain. Most archaeologists have remained cool toward the glacial theory, however, wondering how the forces of nature could possibly have delivered the exact number of stones needed to complete the circle.


15 Holidays and their origins

Every country has its own set of special days that are remembered with time off work, family gatherings, or other activities. There are some, however, that are international while they are not always celebrated at the same time, they are celebrated in a variety of countries. This is a list of the 15 most popular holidays &ndash while most are international, some are not, but they are included for completion. In no particular order, the origins of 15 of our most popular holidays.

15. Mother&rsquos Day 2nd Sunday in May

Different countries celebrate Mother&rsquos Day on various days of the year because the day has a number of different origins. One school of thought claims this day emerged from a custom of mother worship in ancient Greece. Mother worship &mdash which kept a festival to Cybele, a great mother of Greek gods, the wife of Cronus was held around the Vernal Equinox around Asia Minor and eventually in Rome itself from the Ides of March (15 March) to 18 March. The ancient Romans also had another holiday, Matronalia, that was dedicated to Juno, though mothers were usually given gifts on this day. In some countries the Mother&rsquos Day began not as a celebration for individual mothers but rather for Christians to remember the mother church.

14. Queen&rsquos Birthday 1st, 2nd, or 3rd Saturday in June

The Queen&rsquos Official Birthday (sometimes known as &ldquothe Queen&rsquos Birthday&rdquo) is celebrated as a public holiday in several Commonwealth countries&mdashusually Commonwealth Realms, although it is also celebrated in Fiji, now a republic. The word &ldquoQueen&rdquo in the name of the celebration is replaced by &ldquoKing&rdquo when appropriate. The exact date of the celebration varies from country to country, and it does not usually mark the real birthday of the sovereign (the current monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, was born on 21 April 1926). Most Commonwealth Realms release a Birthday Honours List at this time. Interestingly, the English do not have a day off to celebrate the Queen&rsquos birthday, whereas many countries in the Commonwealth do.

13. Labor Day 1st Monday in September

Labor Day is a national legal holiday that is over 100 years old. Over the years, it has evolved from a purely labor union celebration into a general &ldquolast fling of summer&rdquo festival. It grew out of a celebration and parade in honor of the working class by the Knights of Labor in 1882 in New York. In 1884, the Knights held a large parade in New York City celebrating the working class. The parade was held on the first Monday in September. The Knights passed a resolution to hold all future parades on the same day, designated by them as Labor Day. In the late 1880&rsquos, labor organizations began to lobby various state legislatures for recognition of Labor Day as an official state holiday. The first states to declare it a state holiday in, 1887, were Oregon, Colorado, New York, Massachusetts, and New Jersey. Then in 1894, Congress passed a law recognizing Labor Day as an official national holiday. Today, Labor Day is observed not only in the U.S. but also in Canada, and in other industrialized nations. While it is a general holiday in the United States, its roots in the working class remain clearer in European countries.

12. Mardi Gras February or March, always a Tuesday

Mardi Gras (French for &ldquofat Tuesday&rdquo is also known as Pancake Tuesday, or Shrove Tuesday. The history of Mardi Gras began long before Europeans set foot in the New World. In mid February the ancient Romans celebrated the Lupercalia, a circus-like festival not entirely unlike the Mardi Gras we are familiar with today. When Rome embraced Christianity, the early Church fathers decided it was better to incorporate certain aspects of pagan festivals into the faith rather than attempt to abolish them altogether. Carnival became a period of abandon and merriment that preceded the penance of Lent, thus giving a Christian interpretation to the ancient custom. Although Mardi Gras is basically a Catholic holiday, today it is party for everyone here in United States. This is especially true in New Orleans and other parts of Louisiana which can be credited for introducing this tradition in the country. Mardi Gras first came to New Orleans through French Culture in the year 1699 when the French explorers celebrated the holiday on the Mississippi River. Over the years, the celebration has witnessed growing national attention with many parades and parties coming in to add to its hue and flavor.

11. Diwali October or November

Diwali, also called Deepavali, is a major Indian festival that is very significant in Hinduism, Sikhism, and Jainism. Known as the &ldquoFestival of Lights,&rdquo it symbolises the victory of good over evil, and lamps are lit as a sign of celebration and hope for humankind. Celebrations focus on lights and lamps, particularly traditional d?pa or deeya (earthen lamp, as illustrated). Fireworks are associated with the festival. Diwali is a colloquial name used in North India, while the festival is formally called Deepavali in South India. Diwali is celebrated over five days in most of North India. All the days except Diwali are named using the designation in the Indian calendar. A lunar half-month is 15 days. Diwali as a new-moon day, marks the last day of a 15-day period. One of the most common stories about Divali is the return of Lord Rama and his wife Sita to Ayodhya after their fourteen year exile. This is related in the Ramayana (i.e. the Story of Rama). It tells the tale of how Lord Rama, with the aid of the monkey warrior, Hanuman, vanquished the evil king Ravana of Lanka and rescued his wife Sita who had been captured by him. His triumphant return home with Sita was greeted with joy and celebrations and the people lighted lamps in rows to welcome him.

10. St Valentine&rsquos Day February 14

Saint Valentine&rsquos Day or Valentine&rsquos Day is a holiday on February 14. It is the traditional day on which lovers express their love for each other sending Valentine&rsquos cards or candy. The holiday is named after two men, both Christian martyrs among the numerous Early Christian martyrs named Valentine. The day became associated with romantic love in the circle of Geoffrey Chaucer in High Middle Ages, when the tradition of courtly love flourished. The first of the two Saints Valentine was Valentine of Rome (Valentinus presb. m. Romae): a priest in Rome who suffered martyrdom about AD 269 and was buried on the Via Flaminia. His relics are at the Church of Saint Praxed in Rome, and at Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church in Dublin, Ireland. The second is Valentine of Terni (Valentinus ep. Interamnensis m. Romae): He became bishop of Interamna (modern Terni) about AD 197 and is said to have been killed during the persecution of Emperor Aurelian. He is also buried on the Via Flaminia, but in a different location than Valentine of Rome. His relics are at the Basilica of Saint Valentine in Terni (Basilica di San Valentino). It has been hypothesised that Graeco-Roman holidays devoted to fertility and love might be related to St Valentine&rsquos Day, since there is some correspondence between the time when they were celebrated. On the ancient Athenian calendar, the period between mid-January and mid-February was the month of Gamelion, dedicated to the sacred marriage of Zeus and Hera. The first recorded association of St Valentine&rsquos Day with romantic love is in Parlement of Foules (1382) by Geoffrey Chaucer: &ldquoFor this was on seynt Volantynys day whan euery bryd comyth there to chese [choose] his make [mate].&rdquo

9. St Patrick&rsquos Day March 17

Saint Patrick&rsquos Day (Irish: Lá &rsquole Pádraig or Lá Fhéile Pádraig), colloquially St. Paddy&rsquos Day or Paddy&rsquos Day, is an annual feast day which celebrates Saint Patrick (circa 385&ndash461), one of the patron saints of Ireland. It takes place on 17 March, the date on which Patrick is held to have died. It became a feast day in the Roman Catholic Church due to the influence of the Waterford-born Franciscan scholar Luke Wadding in the early part of the 17th century, and is a holy day of obligation for Roman Catholics in Ireland. The date of the feast is occasionally moved by church authorities due to clashes with Holy Week this last happened in 1940, when Saint Patrick&rsquos Day was observed on 3 April in order to avoid it coinciding with Palm Sunday, and will happen again in 2008, when it shall be held on 15 March to avoid Holy Monday. St Patrick was a Christian missionary and is the patron saint of Ireland along with Brigid of Kildare and Columba. Patrick was born in Roman Britain in the 3rd or 4th century. When he was about sixteen he was captured by Irish raiders and taken as a slave to Ireland, where he lived for six years before escaping and returning to his family. He entered the church, as his father and grandfather had before him, becoming a deacon and a bishop. He later returned to Ireland as a missionary, working in the north and west of the island.


8. Eid ul-Fitr End of Ramadan

Eid ul-Fitr or Id-Ul-Fitr, often abbreviated as simply Eid, is a Muslim holiday that marks the end of Ramadan, the month of fasting. Fi?r means &ldquoto break the fast&rdquo and therefore symbolizes the breaking of the fasting period. On the day of the celebration, a typical Muslim family is awake very early and then after praying the first normal everyday prayer, is required to eat in a small quantity, symbolizing the end of Ramadan. They then attend special congregational prayers held only for this occasion in mosques, in large open areas, stadiums or arenas. The prayer is generally short, and is followed by a sermon (khu?ba). Worshippers greet and embrace each other in a spirit of peace and love after the congregational prayer. After the special prayers, festivities and merriment are commonly observed with visits to the homes of relatives and friends to thank God for all blessings.

7. Hanukkah Late November to late December

Hanukkah is one of the important holidays of Judaism which is not found in the modern Jewish canon of the Bible. They were originally included in the texts used by Jews until around 70AD. The holiday is mentioned in the books of 1 and 2 Maccabees (these are found in the Catholic and Orthodox Bibles, but were excluded by protestants in the 16th century from their version). Hanukkah is also known as the Festival of Lights, and it is an eight-day holiday beginning on the 25th day of the month of Kislev, which may fall anytime from late November to late December. It celebrates the re-kindling of the Temple menorah at the time of the Maccabee rebellion. The festival is observed in Jewish homes by the kindling of lights on each night of the holiday &ndash one on the first night, two on the second, and so on. The special menorah (candelabrum) used for this festival contains nine candles, rather than the usual seven. The primary ritual, according to Jewish law and custom, is to light a single light each night for eight nights. As a universally-practiced &ldquobeautification&rdquo of the mitzvah, the number of lights lit is increased by one each night. An extra light called a shamash, meaning guard or servant is also lit each night, and is given a distinct location, usually higher or lower than the others. The purpose of the extra light is to adhere to the prohibition, specified in the Talmud (Tracate Shabbat 21b-23a), against using the Hanukkah lights for anything other than publicizing &ndash and meditating on &ndash the Hanukkah story.

6. Independence Day July 4

Independence Day is the national holiday of the United States of America commemorating the signing of the Declaration of Independence by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. At the time of the signing the US consisted of 13 colonies under the rule of England&rsquos King George III. There was growing unrest in the colonies concerning the taxes that had to be paid to England. This was commonly referred to as &ldquoTaxation without Representation&rdquo as the colonists did not have any representation in the English Parliament and had no say in what went on. Independence Day is commonly associated with fireworks, parades, barbecues, picnics, baseball games, and various other public and private events celebrating the history, government, and traditions of the United States. Fireworks have been associated with the Fourth of July since 1777.

5. Guy Fawkes Night November 5

Guy Fawkes, also known as &lsquoGuido&rsquo, was a member of a group of English Roman Catholics who attempted to carry out the The Gunpowder Plot, an attempt to blow up the Houses of Parliament and kill King James I of England, to end Protestant rule, on 5 November 1605. Fawkes was ranked 30th in the 2002 list of &ldquo100 Greatest Britons&rdquo, sponsored by the BBC and voted for by the public. He was also included in a list of the 50 greatest people from Yorkshire. Guy Fawkes Night, also called Bonfire Night, is an annual celebration (but not a public holiday) on the evening of the 5th of November primarily in the United Kingdom, but also in former British colonies New Zealand, South Africa, the island of Newfoundland (Canada), parts of the British Caribbean including the Bahamas, and to some extent by their nationals abroad. The celebrations, which in the United Kingdom take place in towns and villages across the country, involve fireworks displays and the building of bonfires, on which &ldquoguys&rdquo, or dummies, representing Guy Fawkes, the most infamous of the conspirators, are traditionally burnt. Before the fifth, children traditionally used the &ldquoguys&rdquo to beg for money with the chant &ldquoPenny for the guy&rdquo, although this is now rarely seen.

Halloween, or Hallowe&rsquoen, is a holiday celebrated on the night of October 31st. Traditional activities include trick-or-treating, costume parties, viewing horror films, visiting &ldquohaunted houses&rdquo, and participating in traditional autumn activities such as hayrides (which may have &ldquohaunted&rdquo themes). Halloween originated under the name of Samhain as a Pagan festival among the Celts of Ireland and Great Britain. Irish and Scottish immigrants carried versions of the tradition to North America in the nineteenth century. Other western countries embraced the holiday in the late twentieth century. The origin of the name &ldquoHalloween&rdquo is from &ldquoAll hallows Eve&rdquo or, the even of All Saints Day which is a Catholic feast day celebrated on the 1 of November. According to what can be reconstructed of the beliefs of the ancient Celts, the bright half of the year ended around November 1 or on a moon-phase near that date, or at the time of first frost. The day is referred to in modern Gaelic as Samhain (&ldquoSow-in&rdquo or alternatively &ldquoSa-ven&rdquo, meaning: End of the Summer). After the adoption of the Roman calendar with its fixed months, the date began to be celebrated independently of the Moon&rsquos phases. As October 31 is the last day of the bright half of the year, the next day also marked the beginning of winter, which the Celts often associated with death, and with the slaughter of livestock to provide meat for the coming winter. The Celts believed that on October 31, the boundary separating the dead from the living became blurred. There is a rich and unusual myth system at work here the spirit world, the residence of the &ldquoSídhe&rdquo, as well as of the dead, was accessible through burial mounds. These mounds were opened twice during the year, on Samhain and Beltane, making the beginning and end of summer spiritually resonant.

3. Thanksgiving Fourth Thursday in November

Thanksgiving, or Thanksgiving Day, is an annual one-day holiday to give thanks, traditionally to God, for the things one has at the end of the harvest season. The early settlers of Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts were particularly grateful to Squanto, the Native American who taught them how to catch eel, grow corn and who served as their native interpreter (as Squanto had learned English as a slave in Europe). Without Squanto&rsquos assistance, the settlers might not have survived in the New World. The Plymouth settlers (who came to be called &ldquoPilgrims&rdquo) set apart a holiday immediately after their first harvest in 1621, when they held an autumn celebration of food, feasting, and praising God. The Native American chiefs Massassoit, Squanto and Samoset joined in the celebration with ninety of their men in the three-day event. President Abraham Lincoln first declared Thanksgiving a Federal holiday..as a &ldquoprayerful day of Thankgiving&rdquo on the last Thursday in November. Modern Thanksgiving in the United States is now celebrated on the fourth Thursday in November. In the United States, certain kinds of food are traditionally served at Thanksgiving meals. First and foremost, turkey is usually the featured item on any Thanksgiving feast table (so much so that Thanksgiving is sometimes referred to as &ldquoTurkey Day&rdquo). Stuffing, mashed potatoes with gravy, sweet potatoes, cranberry sauce, maize, other fall vegetables, and pumpkin pie are commonly associated with Thanksgiving dinner. All of these primary dishes are actually native to the Americas or were introduced as a new food source to the Europeans when they arrived.

2. Easter Sunday Sunday in late March

Easter, the Sunday of the Resurrection, Pascha, or Resurrection Day, is the most important religious feast of the Christian liturgical year, observed at some point between late March and late April each year (early April to early May in Eastern Christianity), following the cycle of the moon. It celebrates the resurrection of Jesus, which Christians believe occurred on the third day of his death by crucifixion some time in the period AD 27 to 33. The holiday marks the end of the forty day fast of Lent, during which time Christians are supposed to abstain from meat, fat (traditionally), and all but the simplest foods. This is also the time that Christians &ldquogive something up for Lent&rdquo. Shortly after St Anicetus became the Pope in the mid second century (ca. AD 155), Polycarp visited Rome and among the topics discussed was when the pre-Easter fast should end. Those in Asia held strictly to the computation from the Old Testament&rsquos Hebrew calendar and ended the fast on the 14th day of Nisan, while the Roman custom was to continue the fast until the Sunday following. In modern times we use the Roman measurement. In Western Christianity, Easter always falls on a Sunday from March 22 to April 25 inclusive. The following day, Easter Monday, is a legal holiday in many countries with predominantly Christian traditions. In Eastern Christianity, Easter falls between April 4 and May 8 between 1900 and 1970 based on the Gregorian date.

Christmas is an annual holiday that celebrates the birth of Jesus. Christmas festivities often combine the commemoration of Jesus&rsquo birth with various customs, many of which have been influenced by earlier winter festivals. Traditions include the display of Nativity scenes, Holly and Christmas trees, the exchange of gifts and cards, and the arrival of Father Christmas (Santa Claus) on Christmas Eve or Christmas morning. A winter festival was traditionally the most popular festival of the year in many cultures. Reasons included less agricultural work needing to be done during the winter, as well as people expecting longer days and shorter nights after the winter solstice in the Northern Hemisphere. In part, the Christmas celebration was introduced by the early Church in order to make the conversion of pagan Romans to Christianity easier. Most of the most important gods in the religions of Ishtar and Mithra had their birthdays on December 25. Various Christmas traditions are considered to have been absorbed from winter festivals.


3 FOODS OF THE IRISH

Irish food is known for the quality and freshness of its ingredients. Most cooking is done without herbs or spices, except for salt and pepper. Foods are usually served without sauce or gravy.

The staples of the Irish diet have traditionally been potatoes, grains (especially oats), and dairy products. Potatoes still appear at most Irish meals, with potato scones, similar to biscuits or muffins, a specialty in the north. The Irish have also been accomplished cheesemakers for centuries. Ireland makes about fifty types of homemade ⋺rmhouse" cheeses, which are considered delicacies.

Soups of all types, seafood, and meats also play important roles in the Irish diet. Irish soups are thick, hearty, and filling, with potatoes, seafood, and various meats being common ingredients. Since their country is surrounded by water, the Irish enjoy many types of seafood, including salmon, scallops, lobster, mussels, and oysters. However, meat is eaten more frequently at Irish meals. The most common meats are beef, lamb, and pork. A typical Irish dinner consists of potatoes (cooked whole), cabbage, and meat.

Irish stew has been recognized as the national dish for at least two centuries. A poem from the early 1800s praised Irish stew for satisfying the hunger of anyone who ate it:

Then hurrah for an Irish Stew
That will stick to your belly like glue.

Bread is an important part of Irish culture. Fresh soda bread, a crusty brown bread made from whole-wheat flour and buttermilk, is a national dish of Ireland. Irish bakers don't stop with soda bread, however. They bake a wide variety of other hearty breads and cakes.

The most common everyday beverage in Ireland is tea. Popular alcoholic beverages include whiskey, beer, and ale. Coffee mixed with whiskey and whipped cream is known throughout the world as "Irish coffee."

Traditional Irish Stew

Ingredients

  • 4 potatoes, thinly sliced
  • 4 medium onions, thinly sliced
  • 6 carrots, sliced
  • 1 pound Canadian bacon, chopped
  • 3 pounds lamb chops, 1-inch thick, trimmed, and cut into small pieces
  • Salt and pepper to taste
  • 2½ cups water
  • 4 potatoes, halved
  • Fresh parsley, finely chopped

Procedure

  1. To make Irish stew, all the ingredients are assembled in layers in a large stew pot.
  2. Begin with layers of sliced potatoes, onions, and carrots.
  3. Top with a layer of Canadian bacon and lamb.
  4. Sprinkle liberally with salt and pepper.
  5. Repeat these steps until all the ingredients are used.
  6. Add enough water to just cover the ingredients.
  7. Arrange the halved potatoes on top of the stew, but not in contact with the water, so they can steam as the rest is cooking.
  8. Simmer over a very low heat for about 2 hours.
  9. Sprinkle liberally with the chopped parsley and serve in soup bowls.

Irish Soda Bread

Ingredients

  • 4 cups flour
  • 1 teaspoon baking soda
  • 1 teaspoon salt
  • ¾ cup raisins
  • 2 Tablespoons caraway seeds
  • 1 cup buttermilk

Procedure

  1. Preheat oven to 425ଏ.
  2. Mix flour, baking soda, and salt in a bowl. Add raisins and caraway seeds.
  3. Add buttermilk all at once and mix.
  4. Knead the dough on a lightly floured board. (To knead, press the dough flat, fold it in half, turn the dough, and repeat.) Form into a round loaf on a well-greased baking sheet.
  5. With a knife, carefully mark an X across the top of the loaf. Lay a piece of foil over the loaf. Bake for 5 minutes.
  6. Lower heat to 250ଏ and bake 30 minutes more. Remove foil and bake another 10 minutes, until the loaf is slightly browned.
  7. Cut into wedges and serve with butter.

Corned Beef with Cabbage

Ingredients

  • 4 pounds corned brisket of beef
  • 3 large carrots, cut into large chunks
  • 6 to 8 small onions
  • 1 teaspoon dry mustard
  • ¼ teaspoon thyme
  • ¼ teaspoon parsley
  • 1 head of cabbage (remove two layers of outer leaves)
  • Salt and pepper
  • Boiled potatoes as accompaniment

Procedure

  1. Place brisket in a large pot. Top with carrots, onions, mustard, thyme, and parsley.
  2. Cover with cold water, and heat until the water just begins to boil.
  3. Cover the pot with the lid, lower the heat, and simmer the mixture for 2 hours.
  4. Using a large knife, cut the cabbage into quarters, and add the cabbage wedges to the pot.
  5. Cook for another 1 to 2 hours or until the meat and vegetables are soft and tender.
  6. Remove the vegetables to a platter or bowl, cover with foil, and keep them warm.
  7. Remove the brisket, place it on a cutting board, and slice it.
  8. Serve the corned beef slices on a platter, surrounded by the vegetables.
  9. Ladle a little of the cooking liquid over the meat and vegetables.

Champ

This is one of the most widely eaten potato dishes in Ireland.

Ingredients

  • 6 to 8 baking potatoes, unpeeled
  • 1 bunch scallions
  • 1½ cups milk
  • 4 to 8 Tablespoons butter (to taste)
  • Salt and pepper

Procedure

  1. Scrub potatoes (do not peel), place them in a pot, and cover them with water.
  2. Heat the water to boiling, and cook the potatoes until they can be pierced with a fork (about 25 minutes).
  3. Finely chop the scallions (use both the white bulbs and the green stems) and put them in a small saucepan.
  4. Cover the scallions with the milk and bring slowly just to a boil.
  5. Simmer for about 3 to 4 minutes, stirring constantly with a wooden spoon. Turn off the heat and let the mixture stand.
  6. Peel and mash the hot boiled potatoes in a saucepan. Add the milk and scallions mixture and beat well.
  7. Beat in the butter. Season to taste with salt and pepper.
  8. Serve in 1 large or 4 individual bowls with a pat of butter melting in the center of each serving. May be reheated.

Effects of the Holocaust in Ireland

The Jews of Ireland were involved in anti-Nazi activism as early as 1933, when Chief Rabbi Herzog organized protests against the Third Reich. Robert Briscoe, who at that time was a prominent and well-respected lawmaker with the Fianna Fáil party, continuously spoke out against anti-Semitism. But Herzog and Briscoe&rsquos efforts were to no avail in 1938 at the international conference at Evian-Les-Bains. It was in Evian that world leaders came together to discuss the European refugee problem, and Ireland effectively closed its doors to all refugees.

Frank T. Cremins, the Irish representative, insisted that Ireland was having a hard enough time sustaining its native population, and would not be able to withstand an influx of immigration. The Department of Justice issued a memorandum that specifically cited the Jews as a problem, saying &ldquoAs Jews do not become assimilated with the native population, like other immigrants, there is a danger than any big increase in their numbers might create a social problem.&rdquo

World War II was a troublesome time for Jews around the world, but the Irish Jewish community was relatively safe. Ireland was considered a neutral country, but some anti-British sympathy led to limited support of Germany, mostly in the spirit of &ldquothe enemy of my enemy is my friend.&rdquo Nazi records from the Wannsee Conference in 1942 mark 4,000 Irish Jews for death, under the assumption that Ireland would eventually fall under the control of the Third Reich. The Nazis were nowhere near successful in this venture. There is only one known Irish Jewish casualty of the Holocaust.

Amazingly, the Irish Jewish community helped save hundreds of Jewish children from Vienna. The children escaped the Nazis via a Kindertransport train, and were taken to a farm in County Down, Northern Ireland. The farm was leased by the Belfast Jewish Community in 1938 with assistance and support from Jews in the Republic.

Once the war was over, Taoiseach Eamon de Valera allowed more than 100 orphans from Czechoslovakia to stay in Clonyn Castle in Delvin, Co. Westmeath for about 15 months before they emigrated to the United States, Israel, and the United Kingdom.


Video, Sitemap-Video, Sitemap-Videos