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Daniel Ammen was born in Brown County, Ohio, on 15 May 1820. He was appointed a midshipman on 7 July 1836 and later served with distinction during the Civil War. Ammen commanded Seneca at the Battle of Port Royal, S.C., on 7 November 1861; Patapsco in the attack on Fort McAlister and Fort Sumter in 1863; and Mohican in the bombardment of Fort Fisher in late 1864 and early 1865. Following the end of the fighting, he spent most of his remaining years of service in Washington, serving first as Chief of the Bureau of Yards and Docks and then as Chief of the Bureau of Navigation. He was promoted to rear admiral upon his retirement in 1878. After leaving active duty. He spent much of his time writing on naval subjects and pub- lished two books: the Atlantic Coast and The Old Navy and The New. Ammen died near Washington, D.C., on 11 July 1898, and was buried at Arlington National Cemetery.
(Destroyer No. 35: dp. 883; 1. 293'10"; b. 26'10 1/2"; dr. 8'4"; s. 30.48 k.; cpl. 83; a. 5 3", 6 18" tt.; cl. Paulding)
Ammen (Destroyer No. 35) was laid down on 29 March 1910 by the New York Ship Building Co., Camden, N.J.; launched on 20 September 1910; sponsored by Miss Ethel C. Andrews; and commissioned at Philadelphia on 23 May 1911, Lt. (jg.) Lloyd W. Townsend in command.
Following commissioning, Ammen was assigned to the Atlantic Fleet. She operated with the Torpedo Flotilla along the east coast. Upon the outbreak of World War I in Europe in 1914, Ammen began neutrality patrols and escort duty along the east coast. After the United States entered the conflict in April 1917, Ammen sailed for the Bahamas on a reconnaissance mission. When she returned to the United States, the destroyer entered the Philadelphia Navy Yard on 6 May to be fitted out for overseas service. Ammen was assigned to Division 9, Destroyer Force, and sailed on 18 June for St. Nazaire, France.
After the arrival of the convoy at St. Nazaire on 2 July, Ammen proceeded to Queenstown, Ireland, and was attached to American naval forces based there. The ship carried out convoy escort duty between Ireland and France, patrolled off the Irish coast for enemy submarines, and went to the aid of vessels in distress. Ammen returned to the United States in January 1919. Shemade a cruise to the Gulf of Mexico before going out of commission at Philadelphia on 11 December 1919. The vessel was desig- DD-35 on 17 July 1920. Ammen remained at Philadelphia until 28 April 1924, when she was transferred to the Coast Guard, in whose hands she was redesignated CG-8. Ammen was one of 20 destroyers that formed the Coast Guard Offshore Patrol Force, established to help suppress bootlegging.
On 22 May 1931, Ammen was returned to the Navy, but she performed no further active service. Her name was dropped on 1 July 1933, and thereafter she was referred to as DD-35. She was struck from the Navy list on 5 July 1934 and sold to Michael Flynn, Inc., Brooklyn, N.Y.
“FLIVVERS – THE FIRST STEAM TURBINE DRIVEN DESTROYERS
A “flivver” is an American slang term used in the early twentieth century to refer to any small car that gave a rough ride. These “flivvers” were primarily small, inexpensive and old. In the context of the United States Navy, “flivvers” refer to the two specific classes of destroyers that entered service in the early part of the 20 th Century. Destroyers evolved from the need to defend a battle fleet from the newly developed, high-speed torpedo boats. Vessels were developed into what became known as torpedo boat destroyers, which was later shortened to destroyers.
The earliest US Navy ships classified as destroyers were the thirteen ships of the Bainbridge (DD 1- DD 13) class and the three ships of the Truxtun (DD 14 – DD 16) class. Both of these classes were referred to as Torpedo Boat Destroyers. These ships entered service between 1902 and 1903. Twin reciprocating steam engines developing approximately 8000 SHP propelled these classes. They could reach 28 to 29.6 knots, a very respectable speed for the day. Steam was supplied at 250 psi from four coal fired water tube boilers. Their major armament consisted of 18” torpedo tubes and 3” guns, backed by 6 pounders. The torpedoes were looked upon as their “Main Battery.”
The term “Flivvers” also applied to the Smith (DD 17) and the follow on Paulding (DD 22) classes. The five ships of the Smith Class were authorized in 1906 and entered service between 1909 and 1910, while the 21 ships of the Paulding Class entered service between 1910 and 1912. Both classes served throughout World War I, but they had relatively short service lives. All of the “flivvers” were decommissioned by 1920.
The “Flivvers” incorporated a number of significant advances in marine engineering. They were the first US Navy destroyer types to be powered by steam turbines. A major difference between the two classes was the boilers. The Smith class ships were the last destroyers with coal-fired boilers, while the Paulding class ships were the first with oil-fired boilers.
The five ships of the Smith Class were:
- USS Smith (DD 17)
- USS Lamson (DD 18)
- USS Preston (DD 19)
- USS Flusser (DD 20)
- USS Reid (DD 21)
Smith and Lamson were built at Cramp Shipbuilding, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Preston was built at New York Shipbuilding, Camden, New Jersey, and Flusser and Reid at Bath Iron Works. The ships all entered service in late 1909 with the exception of Lamson, which was commissioned in February 1910. All five ships served on the East Coast with their shared homeport of Charleston, South Carolina. During the period between 1917 and 1919, all were assigned to convoy escort and patrol duties out of Brest, France. All Smith and Paulding class ships were decommissioned in 1919 shortly after the end of the war. This is likely due to the excess of destroyers that remained at the end of the war and the many technical advances made in the newer ship classes during the war.
The major ship characteristics were as follows:
- Length – 294’
- Beam – 26.5’
- Draft – 10’ 7”
- Deck – Raised forecastle
- Full Load Displacement – 700 tons
- Design Speed – 28 knots – Maximum Trial Speed – 30.41 knots
- Armament – Five 3”/50 guns – Three 18” torpedo tubes (later upgraded to six in three dual mounts)
- Crew – 89
- Machinery – Triple screw, direct drive Parsons steam turbines – 10,000 SHP
- Boilers – Four Mosher water tube boilers – Saturated steam – 240 psi
- Fuel – Coal – 304 tons
- Endurance – 2000 nautical miles @ 18 knots
- Generators – Two 5 kW DC (Later upgraded to 10 kW). By comparison a modern destroyer has three ship service gas turbine AC generators, each with ratings as high as 3500 kW.
One peculiarity of the ships was the stack arrangement. They varied depending upon which shipyard the ships were built in. The two Cramp built boats (Smith and Lamson) had their two amidships funnels paired close together. The funnels on the New York boat (Preston) were equally spaced, and the Bath ships (Flusser and Reid) were in pairs fore and aft, as shown in the following photos. The funnels were raised in 1912, probably for the reasons shown in the photo of the USS Flusser underway.
USS Flusser underway, circa the early 1910s. (NHHC Photo # NH 98018)
USS Preston underway, 1912. (NHHC Photo # NH 99254)
USS Smith and USS Lamson
USS Smith securing from action stations prior to entering New York Harbor, March 1917. (NHHC Photo # 65862)
Navy Photo 5056-43, broadside view of the USS Reid (DD 369) off Mare Island on 11 July 1943. She was in overhaul at Mare Island from 27 May to 16 July 1943. On this date she was on trails. (NAVSOURCE)
The steam turbine was invented in Great Britain by Charles Parsons in 1884. The first marine installation was aboard the SS Turbinia, which was launched in 1894. By the early 1900s, turbines could be found aboard several large passenger vessels including the liners Mauretania and Lusitania, which entered transatlantic service in 1907. Both of these ships had quadruple screws driven directly by very large steam turbines with a total rating of 68,000 SHP at 190 RPM. The HP turbine rotors were 10’ in diameter and the LP turbine rotors were over 15’ in diameter.
Several very significant technical obstacles had to be overcome in order to make steam turbines viable for marine applications. The first and most significant was that turbines operate most efficiently at high RPM, while propellers must operate at much lower speeds in order to avoid cavitation. A compromise between efficient turbine and propeller speeds was required. The approach was to add stages to the turbine in order to make it operate more slowly so it could be connected directly to the propeller shaft that operated at higher than desirable speeds with a subsequent loss in propeller efficiency.
Additionally the turbine rotor diameters had to be quite large in order to develop the torque necessary to turn the propeller shafts. On sea trials, USS Smith operated the engines at 724 RPM. The first geared turbine installation aboard a US Navy destroyer was USS Wadsworth (DD 60), which entered service in 1915. Another significant problem was that the early turbine installations were very inefficient at low speeds. A variety of different cruising arrangements, many of which were quite complex, could be found aboard the World War I-era naval vessels. Some destroyer classes had small reciprocating steam engines geared to the propeller shafts for use under cruising conditions.
The next illustration shows the then revolutionary triple screw Parsons Turbine propulsion system for Flusser under construction on the floor at Bath Iron Works. The three shaft lines can be clearly seen. The turbines were arranged in five separate casings. The center shaft was driven by the High Pressure Turbine. The two Cruising and Low Pressure Turbines drove the port & starboard outboard shafts. The Low Pressure turbines exhausted outboard through the big ducts that you see to the main condensers. There were separate stages in each Low Pressure Turbine to go astern. The engines were all located in a single engine room, which was fitted with a skylight. The center shaft could not be reversed. The BIW people were justifiably very proud of this installation.
Saturated steam at approximately 240 psi was supplied to the turbines by four coal fired water tube boilers manufactured by C.D. Mosher, New York. The boilers were unusually designed. They had two steam drums, one on each side of the boiler. Each steam drum was connected to a separate water drum by means of its own generating bank consisting of 1” tubes. This appears to have been the only application of Mosher type boilers on U.S. Navy destroyers of that era. In those days, each boiler was located in its own fire room. Combustion air was provided by individual forced draft blowers that discharged directly into the fire rooms, which were maintained under a positive pressure when the boilers were steaming and had to be entered by way of an air lock.
- Bath Iron Works – 5 ships – USS Paulding (DD 22), USS Drayton (DD 23), USS Trippe (DD33), USS Jouett (DD 41), USS Jenkins (DD 42)
- Newport News Shipbuilding – 4 ships – USS Roe (DD 24), USS Terry (DD 25), USS Monaghan (DD 32), USS Fanning (DD 37)
- Bethlehem Steel Fore River, Quincy, MA – 4 ships – USS Perkins (DD 26), USS Sterett (DD 27), USS Walke (DD 34), USS Henley (DD 39)
- New York Shipbuilding – 4 ships – USS McCall (DD 28), USS Burrows (DD 29), USS Ammen (DD 35), USS Jarvis (DD 38)
- Cramp, Philadelphia, PA – 4 ships – USS Warrington (DD 30), USS Mayrant (DD 31), USS Patterson (DD 36), USS Beale (DD 40)
The New York and Bath built ships had four stacks, while the Newport News, Quincy, and Cramp built ships had three, with the middle stack consisting of two uptakes trunked together. The newer class ships burned oil rather than coal and had 12,000 SHP vice the 10,000 SHP on the Smith Class, making them about one knot faster. Endurance was 3000 nm at 16 knots. There was some variation in the turbine arrangement between ships of the class. Most of the ships of the class had the same triple screw arrangement as the Smith class however, five ships of the class had twin screws. DD 22-31 had Normand water tube boilers, while DD 32 through DD 42 had Normand boilers. Both of these boilers were of the “A” Type with a single steam drum and two water drums. All of the ships were decommissioned in 1919. However, twelve ships of the class were transferred to the Coast Guard for use in the Rum Patrol between 1924 and 1930. All ships of the class were scrapped in 1934-35 to comply with the London Naval Treaty. A photo of the Newport News built USS Terry (DD 25) underway follows. Note the three stack arrangement:
A few historical items of interest concerning the Smith and Paulding Class destroyers include:
- The USS Smith (DD 17) was placed in reserve after only 2 years of service and reactivated in 1915 as war became imminent. The reasons for the inactivation are not known, but it is highly probable that it was due to obsolescence because it was coal burning. It may have also been necessary in order to correct significant deficiencies in the original design after the ship entered service.
- A significant number of the commanding officers of the Smith and Paulding classes went on to make flag rank during World War II. Some of the most prominent examples follow.
- The commanding officer of USS Lamson (DD 18) between September 1912 and September 1913 was Lt Harold Stark. Stark served as the Chief of Naval Operations between 1939 and 1942. He later commanded the Paulding class destroyer USS Patterson (DD 36) in 1915.
- The commanding officer of USS Flusser (DD 20) between August 1912 and September 1913 was Lt William Frederick (Bull) Halsey, who became famous during World War II. He later commanded the Paulding class destroyer USS Jarvis (DD 38).
- Historical records indicate that USS Preston (DD 19) was utilized in 1913 by then Under Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt on an inspection tour of existing naval facilities on Frenchman’s Bay, Maine, with stops at Campobello Island and Bar Harbor. Apparently Lt Halsey, who was then acting as the commander of Torpedo Division 1, accompanied him on this trip. Some conflicts between historical sources exist as to which ships participated in this trip.
- The commanding officer of the Paulding class destroyer USS Jarvis (DD 28) in 1911- 1913 was Lt Ernest J. King, the CNO from 1942 through 1945 during World War II.
- The “Flivvers” were originally assigned to the Atlantic Torpedo Flotilla. The commander of the flotilla during the period 1913 to 1915 was Admiral William S. Sims, who later served as Commander Naval Forces Europe during World War I and president of the US Naval War College after the war.
In summary, despite their relatively short service life, the “Flivvers” represented definite technical advances and they played very significant roles in the early development of US Navy destroyers.
Ammen DD- 35 - History
Until July 1920, U.S. Navy Destroyers did not officially have "DD" series hull numbers. They were, however, referred to by "Destroyer Number", with that number corresponding to the "DD" number formally assigned in July 1920, or which would have been assigned if the ship had still been on the Navy list. For convenience, all of these ships are listed below under the appropriate numbers in the "DD" series.
Beginning in the later 1940s, destroyers converted for certain specialized functions were given modified designations, including DDE (anti-submarine destroyer, or escort destroyer), DDK (anti-submarine hunter-killer destroyer), DDR (radar picket destroyer) and AGDD (expermental destroyer). All of these expanded designations were numbered in the original DD series.
Before, during and after World War II, other ships were given designations that were based on specialized functions within the destroyer ("D-") type, but were numbered separately from the DD series and will be treated on other Online Library pages. These included DE (escort ship) DDG (guided missile destroyer) DL (frigate) DM (light minelayer) and DMS (high-speed minesweeper).
This page, and those linked from it, provide the hull numbers of all U.S. Navy destroyers numbered in the DD series, with links to those ships with photos available in the Online Library.
See the list below to locate photographs of individual destroyers.
If the destroyer you want does not have an active link on this page, contact the Photographic Section concerning other research options.
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Within its first decade of existence, New York Ship established itself as a major shipbuilder of both small and large naval and civilian merchant vessels. Its first battleship, USS Kansas (BB-21) was completed in 1907, while it also quickly established a high reputation for building quality, high speed destroyers, the newest type of naval warship.
The armored cruiser USS Washington (ACR-16), the first naval warship ordered from New York Ship.
By the time America entered the First World War in 1917, New York Ship had grown to become the largest shipyard in the world, with the completion of its middle and southern yards. These additions were necessary to keep up with the ever increasing number of civilian and naval construction orders being placed.
During its early years, New York Ship became known for its construction of the latest type of U.S. navy warship: the destroyer. Here, a row of famous “four piper” or “flush decked” type destroyers are lined up in the outfitting basin.
It was also during the years of WWI that New York Ship began to build nearby communities in order to attract and house its ever expanding work force. Yorkship Village, a self-contained community within the City of Camden and now known as Fairview, was an example of this type of self-contained neighborhood. It received a national award as a “planned unit development” community.
The early years at New York Shipbuilding were busy ones. Here the nearly completed battleships USS Arkansas (BB-33) and USS Utah (BB-31) are seen after launching alongside the destroyer USS Ammen (DD-35) and the large civilian coastal liner Suwantee. Utah would later be sunk by the Japanese at Pearl Harbor in December 1941, along with the battleship USS Oklahoma (BB-37), also built at New York Ship in 1912.
US Navy Cruise Books
US Navy Cruise Books are unofficial publications published by a ship's crew to document a cruise or deployment. The number of copies of a cruise book is very limited. Several commands only order copies for about 2/3 of the crew as a rule of thumb. Creating those books is an old tradition in the US Navy. This tradition dates back to the late 1800s, when the crews began documenting events of their cruises. A major difference compared to today's cruise books is that the early log books, as they were called, covered a period of up to two years which was the common period for a standard deployment at that time. It is estimated that by now, almost 10,000 different US Navy cruise books have been published and the number of collectors is constantly increasing
The cruise books displayed here are part of my own collection. A few books, however, have been donated to me by visitors of the website. In these cases, the name of the contributor is mentioned on the cruise book's index page. My own books are not for sale and I'm not able to help you locating old Cruise Books. You have a cruise book that is not listed here and you like to contribute it? Here are your options.
You would like to have high resolution digital images of one of the cruise books listed here? A few of the books are already available as download. The price depends on the size of the book: As a basic rule of thumb (exceptions are possible) I charge $15 for books up to 200 pages, $20 for books with 200-400 pages, $25 for books with 400-500 pages and max. $30 for the largest books. The download is a .pdf file that consists of the original scans in high resolution (not resized, no watermarks and pages are in the book's original order). The book you are looking for is not available as download yet? Contact me using our contact form and I will see what I can do for you. This offer only applies to my own books, therefore, all books that carry a "contributed" or "submitted by. " remark on their index page are usually only available as low resolution scans.
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Reader Report: Remembering a naval disaster
The demolished bow of the destroyer USS Collett shows the force of the collision with the USS Ammen in fog off Newport Beach that killed 11 Ammen sailors.
It was mid-morning on Tuesday, July 19, 1960, and two 376-foot U.S. Navy destroyers, foghorns blaring, were groping their way through a dense fog bank five miles off the coast of Newport Beach.
Both ships, the USS Ammen (DD-527), which was heading to San Diego from the Seal Beach Naval Weapons Station, where it had unloaded it ammunition, and the USS Collett (DD-730), sailing from San Diego to Long Beach, had been in the thick of combat in the Pacific during World War II.
The Ammen had miraculously survived sinking during the 1944 Battle of Leyte Gulf when a Japanese kamikaze suicide plane plunged deep into its superstructure, causing fires, massive damage and the deaths of five crewmen and critical injuries to 26. The Collett had seen action at Iwo Jima, Okinawa and the Philippines, and on Sept. 2, 1945 it was moored in Tokyo Bay next to the USS Missouri where Gen. Douglas MacArthur received the Japanese surrender. Both ships also saw combat during the 1950-1953 Korean War.
Meanwhile, on that fateful day off Newport Beach nearly 57 years ago, as the fog thickened and the sea became increasingly choppy, Cmdr. Zaven Mukhalian, 41, skipper of the Ammen and his 235-man crew were presented with a sight that would strike terror in the heart of any mariner.
Out of the fog loomed the Collett, carrying a crew of 239, traveling at an estimated speed of 17 knots (19.5 mph) directly toward the slower-moving Ammen’s port, or left side.
Mukhalian and Cmdr. Albert T. Ford, 39, captain of the Collett, frantically ordered evasive action and instructed their helmsmen to reverse course.
At 9:42 a.m., the bow of the Collett sliced into the port side of the Ammen, which was due to be decommissioned and sent to the Navy’s reserve or “mothball” fleet after it had reached San Diego.
The force of the impact gouged a huge hole below the Ammen’s waterline, sending water rushing in and damaging its engine, electronics repair shops and fire rooms so badly they were left looking like a “junkyard,” the Los Angeles Times noted in a Page One story the following day.
Aboard the Collett, a new bow fitted only two weeks earlier was crumpled back, its upper part pressed against the ship’s port side, its lower part ripped open and wedged against its starboard side. The Collett’s left anchor was embedded in the Ammen and its gun control tower was sheared off at its base and lay on its side on the deck. The damage was described by The Times as “grotesque.”
The situation aboard the Ammen was much worse.
Wreckage from the USS Ammen that contained three sailors’ bodies is removed in a Terminal Island drydock the day of the collision with the Ammen off Newport Beach.
Its aft engine room and forward fire room filling with water, the ship took a sharp list, and it was feared the Ammen would turn on its side and sink. But its pumps stemmed the flooding, and the Ammen remained afloat, although still listing at a dangerous angle.
Several crewmen on the Collett, which was able to back free from the Ammen, suffered minor lacerations, cuts and bruises.
But on the Ammen, it was a different story.
Collett bow lookout Patrick Madeiros, then 19, who told the Associated Press that he had yelled “ship dead ahead” when he realized his vessel was rapidly approaching the Ammen, said he heard the awesome sounds of disaster coming from the Ammen when the two vessels collided.
“Frantic shouts . the clanging of bells . death screams . the hiss of steam . the rip and tear of steel,” he recounted.
The death toll on the Ammen reached 11. All those killed were enlisted men. At least 20 more crewmen received injuries. The force of the collision was so great that two Ammen crewmen, one of whom died later that day, and the other who suffered critical injuries, were catapulted from the deck of the Ammen to the deck of the Collett.
Most of the dead and injured had been in the Ammen’s fire and engine rooms when the ships collided. There had been a foreboding of disaster among some of the officers and men aboard the Ammen just before the ramming.
“If we collide with another ship in this fog, we won’t have a chance,” crewman Royce L. Jones recalled he had warned his shipmates.
Mukhalian stated at a Long Beach press conference that evening, “If we hadn’t unloaded our ammunition, including the depth charges, at Seal Beach before the collision, both ships would have been blown to kingdom come.”
Onshore in Newport Beach, rescue operations began at once when the authorities were alerted to the disaster.
Learning of the collision from Coast Guard and Navy radio reports, Newport Beach’s lifeguard rescue boat the Sea Watch and the Harbor Department’s Boat No. 2 raced to the scene in heavy fog and choppy seas.
Boat No. 2 was the first to arrive, and Bob McBride, one of its crew, told the daily Globe-Herald and Pilot, which a year later became the Daily Pilot, “there was no panic aboard the ships when we came alongside and started to take off the injured.”
Stan Annin, deputy chief of the Newport Beach Harbor Dept. who was aboard the Sea Watch, told Almon Lockabey, The Globe-Herald and Pilot’s boating and marine editor, “It was so foggy that we couldn’t see more than an eighth of a mile.”
Wreckage on the Ammen’s deck was “terrific. Cabins were caved in. The Ammen’s deck, which was only five feet above water, was crushed like a beer can,” wrote Lockabey, a long-time friend of this writer and a fixture on the Orange Coast boating scene who died in 1995 at the age of 85.
The Island Lady, a Newport-Catalina tourist boat, joined in the evacuation, assisting in the removal of the Ammen’s dead and injured as the ship continued its list, raising fears it might turn over.
An emergency first aid station was set up in the parking lot of the Balboa Yacht Club to assess the injured and have them transferred to Hoag Memorial Hospital Presbyterian, where a call had gone out for area doctors and nurses, and to the hospital at Camp Pendleton and the hospital ship USS Haven based at Long Beach Naval Base. The dead were taken by hearses to the Navy morgue in Long Beach.
Coast Guard, Navy and Marine Corps helicopters also had flown to the collision scene, but it was difficult for them to remove the injured and dead because of wreckage littering the decks of both ships. A Marine Corps helicopter carrying two doctors crashed on the stern of the Ammen. “Its long rotors drooped sadly and its fuselage was ripped open, but no one was injured,” reported Lockabey, who traveled to the collision site in a specially-chartered Globe-Herald Pilot press boat.
Just a week before the disaster, wrote Lockabey, emergency agencies from Newport Beach and other Orange County communities had participated in a day-long practice exercise to prepare for sea emergencies.
“Practice paid off,” Newport Harbormaster Al Oberg told Lockabey as emergency responders removed the dead and injured from the twisted wreckage. Lockabey added in his newspaper report that an officer on the ill-starred Ammen told him, “I have never seen rescue operations conducted in a more calm and efficient manner.”
About 11:30 a.m., the dead and injured had been taken off the Ammen, and the Collett, assisted by a Navy tugboat, was able to limp under its own power to Long Beach Naval Base. The Ammen, still listing and its engine unoperable, was towed to Long Beach Naval Shipyard by the USS Gear, a submarine rescue ship.
A week after the disaster, a Navy court martial heard testimony from the captains of the Ammen and Collett that their ships’ radars were working properly before the crash and they could not explain why the two warships had come together with such destructive force.
Four months later, on Nov. 11, 1960, the L.A. Times reported that Ford had pled guilty of negligently handling his ship, but that he had pled innocent of maintaining adequate watches on his ship’s bow and in the radar room.
The court subsequently reprimanded him and sentenced him to the loss of 100 numbers on the Navy promotion list. This effectively banned him from promotion to the rank of captain and terminated his Navy career.
As for the futures of the two vessels,
the Ammen was patched up at the Long Beach Naval Shipyard and towed to San Diego, where it was decommissioned and sold the following year to the National Metal and Steel Corp. for scrapping.
The Collett was fitted with its second new bow in three months and returned to active duty, conducting patrols in the Pacific and along the California coast. In 1974, it was bought by Argentina to serve as a spare parts ship for the Argentine Navy’s fleet. The Argentines, however, discovered that the Collett was in such good shape that they renamed it the ARA Piedrama and added the ship to its Navy’s seagoing inventory.
During the 1982 Falklands War with Great Britain, the Piedrama served as a escort ship and rescued the survivors of the Argentine cruiser General Belgramo, which was sunk by the British attack submarine HMS Conqueror.
Three years later, the 31-year-old Collett was decommissioned by the Argentine Navy and sunk by guided missiles during a naval exercise.
Today, more than a half-century after the two destroyers collided off Newport Beach, the tragedy remains one of the worst peacetime sea disasters in U.S. Pacific coast naval history.
Longtime Newport Beach resident DAVID C. HENLEY is a member of the Board of Trustees of Chapman University and a former foreign correspondent.
History of the American Flag & American Flag Facts
“Old Glory, Stars and Stripes, the Star Spangled Banner” - From its inception, the American flag has been an important part of our nation’s history. Surviving over 200 years, the flag has both physically and symbolically grown and developed in times of both achievement and crisis.
The American flag is a symbol known worldwide. It has been the inspiration for holidays, songs, poems, books, artwork and so much more. The flag has been used to display our nationalism, as well as our rebellion, and everything else in between. The flag is so important that its history tells the story of America itself.
It represents the freedom, dignity, and true meaning of being an American. It has been with us through our war times, our sad times, but also in times of our greatest joys and triumphs. The flag went through many variations before becoming the flag we all know and love.
In fact, it took from January 1, 1776 to August 21, 1960.
It has also been shrouded in legend and mystery for many years. Did Betsy Ross truly design the first flag? Do the colors really stand for something significant? We will explore this and other myths.
Hello, I’m Terry Ruggles, join me as we recount the History of the American Flag.
When we think of the American Revolution, we think of it in terms of its final form, as independence from Britain, but the American Revolution was a “work in progress”. It did not start out as a movement for independence, but a movement to gain seats in Parliament. It evolved from a protest, to a full blown revolution into a move for independence…and Our flag reflected the various stages of this.
So let’s take a look at the components that make up our current US Flag. We have what’s known as the canton or blue field, the stars, and of course, the stripes.
So where did these designs come from?
The earliest use of stripes in flags in what was to become America is from the “Sons of Liberty” Flag. The Son’s of Liberty were the original “Tea Party” members These are the guys that threw the chests of tea overboard into the Boston Harbour.
Starting after the stamp act in 1765. The Sons of Liberty began their protesting. They came up with a flag that looked similar to this only with less stripes. The pattern however was the same and it could be displayed either horizontally or vertically. This may have been the pattern that contributed for the stripes on our flag.
In 1775, at the Beginning of the Revolution, Independence had not yet been declared. The Continental Congress was meeting in Philadelphia when a somewhat obscure militia Colonel from Virginia came forward in his uniform and volunteered to take command of the troops outside of Boston overlooking Boston Heights. That Colonel was George Washington.
When he left Philadelphia, he took with him two flags. The Grand Union or The Continental as it was called was the first flag under which continental soldiers fought. It uses the alternating red and white stripe pattern similar to the Sons of Liberty Flag only there are 13 stripes signifying the 13 colonies. However, notice that instead of stars on a blue field, we have the “Kings Colors” also known as the “Union Jack”. This flag had a very specific meaning. It meant that we were fighting as 13 united colonies but under British Rule. Remember, at this time we had not yet declared our Independence.
The other flag that Washington took with him is known as the Washington’s Headquarters Flag. Look familiar? As you can see, the entire field is BLUE. There are 13 stars arranged in a pattern known as the 3-2-3-2-3 pattern. 5 rows of alternating stars of 3 stars, 2 stars, 3 stars, 2 stars, 3 stars. However, you will also notice that they are 6 pointed stars. A slight difference from the 5 pointed star on the current flag. This would be the first use of the star pattern on an American flag and today you can see a copy of this flag hanging in front of Washington’s Headquarters at Valley Forge.
A year later, on July 4, 1776, congress declared its independence from Great Britain. From that moment on, we were fighting for our independence. Yet the continental congress still did not design a new American flag. That flag came about on June 14, 1777 when congress passed the first of three major flag acts . The first act stated that “the flag of the US shall consist of 13 alternating stripes of red on white with 13 white stars on a blue field forming a new constellation. What it left out was the following:
- Were those stripes to be vertical or horizontal?
- Where was the blue field to be placed?
- What was the star pattern to be used?
- And how many points were to be on the star?
So who designed the flag? In 1776 you couldn’t go into a store and buy a flag off the rack. Back then, flags were made in one of two ways. Since most Flags had a naval use, you could go to a ships chandlery - a store that outfitted ships - and the chandler would contract with a sail maker or in many cases an upholsterer to make the flag. An upholster in colonial times had more functions that what we typically think of today. Besides working on furniture, they also made flags and other military equipment. This is where the legend of Betsy Ross comes in to play.
We know that Betsy Ross was an upholsterer who made flags for the Pennsylvania Navy. What we don’t know is did she really design the first flag? There is a great deal of controversy about this.
In 1870, Betty Ross’ Grandson was addressing an Historic society in Philadelphia and said that his grandmother told him that she met with George Washington and others and she designed the flag. But did she design it or did Francis Hopkinson design it?
Francis Hopkinson was one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence from the state of New Jersey. The only evidence of who made the flag is a bill that was submitted to congress by Francis Hopkinson that said for designing the flag, you owe me two casks of ale. What we don’t have is a picture of that flag, a written description of the flag, or even a sketch of the flag. So, the mystery remains.
Regardless of these facts, the legend lives on and the first flag of the Revolutionary Period is referred to as “The Betsy Ross” flag…the pattern of stars on the blue field is known by three names, The Betsy Ross Pattern, The Philadelphia Pattern, or The Single Wreath Pattern. The blue field on the flag also goes by three names - the field, the union, or the canton. Because congress did not set the specifics of where the field would be or how the star pattern should look like, or how many points the star would have, during this period, and up until 1912, the stars could be arranged in any manner that a flag maker would choose.
When congress put together the notion of the flag, they blended the already established design of alternating stripes of red on white signifying the united colonies and a blue field with 13 stars (just like the Washington’s Headquarters flag). Many people believe this may have been the flag that Francis Hopkins designed, but once again this is only speculation.
This pattern is known as the Cowpens pattern. Another well-known flag during this time was the Easton Flag. Interesting design right? But remember, Congress did not specify where all of the elements should be placed. After the Revolutionary War ended, our country wrights a new constitution. We elect Geo Washington president and in 1792 we bring in two new states – Vermont and Kentucky. This begs the question, what do we do with the flag?
Because the original flag act called for 13 stripes and 13 stars to represent the 13 colonies, what do we do to signify the adding of two new states to the Union? At this time, Congress passes the 2nd flag act and it states that from now on we would add one stripe and one star for each new state. This new 15 star and 15 stripe flag is known as The Star Spangled Banner. It is this flag that flew over Fort McHenry and inspired Francis Scott Key to write our national anthem. After the War of 1812 we were adding more states again and as we incorporated more stars and stripes into the design, our flag was starting to look a little funny.
So in 1818, Congress passed the 3rd of the three major flag acts. It stated that the design was to go back to the original configuration of 13 alternating stripes of red on white, representing the 13 original colonies, but that we would add one star for each new state. However, once again, it did not specify what pattern the stars should be arranged in or the amount of points that were to be on the star. So we had many variations of flag design during this time.
Finally, in 1912 President Taft established the pattern of stars that we know today. The 48 star, 49 star and 50 star flag all conform to this pattern.
Our flag is an inspiring symbol that unites us all as American citizens. The unique history of the American flag follows the history of our country and reminds us of the triumphant beginning of the United States. The 13 stripes: a symbol of the first 13 colonies. The stars: a symbol of our country's 50 United States. As our country grew and developed, so did our flag. It has followed the fate of the country itself and, in the future, our flag may even change again.
Today, our flag remains a vibrant symbol of the American principles of democracy, justice, and freedom, and of course the everlasting memory of those who have sacrificed their lives defending these intrinsic principles of the United States of America.
Over two hundred years ago, the Second Continental Congress officially made the Stars and Stripes the symbol of America, going so far as to declare that the 13 stars gracing the original flag represented "a new constellation" with the ideal that America embodied a bright new hope and light for mankind. Today, our flag continues to carry the inspirational and fundamental convictions of our great nation, and will continue to do so for many years to come.
- United States Navy
- United States Coast Guard
- 742 long tons (754 t) (normal)
- 887 long tons (901 t) (full load)
- 4 oil-fired Normand boilers
- 3 Parsonsdirect drivesteam turbines
- 3 shafts
- 12,000 shp (8,948 kW) shaft horsepower
- 4 Officers
- 82 Enlisted
- Five 3 inch/50 caliber (76 mm) guns
- Six 18 inch (457 mm) torpedo tubes (3 × 2)
The Paulding-class destroyers were a modification of the Smith class with the torpedo tubes increased from three to six via twin mounts. This was an easy upgrade, as the new design twin mounts actually weighed less than the older single mounts.  The 21 Pauldings doubled the number of destroyers in the US Navy. The newer class burned oil rather than coal and had 12,000 shaft horsepower (shp) instead of 10,000 shp, lightening the ships and making them about a knot faster. The Paulding class derived its name from the lead ship of the series, USS Paulding (DD-22), named after Rear Admiral Hiram Paulding (1797-1878). Like the Smiths, they were nicknamed "flivvers" after the small and shaky Model T Ford once the larger "thousand tonner" destroyers entered service.
Generally 21 ships, hull numbers 22 through 42, are considered Pauldings. However, some references list hull numbers 32 through 42 as the Monaghan class.  Others break out hulls 24-28, 30, 31, 33 and 36 as Roe class, with hulls 32, 35, and 38-42 as Monaghan class. Curiously, Jane′s Fighting Ships of World War I refers to hulls 22-42 as the 21 [ships of the] Drayton-class, going on to say "Unofficially known as ′Flivver Type′" the book includes Paulding in the class listing, but not as the class leader. 
14 - 36 - 44 - 46 - 53 - 18 - x2
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Update for January 2017 at Historyofwar.org: War of Liberation of 1813 conquests of Philip II of Macedon Boulton Paul wartime designs, US Destroyers US tanks
This month we begin a look at the War of Liberation of 1813, the campaign that saw Napoleon forced back into France. Further back we look at some of the early conquests of Philip II of Macedon, during his rise to power in Greece. In the air we look at a series of advanced Boulton Paul aircraft of the Second World War, mainly abandoned for being too risky. At sea we complete the Caldwell class destroyers and move on to the first of the massive wartime classes, the Wickes class. On land we look at the 'Jumbo' assault tank and the Sherman Firefly, perhaps the most effective British tank of the Second World War.
The War of Liberation of 1813 was Napoleon's last campaign in Germany, and although he won three major battles it ended with the final defeat of his armies in Germany at the massive battle of Leipzig.
The siege of Potidaea (356 BC) saw Philip II of Macedon capture the strongly fortified city at the head of the Pallene peninsula, but then hand it over to Olynthus in order to secure an alliance with that city.
The siege of Methone (late 355 BC - early 354 BC) saw Philip II of Macedon capture the last potential Athenian base on the Macedonian coast.
The siege of Zeira (349 BC) came at the start of Philip II of Macedon's campaign against Olynthus and Chalcidice, and saw him capture and destroy the city.
The siege of Olynthus (348 BC) saw Philip II of Macedon complete his conquest of the Chalcidic League, one of his more powerful immediate neighbours, and an ally for several years.
The siege of Halus (346 BC) was carried out as the same time as peace negotiations between Philip II of Macedon and Athens, and may have been part of Philip's wider plan for a campaign in central Greece (Third Sacred War).
The Peace of Philocrates (346 BC) ended the ten year long War of Amphipolis between Athens and Macedon, and helped establish Philip II of Macedon as a power in central and southern Greece
Boulton Paul Aircraft
The Boulton Paul P.95 was a design for a two man close support bomber that never progressed beyond the design stage.
The Boulton Paul P.96 was a series of designs for a night fighter produced in response to Air Ministry Specification F.18/40, for a two-seat aircraft armed with six 20mm cannon.
The Boulton Paul P.97 was a design for a twin engined night fighter produced after the Air Ministry decided that its F.18/40 specification couldn't be filled by a single engined fighter.
The Boulton Paul P.98 was a design for an advanced pusher fighter, produced in response to an Air Ministry specification for a manoeuvrable fighter with a high rate of climb.
The Boulton Paul P.99 was a design for a twin-boom fighter produced in response to an Air Ministry specification for a manoeuvrable fighter.
The Boulton Paul P.100 was a design for a tail first fighter produced in response to an Air Ministry specification for a manoeuvrable fighter.
USS Conner (DD-72) was a Caldwell class destroyer that served with the US Navy in the First World War, and with the Royal Navy (as HMS Leeds) during the Second World War.
USS Stockton (DD-73) was a Caldwell class destroyer that served in the First World War with the US Navy and in the Second World War as HMS Ludlow, after taking part in the Destroyers for Bases deal.
USS Manley (DD-74/ AG28/ APD1) was a Caldwell class destroyer that survived a massive explosion during the First World War, and served as a fast transport during the Second World War, taking part in a series of invasions in the Pacific.
The Wickes Class Destroyers were the first of the famous mass produced flush-deckers of the First World War, and the only type to see active service during that war. Along with the Clemson class they provided the bulk of the US destroyer force during the inter-war years, and many survived to play varied roles during the Second World War.
USS Wickes (DD-75) was the name ship of the Wickes class of destroyers. After a brief spell of service late in the First World War she took part in the US Neutrality Patrol in 1939-40, before being transferred to the Royal Navy, where she served as HMS Montgomery.
USS Philip (DD-76) was a Wickes class destroyer that entered service just before the end of the First World War, and saw more service in the Second World War as HMS Lancaster.
The Cruiser Tank, Grizzly Mk I, was the designation given to the Medium Tank M4A1/ Sherman II, when produced in Canada.
The Assault Tank M4A3E2 'Jumbo' was a more heavily armoured version of the Sherman produced to lead attacks during the invasion of Europe.
The Cruiser Tank Sherman VC Firefly was a British modification to the Medium Tank M4 that armed it with the excellent British 17 pounder antitank gun, making it one of the most effective Allied tanks available in 1944-45.
The Tracked Self-Propelled 25 pounder, Sexton, was a self propelled artillery gun based on the Canadian Ram medium tank.
Bayonets for Hire - Mercenaries at War, 1550-1789, William Urban.
A history of warfare that covers the period of the European Wars of Religion, the wars of Louis XIV and the near constant conflicts of the Eighteenth Century, with a general focus on the role of the mercenary, although with a fairly broad definition that includes the multinational officer corps of the period. A useful book that includes the less familiar conflicts in Eastern Europe as well as the more familiar conflicts in Western Europe
[read full review]
Long Range Desert Group - Behind Enemy Lines on North Africa, W.B. Kennedy Shaw.
A thrilling history of the Long Range Desert Group, one of the most famous of the many Special Forces that popped up in the British Army in the Middle East during the Second World War, although it is often seen in the background of other stories. Written in 1943 by the Group's Intelligence Officer, this book brings the exploits of the LRDG to life, and brings it into a justified foreground position.
[read full review]
Wellington against Soult - The Second Invasion of Portugal, 1809, David Buttery.
Looks at the second French invasion of Portugal, which saw Marshal Soult occupy parts of northern Portugal, invading from the north and capturing Oporto, before being expelled from the country by Wellesley, at the start of his second spell of command in Iberia. This is a readable account of one of Wellesley's most aggressive campaigns, including a surprisingly risky river crossing that helped force Soult to begin his retreat.
[read full review]
The Barbary Pirates 15th-17th Centuries, Angus Konstam.
Looks at the high point for the Barbary Pirates, a mix of corsairs, privateers and slavers based along the Barbary Coast of North Africa, and whose raids at their most daring reached as far as Iceland! Covers the Barbary Coast and its main ports, the types of ships they used, their crews and commanders and their methods of operations. Gives a good idea of the motivation and reasons for success of the infamous Barbary Corsairs.
[read full review]
Tobruk Commando - The Raid to Destroy Rommel's Base, Gordon Landsborough.
An early history of Operation Agreement (first published in 1956), one of the more disastrous British Special Operations of the Second War, which evolved from a simple raid on Tobruk into a full scale combined operations attempt to temporarily capture and destroy the port. Mainly follows the mission from the point of view of the special forces groups operating on land and the commanders of the warships
[read full review]
Rome Seizes the Trident - The Defeat of Carthaginian Seapower & the Forging of the Roman Empire, Marc G. Desantis.
Looks at the way in which Rome seized control of the western Mediterranean from the long established naval power of Carthage, and then maintained that power for the rest of the Punic Wars, as well as tracing the impact of Roman naval power on the wider course of the conflict. Also asks why Carthage was unable to respond to the Roman naval challenge, rarely winning a naval battle during the First Punic War and not mounting a serious challenge at all during the Second
[read full review]
Year of Desperate Struggle: Jeb Stuart and His Cavalry, from Gettysburg to Yellow Tavern, 1863-1864, Monte Akers.
Follows on from Year of Glory, and looks at the year in which Stuart's personal reputation was marred by his performance in the Gettysburg campaign, and Union cavalry gained in competence and confidence, eventually equalling and even surpassing their Confederate opponents. Stuart's own career ended in a clash with Union cavalry at Yellow Tavern on 11 May 1864, where he was mortally wounded. Together these books provide a satisfying military biography of Stuart
[read full review]
This Bloody Place - With the Incomparable 29th, Major A.H. Mure.
A Gallipoli memoir published in 1919, but written during the war, centred on Mure's 43 days on shore at Gallipoli. An honest, largely unvarnished account of the fighting, which despite Mure's pride in the Allied achievement on Gallipoli doesn't skip over the horrors of the fighting, from the constant presence of death to Mure's own nervous breakdown that saw him invalided home. Gives a good impression of how frantic the fighting was in the narrow Gallipoli beachhead
[read full review]
US Army Rangers 1989-2015, Leigh Neville.
Looks at the current incarnation of the US Rangers, looking at its involvement in Panama, Iraq (twice), Somalia and Afghanistan. Tracing the development of the Rangers from a unit expected to conduct short sharp operations against high value targets into one capable of operating at a high tempo for long periods of time, repeated conducting several raids on the same day. An interesting book that doesn't skip over the regiment's failures in its current form, as well as looking at its impressive successes
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SS-Leibstandarte: The History of the First SS Division, 1933-45, Rupert Butler.
Looks at the history of the Leibstandarte, Hitler's bodyguard and later the first SS Division. The Leibstandarte gained an impressive military reputation (after a ropey start), but also committed war crimes on almost every front it served, including mass murder in the east, the murder of British and French POWs in 1940 and US POWs in 1944, and of villagers in Italy
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Operation Oyster: World War II's Forgotten Raid, Kees Rijken, Paul Schepers, Arthur Thorning.
Looks at a complex low level raid on the Philips Radio Works at Eindhoven, carried out in daylight by a mixed force of Mosquitos, Venturas and Bostons. Covers the full range of the mission, from the original reasons for the attack, the planning, the mission itself, losses on both sides, the damage done to the factory and the civilian casualties in Eindhoven
[read full review]
The Coward? The Rise and Fall of the Silver King, Steve R. Dunn.
A look at the life and mistakes of Admiral Ernest Troubridge, a British admiral best known for his failure to intercept the Goeben in the Mediterranean at the start of the First World War. The aim is to try and work out why Troubridge acted as he did in 1914, examining the late Victorian and Edwardian navy, his own career and decisions he made elsewhere in his life to try and work out what made him tick
[read full review]
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