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Population 2002 .........................................4,434,547
GDP per capita 2002 (Purchasing Power Parity, US$)........... 3,000
GDP 2002 (Purchasing Power Parity, US$ billions)................ 11
Average annual growth 1991-97
Population (%) .......-.2
Labor force (%) ....... -.2
Total Area...................................................................- sq. mi.
Urban population (% of total population) ...............................53
Life expectancy at birth (years)..................................................... 67
Infant mortality (per 1,000 live births)........................................ 20
Access to safe water (% of population) ..................................... 56
Illiteracy (% of population age 15+) ............................................. 2
Economy of Moldova
The economy of Moldova is one of the poorest in Europe.  Moldova is a landlocked Eastern European country, bordered by Ukraine on the east and Romania to the west. It was a former Soviet republic.
- $11.688 billion (nominal, 2019 est.) 
- $27.282 billion (PPP, 2019 est.) 
- $3,300 (nominal, 2019 est.) 
- $7,703 (PPP, 2019 est.) 
- 9.6% (2015) 
- 1.0% on less than $3.20/day (2020f) 
- 0.750 high (2019)  (90th)
- 0.638 medium IHDI (2018) 
- 1,241,377 (2019) 
- 41.8% employment rate (Q3, 2019) 
- 4.0% (Q3, 2019) 
- 11.3% youth unemployment (Q3, 2019) 
- 37.8 thousand unemployed (Q3, 2019) 
- Romania 29.3%
- Italy 11.4%
- Germany 8.1%
- Russia 8.1%
- Turkey 3.9%
- Poland 3.6%
- (2018) 
- Romania 14.5%
- Russia 12.5%
- China 10.4%
- Ukraine 10.0%
- Germany 8.4%
- Italy 6.8%
- (2018) 
- $3.701 billion (31 December 2017 est.) 
- Abroad: $252.7 million (31 December 2017) 
Moldova Basic Facts - History
Economy - overview:
Despite recent progress, Moldova remains one of the poorest countries in Europe. With a moderate climate and productive farmland, Moldova's economy relies heavily on its agriculture sector, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine, wheat, and tobacco. Moldova also depends on annual remittances of about $1.2 billion - almost 15% of GDP - from the roughly one million Moldovans working in Europe, Israel, Russia, and elsewhere.
With few natural energy resources, Moldova imports almost all of its energy supplies from Russia and Ukraine. Moldova's dependence on Russian energy is underscored by a more than $6 billion debt to Russian natural gas supplier Gazprom, largely the result of unreimbursed natural gas consumption in the breakaway region of Transnistria. Moldova and Romania inaugurated the Ungheni-Iasi natural gas interconnector project in August 2014. The 43-kilometer pipeline between Moldova and Romania, allows for both the import and export of natural gas. Several technical and regulatory delays kept gas from flowing into Moldova until March 2015. Romanian gas exports to Moldova are largely symbolic. In 2018, Moldova awarded a tender to Romanian Transgaz to construct a pipeline connecting Ungheni to Chisinau, bringing the gas to Moldovan population centers. Moldova also seeks to connect with the European power grid by 2022.
The government's stated goal of EU integration has resulted in some market-oriented progress. Moldova experienced better than expected economic growth in 2017, largely driven by increased consumption, increased revenue from agricultural exports, and improved tax collection. During fall 2014, Moldova signed an Association Agreement and a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement with the EU (AA/DCFTA), connecting Moldovan products to the world’s largest market. The EU AA/DCFTA has contributed to significant growth in Moldova’s exports to the EU. In 2017, the EU purchased over 65% of Moldova’s exports, a major change from 20 years previously when the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) received over 69% of Moldova’s exports. A $1 billion asset-stripping heist of Moldovan banks in late 2014 delivered a significant shock to the economy in 2015 the subsequent bank bailout increased inflationary pressures and contributed to the depreciation of the leu and a minor recession. Moldova’s growth has also been hampered by endemic corruption, which limits business growth and deters foreign investment, and Russian restrictions on imports of Moldova’s agricultural products. The government’s push to restore stability and implement meaningful reform led to the approval in 2016 of a $179 million three-year IMF program focused on improving the banking and fiscal environments, along with additional assistance programs from the EU, World Bank, and Romania. Moldova received two IMF tranches in 2017, totaling over $42.5 million.
Over the longer term, Moldova's economy remains vulnerable to corruption, political uncertainty, weak administrative capacity, vested bureaucratic interests, energy import dependence, Russian political and economic pressure, heavy dependence on agricultural exports, and unresolved separatism in Moldova's Transnistria region.
Agriculture - products:
vegetables, fruits, grapes, grain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, tobacco beef, milk wine
sugar processing, vegetable oil, food processing, agricultural machinery foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines hosiery, shoes, textiles
revenues: 2.886 billion (2017 est.)
[see also: Budget - revenues country ranks ]
expenditures: 2.947 billion (2017 est.)
note: National Public Budget
Top 10 Facts about Living Conditions in Moldova
The Republic of Moldova is a landlocked nation, situated between Romania and Ukraine. It is a former satellite nation of the USSR, gaining its independence in 1991. Moldova’s transition to democracy and a market-based economy has been very challenging. The country still remains one of Europe’s poorest countries, heavily dependent on Russian resources. However, poverty is decreasing at a steady rate. In the text below, the top 10 facts about living conditions in Moldova are presented.
Top 10 Facts about Living Conditions in Moldova
- is a relatively small nation and has around 3.5 million residents. One troubling statistic for its long-term outlook is a negative population growth rate of -1.06 percent. This can be attributed to low birth rates, along with economic migration from citizens to more affluent and developed nations.
- Moldova suffers from a phenomenon called “brain drain”, which affects many developing nations around the world. Skilled workers in a country with limited employment opportunities emigrate, depriving their home of talented professionals. According to Deutsche-Welle, it is estimated that every fourth Moldovan work abroad, with many taking advantage of having dual Romanian citizenship, entitling them to work throughout the European Union.
- In an effort to retain more of its skilled workforce, both the private sector and Moldovan government are investing in the technology startup infrastructure. Tech giants are investing in Moldova’s universities, along with a plan to contribute $112.000 to each of the 10 best Moldovan startups. Although this may be a nascent industry, building a tech-friendly business environment should help Moldova retain skilled workers, as well as integrate with the Western economy.
- Around 19 percent of rural Moldovans live in poverty, versus 5 percent in urban areas. Economic opportunities in rural Moldova are mainly limited to agriculture, with higher paying jobs concentrated in cities such as the capital Chisinau.
- Moldova vacillates between allying with its more EU friendly neighbors, and Russia. Linguistically, Moldova is more similar to Romania. However, Russia’s status as an energy exporter subordinates Moldova to its influence. Moldova imports 98 percent of its energy, ranking it the ninth riskiest country in the world in terms of short-term energy security.
- Moldova’s system of governance has come a long way since independence from the USSR. Indeed, corruption still persists, but Moldova recently achieved a “partly free” rating from Freedom House International. Additionally, the country signed an Association Agreement with the EU, signifying a commitment to economic reforms in hopes of favorable trade deals with the bloc.
- Remarkably, the national poverty rate has dropped from 68 percent in 2000 to just 11.4 percent in 2014. These developments, coupled with an increase in tech startups and the potential for economic cooperation with the EU, bodes well for the country’s future.
- The education system in Moldova consists of a preschool, primary, secondary and higher education. Primary education is compulsory in Moldova. Primary school consists of grades one through four, and secondary school is divided into lower and upper education grades five through nine, and 10 through 12 respectively. With high school attendance rates, and a near 100 percent literacy rate, Moldova’s education system appears to be a very successful one.
- Pollution remains a concern in Moldova. Heavy industrialization during the Soviet regime resulted in improper disposal of waste. Moldova’s traditionally agrarian economy also results in groundwater pollution and fertilizer runoff into waterways.
- The country has a major public health issue. According to the Independent, Moldovans are the heaviest drinkers per capita in the world. The average Moldovan consumes 18.22 liters of pure alcohol per year, around three times the global average of 6.1. These rates of alcohol consumption likely contribute to the country’s relatively low life expectancy that are 67.4 years for males, and 75.4 for females.
Moldova is a country that finds itself in a dilemma between Russia and the European Union. This impacts the country’s economy and development. Due to this reason, young people are leaving the country in search of a better life and stable jobs. Government is recognizing this problem and has various initiatives that are intended for improving the living conditions in the country.
Moldova History, Language and Culture
Having declared its independence from the Soviet Union in August 1991 &ndash and gained formal recognition by the United Nations a year later &ndash Moldova is now well established as a European nation.
The region has been inhabited since Palaeolithic times, more than a million years ago, and during the Stone Age its population farmed, hunted and made distinctive pottery. The first millennium saw the area occupied by various outside forces including Goths, Huns, Avars, Magyars, Cumans, Mongols and Tatars before the Principality of Moldova was established in 1359.
For most of the 19th century Moldova was split between the Ottoman Empire, Romania and Russia, then in the wake of the Russian Revolution the region voted to become part of Romania. The new Soviet Union objected and by 1924 had brought it within Moscow&rsquos orbit.
Under the terms of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact in 1940 Moldova was occupied by Soviet troops before the Nazi invasion of the USSR put it first under German control then Romanian. The Red Army overran it in 1944 and the Moscow government began its policy of detaching Moldova from its Romanian roots. Change gathered pace with the instigation of Gorbachev&rsquos reform programme and by the late 1980s Moldova started to move towards independence.
Since the early-1990s, Moldovan politics have been dominated by the sometimes-violent friction between the Transnistria region &ndash a sliver of land to the east of the Dniester River mainly populated by ethnic Russians &ndash and the rest of the country. Attached to Moldova by Stalinist social engineering, Transnistria remains essential to Moldova for economic reasons but is run by its own parliament even though the United Nations considers it to be part of Moldova.
In 2014, following the example of the controversial annexation of Crimea by Russian forces, the breakaway Transnistrian government asked to join the Russian Federation and in July 2015 mobilised men aged 18-27 amid fears it could become an East-West flashpoint.
Did you know?
&bull Moldova has competed in the Eurovision Song Contest since 2005, with the pelvic-thrusting antics of Sergy Stepanov, sax player with the band SunStroke Project, achieving viral status in 2010.
&bull The national sport is tranta, a form of upright wrestling.
&bull It is estimated that up to one million Moldovans are working abroad.
Moldova Basic Facts - History
With a population of 4.5 million, Moldova is the smallest and most densely populated of the former Soviet countries. It is also considered one of the poorest nations in Europe, with an annual income of about $880 USD. It is home to a mixture of peoples – Moldovans, Russians, Ukrainians, Bulgarians, and a Turkic people group, the Gagauz. The Moldovan people are mostly Orthodox. Although few attend church and many have never heard the Gospel, the Moldovans are considered spiritually open. Evangelical churches are growing despite occasional persecution and increasing poverty.
In 1998 OM started a team in Moldova which has now grown to a big team of about 40 people with ten different nationalities. More than half of the team members are locals.
The OM Moldova team works alongside existing churches to help them be more active in sharing the love of God, discipleship and developing new fellowships. They help to raise awareness of missions in churches and encourage Moldovan Christians to be more involved in local and world missions. This is done partly through discipleship and missions training programmes, like “Challenge Into Missions”, a ten-week programme which is held twice a year, involving both theoretical training and practical outreaches in Moldovan towns and villages.
Another programme called “DELTA” is aimed especially at young Moldovan believers who think about leaving their country in search for a better life abroad – a problem very common in Moldova which also affects the church. Through a year of serving in Moldovan churches they can grow in dedication to serving God wherever they will go, and hopefully many will develop a vision for mission in their home country.
Many nationals have been serving on the OM team in Moldova, while several have gone into missions in South and Central Asia, Northern and Central Africa and the Middle East. Short-term teams have participated in the Love Silk Road campaign in Central Asia. Every summer, OM Moldova receives a significant number of international teams who spend two weeks reaching out to Moldovan villages through day camps for children, sports camps or building playgrounds.
LOCAL MINISTRY TEAMS
The base team is located in Chisinau, the capital of Moldova. There are also two local Ministry Teams. One team is based in Paicu, a small village in the south of Moldova. This team started developing a new fellowship some years ago, and also faciliates feeding programmes and other much-needed ministries to children and the elderly. In 2009 they started to reach out to five other villages in the area.
The second team is based in the north of Moldova, and works in the small town of Rezina and surrounding villages, which is one of the least evangelised areas of the country. They support the local churches in reaching out to their communities through outreach programmes, relief projects for children and elderly, or youth programmes such as Sports Ministry and English lessons.
Sports Ministry has become an important aspect of OM Moldova’s ministry with 15 soccer teams trained by Christian coaches throughout the country. OM Moldova provides training for the coaches and organises tournaments and summer camps.
OM Moldova is helping to make good Christian literature available in the national languages, Romanian and Russian, by importing books and selling them at reduced prices, especially in rural areas where people usually have no access to literature.
RELIEF AND DEVELOPMENT
Moldova has a very high rate of unemployment, especially in the villages. This is the result of 70 years of oppression as a member of the former Soviet Union when private enterprise was forbidden. Nowadays, many people try to find work in other countries, leaving their children in the care of grandparents or neighbours at home. OM Moldova wants to help develop an infrastructure in Moldova to enable micro-businesses and job creation. An intensive business course is hosted regularly, and of the business plans submitted by the end of the training, some are selected to receive credit from OM Moldova. OM also has several Day Centres throughout the country where extremely poor children can receive a hot meal and help with their homework after school. Various Elderly Projects also provide hot meals or monthly food parcels for poor elderly.
History of Syria
Syria was one of the early centers of Neolithic human culture 12,000 years ago. Important advances in agriculture, such as the development of domestic grain varieties and the taming of livestock, likely took place in the Levant, which includes Syria.
By about 3000 BCE, the Syrian city-state of Ebla was the capital of a major Semitic empire that had trade relations with Sumer, Akkad and even Egypt. The invasions of the Sea Peoples interrupted this civilization during the second millennium BCE, however.
Syria came under Persian control during the Achaemenid period (550-336 BCE) and then fell to the Macedonians under Alexander the Great following Persia's defeat in the Battle of Gaugamela (331 BCE). Over the next three centuries, Syria would be ruled by the Seleucids, the Romans, the Byzantines, and the Armenians. Finally, in 64 BCE it became a Roman province and remained so until 636 CE.
Syria rose to prominence after the founding of the Muslim Umayyad Empire in 636 CE, which named Damascus as its capital. When the Abbasid Empire displaced the Umayyads in 750, however, the new rulers moved the capital of the Islamic world to Baghdad.
The Byzantine (Eastern Roman) sought to regain control over Syria, repeatedly attacking, capturing and then losing major Syrian cities between 960 and 1020 CE. Byzantine aspirations faded when the Seljuk Turks invaded Byzantium in the late 11th century, also conquering parts of Syria itself. At the same time, however, Christian Crusaders from Europe began establishing the small Crusader States along the Syrian coast. They were opposed by anti-Crusader warriors including, among others, the famous Saladin, who was the sultan of Syria and Egypt.
Both the Muslims and the Crusaders in Syria faced an existential threat in the 13th century, in the form of the rapidly expanding Mongol Empire. The Ilkhanate Mongols invaded Syria and met fierce resistance from opponents including the Egyptian Mamluk army, which defeated the Mongols soundly at the Battle of Ayn Jalut in 1260. The foes fought on until 1322, but in the meanwhile, the leaders of the Mongol army in the Middle East converted to Islam and became assimilated into the culture of the area. The Ilkhanate faded out of existence in the mid 14th century, and the Mamluk Sultanate solidified its grip on the area.
In 1516, a new power took control of Syria. The Ottoman Empire, based in Turkey, would rule Syria and the rest of the Levant until 1918. Syria became a relatively little-regarded backwater in the vast Ottoman territories.
The Ottoman sultan made the mistake of aligning himself with the Germans and Austro-Hungarians in World War I when they lost the war, the Ottoman Empire, also known as the "Sick Man of Europe," fell apart. Under supervision by the new League of Nations, Britain and France divided the former Ottoman lands in the Middle East between themselves. Syria and Lebanon became French mandates.
An anti-colonial revolt in 1925 by a unified Syrian populace frightened the French so much that they resorted to brutal tactics to put down the rebellion. In a preview of French policies a few decades later in Vietnam, the French army drove tanks through the cities of Syria, knocking down houses, summarily executing suspected rebels, and even bombing civilians from the air.
During World War II, the Free French government declared Syria independent from Vichy France, while reserving the right to veto any bill passed by the new Syrian legislature. The last French troops left Syria in April of 1946, and the country gained a measure of true independence.
Throughout the 1950s and early 1960s, Syrian politics were bloody and chaotic. In 1963, a coup put the Ba'ath Party into power it remains in control to this day. Hafez al-Assad took over both the party and the country in a 1970 coup and the presidency passed to his son Bashar al-Assad following Hafez al-Assad's death in 2000.
The younger Assad was seen as a potential reformer and modernizer, but his regime has proved corrupt and ruthless. Beginning in the spring of 2011, a Syrian Uprising sought to overthrow Assad as part of the Arab Spring movement.
Facts and Statistics
Following the Soviet Union’s demise, Moldovans were able to travel abroad. During the mid-1990s a few joined the Church: Vitalii Volosin in Moscow, Russia Sylvia Vacarciuc in Odessa, Ukraine and Lilia Carasciuc in southern California.
In September 1995, Paul and Betty Morris arrived in Chisinau, where Paul worked in the U.S. Embassy. In June of that, John Nielson, a private contractor doing development work, arrived in Moldova. And in May 1996, Janet Jasen, a nurse with the Peace Corps, began her tour in Chisinau. These four Latter-day Saints met each week.
Elder Charles A. Didier, a member of the Seventy (one of the highest governing bodies of the Church) and Romania Bucharest Mission president, Robert F. Orton, traveled to Chisinau in September 1997 to meet with Moldovan and American Latter-day Saints and friends. It was announced that the first branch (a small congregation) was shortly to be organized and missionaries were to be assigned to labor in Moldova.
Five weeks after that visit, missionaries arrived in Chisinau. At that time, missionaries could not wear name tags or openly proselyte rather, they provided service and taught people who had been referred to them by Church members or waited for people to ask them about the Church. On November 11 of that year, five people were baptized in the bathtub of the Morris home, the first baptisms in Moldova. On that same day, a branch was organized with Paul Morris as president.
On December 23, 1998, the first complete translation of the Book of Mormon in Romanian arrived. This “special Christmas gift” was a blessing to the majority of members who could now read the Book of Mormon in their native language.
Republic of Moldova | Republica Moldova
Formerly ruled by Romania, Moldova became part of the Soviet Union at the close of World War II.
Although independent from the USSR since 1991, Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory east of the Nistru (Dnister) River supporting the Slavic majority population, mostly Ukrainians and Russians, who have proclaimed a "Transnistria" republic. One of the poorest nations in Europe, Moldova became the first former Soviet state to elect a communist as its president in 2001.
In 2014 the Moldovan Government signed an Association Agreement with the EU, advancing the Coalition's policy priority of EU integration.
(Source: CIA - The World Factbook)
Local Time = UTC +2h
Actual Time: Fri-June-18 23:28
Other Cities: Tiraspol, Balti, Tighina, Rîbnita
Constitution: Adopted 28 July 1994.
Independence: 27 August 1991 (from Soviet Union).
Location: Landlocked country in Eastern Europe, northeast of Romania.
Area: 33,850 km² (13,000 sq. mi.)
Terrain: Highland predominating the central part, rolling steppe, gradual hilly slopes south to Black Sea.
Climate: Temperate continental, moderate winters, warm summers.
Population: 3.55 million, (2017) excluding the estimated Transnistrian population of 520,000.
Ethnic groups: Moldovans 75.8%, Minor ethnic groups: Ukrainians 8.4%, Russians 5.8%, Gagauz 4.4%, Bulgarians 1.9%.
Main religions: Christian Orthodox (93.3%), Baptist (1%), others.
Languages: Romanian (officially known as Moldovan), Russian, Ukrainian, Gagauz.
Natural resources: Lignite, phosphorites, gypsum, arable land, limestone.
Agriculture products: Vegetables, fruits, wine, grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed, tobacco beef, milk.
Industries: Sugar, vegetable oil, food processing, agricultural machinery foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines hosiery, shoes, textiles.
Exports - commodities: foodstuffs, textiles, machinery
Exports - partners: Romania 23.1%, Italy 10.2%, Turkey 9.4%, Russia 8%, Germany 6.6%, Belarus 6.4% (2015)
Imports - commodities: mineral products and fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals, textiles
Imports - partners: Russia 22.7%, Romania 18.1%, Ukraine 11.5%, Germany 7%, Italy 4.8%, Turkey 4.4% (2015)
Official Sites of Moldova
President of the Republic of Moldova
Official website of the President (in Moldovan and Russian)
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration
Official website of the ministry with information about the Ministry, Foreign Policy, European Integration and Consular Information.
Diplomatic Missions of Moldova Abroad
Address list of Moldova's Diplomatic Missions abroad.
Foreign Diplomatic Missions accredited in Moldova
Address list of Foreign Diplomatic Missions in Moldova.
Map of Moldova
Political Map of Moldova.
Google Earth Moldova
Searchable map and satellite view of Moldova.
Google Earth Chisinau
Searchable map and satellite view of Moldova's capital.
Map of Europe
Political Map of Europe.
National News Agency.
Media Azi - Independent Journalism Center
Focus the development of news media in Moldova.
Acasă - All Moldova
Moldova news in Moldovan and Russian.
Private Moldovan newspaper headquartered in Chisinau.
Moldovan magazine (in Moldovan).
Daily news (in Moldovan).
Latest News from Moldova
Transnistria government daily news.
Private TV station.
State run TV station.
Arts & Culture
National Art Museum
Moldova's only fine arts museum is located in Chisinau.
National Museum of History of Moldova
Moldova's national museum of archaeology and history in Chisinau.
[ksa:k] Centrul pentru Arta Contemporana
The Center for Contemporary Art, Chisinau provides information about Artists fom Moldova.
Cultural Portal for painters, writers and singers.
Business & Economy
National Agency for Attracting Investment
ANAI provides information about the privatisation process for investment in Moldova.
Business portal of Moldova.
Private business company with the focus on attracting foreign direct investment in Moldova.
Travel and Tour Consumer Information
Destination Moldova - Travel and Tour Guides
Discover Moldova: Bâc River, Butesti Gorges, Chisinau, Codru Reservation, Duruito area, The Hundred Knolls, Padurea Domneasca (Princely Forest), Old Orhei Historical and Archaeological landscape, Tipova cave monastery complex, Saharna Monastery, Soroca Fortress, Wineries.
Find accommodation, hotels, attractions, tours and much more.
The Travel Guide to Moldova, official site of the National Tourism Agency.
More about upcountry Moldova by the rural tourism association.
Moldova tour operator.
Project on and about Moldova.
Universitatea de Stat din Moldova
Official website of the State University founded in 1946.
Environment & Nature
Ministry of Environment
Official website of Moldova's Ministry of Environment.
BIOTICA Ecological Society
Society for Scientists and Citizens for Environmental Solutions.
When visiting Moldova, be careful when referring to the locals as Romanians as not all Moldovans identify themselves as such. Study your host first: some Moldovans identify as Moldovan, some as Romanian, and some even as Russian. This also applies to the language issue as well, although the larger part of Moldovans do refer to it as Romanian in everyday speech.
Also be careful when talking about Moldova to the Romanians in Romania. Many Romanians view Moldova as Romanian. See Romania#Respect