John Stuart, 2nd Duke of Albany, 1481/4-1536

John Stuart, 2nd Duke of Albany, 1481/4-1536

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John Stuart, 2nd Duke of Albany, 1481/4-1536

John Stuart, second duke of Albany (c.1481/4-1536) was a Scottish nobleman who served Francis I of France during the war that ended in disaster at Pavia in 1525.

Albany was the son of Alexander Stuart, first duke of Albany (in the second creation) and Anne de La Tour. His father died in 1485, having lost his titles in 1483. His young son was raised in France by his mother. In 1513 James IV of Scotland was killed at the battle of Flodden, and was succeeded by the infant James V. At first the new king's mother Margaret Tudor served as regent, but in 1515 the Scottish Parliament asked Albany, who was then third in line to the throne, to return home to serve as Protector of Scotland. In July 1515 he became Regent of Scotland, and in August he arrested Margaret at Stirling. Albany was closely related to the young king, and on 13 November 1516 was even declared heir to the throne.

Albany was a pro-French and anti-English regent. In 1517 he visited France where he agreed the Treaty of Rouen, renewing the alliance between France and Scotland. He returned to Scotland in 1521, when he was reconciled with Margaret (to the extent that his enemies accused him of planning to marry her).

During the First Hapsburg-Valois War (1521-25) England became involved in the fighting, campaigning ineffectively in northern France in 1522-23. Albany responded by attempting to organise an invasion of England in September 1522. This campaign failed, after Albany missed a chance to attack a defenceless Carlisle and Albany briefly travelled to France. He returned to Scotland in 1523 and led a second, equally unsuccessful campaign in September 1523. This time he did get as far as Wark Castle, beginning a siege on 1 November 1524, but this was abandoned soon afterwards when an English relief army approached.

In May 1524 Albany returned to France where he entered the service of Francis I (he was officially removed as Regent of Scotland later in 1524, after failing to meet an August deadline for a return to Scotland). In October he accompanied Francis on one of his many invasions of Italy. Francis had formed an alliance with Pope Clement VII, in which he agreed to send an army south to invade Naples. In December Albany was given command of this army of 11,000 men and sent south. This meant that he missed the disastrous French defeat at Pavia (24 February 1525), at which Francis was captured. Unsurprisingly Albany's army fell apart when the new reached them, and the duke had to escape back to France by sea.

After that he served Francis as a diplomat. In 1530 he was appointed Ambassador to Rome and in 1533 he brought Catherine de Medici (who was his wife's niece) to France, where she married Francis's eldest son Henry (this would be a fateful marriage - after the death of his older brother Henry would ascend the throne as Henry II and Catherine would become a dominant figure during the early stages of the French Wars of Religion). Albany died on 2 June 1536 with no legitimate heir.

Stuart Hall

He was succeeded by his eldest son,

ANDREW (c1521-91), 2nd Lord Ochiltree, who married Agnes Cunningham, and had a son and heir, Andrew Stewart, styled Master of Ochiltree, who predeceased him in 1578, and was succeeded by his grandson,

ANDREW , 3rd Lord Ochiltree (c1560-1629), who having sold the feudal barony of OCHILTREE to his cousin, Sir James Stuart, of Killeith, was created, 1619, Baron Castle Stewart, of County Tyrone, where he possessed considerable estates.

He wedded, ca 1587, Margaret, daughter of Sir John Kennedy, of Blairquhan, and had issue,

His lordship was succeeded by his eldest son,

SIR ANDREW , 2nd Baron (1590-1639), who had been previously created a baronet.

He espoused, ca 1604, the Lady Anne Stewart, fifth daughter and co-heiress of John, 5th Earl of Atholl, by which lady he had issue,

His lordship was succeeded by his eldest son,

ANDREW , 3rd Baron (-1650), who married Joyce, daughter and heiress of Sir Arthur Blundell, by whom he had issue, an only child, MARY , who wedded Henry 5th Earl of Suffolk.

His lordship died without male issue, and the honours devolved upon his brother,

JOSIAS , 4th Baron (c1637-62), who espoused Anne, daughter of John Madden, of Enfield, Middlesex, by his wife Elizabeth, daughter and co-heiress of Charles Waterhouse, of Manor Waterhouse, County Fermanagh.

This marriage was without issue and the titles reverted to his uncle,

JOHN , 5th Baron, after whose decease without issue, the title remained in abeyance until 1774, when it was claimed by, and allowed to

CAPTAIN ROBERT STEWART , de jure 6th Baron, who married Anne, daughter of William Moore, of Garvey, County Tyrone.

He died ca 1685, and was succeeded by his son,

ANDREW , de jure 7th Baron (1672-1715), who wedded Eleanor, daughter of Robert Dallway, of Bellahill, County Antrim, by whom he had issue,

ROBERT , de jure 8th Baron (1700-42), who wedded, in 1722, Margaret, sister and co-heiress of Hugh Edwards, of Castle Gore, County Tyrone, and had issue,

ANDREW THOMAS , 9th Baron (1725-1809), who was created Viscount Castle Stewart in 1793.

His lordship was further advanced to an earldom, in 1800, as EARL CASTLE STEWART.

His lordship wedded, in 1781, Sarah, daughter of the Rt Hon Godfrey Lill, Judge of the Court of Common Pleas in Ireland, by whom he had issue,

His lordship was succeeded by his eldest son,

ROBERT , 2nd Earl (1784-1854), who espoused, in 1806, Jemima, only daughter of Colonel Robinson, by whom he had issue,

THE other major event of his long reign as head of the family was the 1st Earl's acquisition, in 1782, of a third manor in County Tyrone, the manor of Orritor, alias Orator.

Orritor was near Stewartstown, and was thus geographically well-situated to round off the existing manors of Castle Stewart and Forward.

However, the Orritor Estate adjoined Drum Manor and was, thus, closer to Cookstown than Stewartstown or New Mills, around where the Forward estate is situated.

Robert Stewart of Stuart Hall had married Margaret Edwards of Castlegore back in 1722 and, as a result of failure of heirs male in the Edwards family, Castlegore passed to the Stuarts.

In 1862, the four manors generated an annual income of ٥,567.

A further temporary addition to the Tyrone estate was made in 1866, when Lord Stuart, later 5th Earl Castle Stewart, married the heiress of the Richardson Brady family of Oaklands, alias Drum Manor, Cookstown.

On his death in 1914, however, he was succeeded in the earldom and in the Castle Stewart estates by his cousin but at Drum Manor by one of his daughters, Lady Muriel Close.

STUART HALL, near Stewartstown, County Tyrone, was built about 1760 for Andrew, 1st Earl Castle Stewart.

It was originally a three-storey Georgian block with a pillared porch, joined to an old tower-house by a 19th century Gothic wing.

More recently, the top two storeys of the main block were removed, giving it the appearance of a Georgian bungalow.

Stuart Hall was blown up by the IRA in July, 1972, and subsequently demolished.

A new dwelling was subsequently built on the site in 1987.

The present house is surrounded by lawns and a maintained woodland garden.

There is a ha-ha to grazing, with fine views of the landscape park and woodland beyond.

The stables and farm buildings survive from the 18th century and are listed.

The walled garden has a 1832 date stone and is adorned by a castellated wall and two folly towers backing onto the former stack yard.

Rowan describes it as ‘…castellated, of rubble stone with brick corbelling and a plump round tower at either end.’

A stone inscription on a frieze, though, has an inscription which reads either 1783 or 1785.

The walled garden is not kept up.

There were extensive glasshouses.

The chief attribute of the demesne is the fine stands of mature trees, disposed in the landscape style of the mid-18th century.

There is also forest planting.

A gate lodge of ca 1835 has gone but the gate screen remains.

First published in December, 2009. Castle Stewart arms courtesy of European Heraldry.

Heir presumptive

Albany was his whole life the next heir of the Kingdom of Scotland after male members of the king's immediate family, due to stipulations of the semi-Salic succession order enacted by King Robert II which favored male agnates over all females of the Royal House of Stewart. The sons of the immediate royal family proved to be short-lived except Albany's first cousins James, Duke of Ross, King James IV and the latter's son the future King James V (who died in 1542, only five years after Albany).

Thus Albany was from 1504 onwards either the heir presumptive or the second-in-line to the throne of Kingdom of Scotland. After 1504, despite which minor was heir in front of him, Albany was always the closest heir who was not underage. During the minority of King James V, Albany acted as regent intermittently between 1514 and 1524.

On 8 July 1505 the young Albany married his first cousin Anne, Countess of Auvergne and Lauraguais (eldest daughter and heiress of Albany's maternal uncle John III, Count of Auvergne who had died in 1501). Thus John started to enjoy the position and rights of Count of Auvergne and Lauraguais in France, until Anne's death in 1524. A manuscript detailing her estate with pictures of her castles still exists (see references).

Albany's mother Anne, Countess of La Chambre, died on 13 October 1512. (The stepfather, Louis de La Chambre, lived until 1517.)

Albany, John Stewart, 2nd duke of

Albany, John Stewart, 2nd duke of [S] (1484�). When James IV of Scotland was killed at Flodden in 1513, his son was 17 months old. Albany, a grandson of James II, was heir presumptive. His father had laid claim to the Scottish throne but was defeated and fled to France. Albany was summoned to become regent to his young cousin and held office from 1515 until 1524. Bred in France, Albany strove to restore the Franco-Scottish alliance and by the treaty of Rouen (1517) negotiated marriage for James V to a French princess. From 1517 to 1521 Albany was in France, weakening his Scottish position. In 1521 he effected a reconciliation with Margaret, the king's mother and sister to Henry VIII, and there were rumours of a possible marriage. In 1522 Henry VIII went to war, protesting that the king's life was in jeopardy, but Albany's grand preparations came to nothing. He resumed the contest in 1523 but again the campaign against northern England misfired, and he returned to France for good in 1524. The enduring legacy of his regency was a French marriage for James, though it did not take place until 1537.

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    (c. 1454–1485), second son of James II, forfeited his honours in 1479, was restored in 1482, then forfeited them again in 1483
    (1481–1536), only legitimate son of the 1st Duke, was restored to his father's dukedom and Earldom of March in 1515. The honours went extinct upon his death without issue
    (1853–1884), fourth son of Queen Victoria , 2nd Duke of Albany (1884–1954), posthumous only son of the 1st Duke, had his British honours suspended in 1919 for taking arms against the realm

Heirs to the dukedom, if restored

The Titles Deprivation Act 1917 allows the lawful successor of a deprived dukedom to petition for its restoration, though no successor to the Duke of Albany has done so. According to straightforward male-line descent, the current claimant is the 2nd Duke's great-grandson [1] by his eldest son. The line of descent is as follows:

    (1906–1972), eldest son of the 2nd Duke (his morganatic marriage prevented him from inheriting the claim to the German princely titles or the headship of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, both of which passed to his younger brother Friedrich Josias, but British dukedoms carry no restrictions upon marriage to commoners). (1935–1996), eldest son of Johann Leopold (1961–present), only son of Ernst Leopold

The heir apparent to the claim by this line is Hubertus' only son, Sebastian Prinz von Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha (b. 1994).

However, none of the children of the 2nd Duke, being estranged from the British Royal Family due to their German loyalties, asked the British monarch to consent to their marriages. Ordinarily, dukes are not required to obtain royal consent to their marriages, but the Dukes of Albany are descended in the male line from Queen Victoria and thus are subject to the Royal Marriages Act 1772. A strict reading of that act would hold that, even though Johann Leopold's marriage was lawfully contracted in Germany, it is null and void for the purposes of British law. If this is so, then the claim of the Dukedom of Albany passed upon Johann Leopold's death in 1972 to his last surviving brother Friedrich Josias, Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, and became extinct upon the latter's death in 1998. [2]

It is unclear whether the Albany marriages meet the conditions specified by the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 to be considered valid under its repeal of the Royal Marriages Act, as the matter has not been tested in court and no authorities are known to have commented on the matter.

Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900/Stewart, John (1481-1536)

STEWART, JOHN, Duke of Albany (1481–1536), regent of Scotland, was the only son of Alexander Stewart, duke of Albany [q. v.], by his second wife, Anne de la Tour d'Auvergne, third daughter of Bertrand II, comte d'Auvergne et de Boulogne. Early left an orphan by the death of his father in 1485, Albany was brought up by his mother in France, and continued through life to consider France his native country, its king his master, and to sign his name Jehan. He held the office of admiral of France, and was a knight of St. Michel, the tutelary saint of France. He married, on 8 June 1505, his cousin, Anne de la Tour, comtesse de la Tour d'Auvergne, elder child and heiress of his mother's brother, Jehan III, comte d'Auvergne, whose younger sister married, ten years later, Lorenzo de' Medici, duke of Urbino, nephew of Leo X, and was mother of Catherine de' Medici.

The Scots, however, treated him as a Scot, described him as John, duke of Albany, and their parliament not only elected him regent, but declared him next heir to the crown. Before the first parliament or general council met after Flodden at Perth, on 26 Nov. 1513, a request was sent by Cumming, the Lyon king, to Louis XII, that Albany might come and assume the government of Scotland. He was unable or unwilling, but sent Antony d'Arcy de la Bastie as his representative. With De la Bastie came James Ogilvy (afterwards abbot of Dryburgh) as ambassador of Louis XII, and at the meeting of the general council at Perth they expressed the desire of the French king to renew the old alliance with Scotland, and that Scottish ambassadors should visit France with full powers. The French king, they said, was willing, if the Scots desired it, to send Albany to Scotland for its defence. The lords of council declared their consent to the renewal of the alliance, and their wish that Albany should be sent with Robert Stuart, seigneur d'Aubigny, the captain of the bodyguard of Scottish archers, and all other Scotsmen who could get license from the French king, to protect their country against the English [see under Stewart, John , first (or ninth) Earl of Lennox ]. The influence of Henry VIII, who then supported his sister, Margaret Tudor, in the regency of Scotland, and was carrying on the negotiations which resulted in the marriage of his sister Mary to Louis XII, was sufficient to prevent Albany's departure until after the accession of Francis I, at whose consecration, on 25 Jan. 1515, Albany was present. While still in France he acted as the representative of Scotland, and on 2 April 1514 sold in Paris to the French king for forty thousand crowns of Tours the Great St. Michael, the pride of the Scottish fleet, which had been built by James IV.

It was not till May 1515 that Albany sailed from St. Malo to the west coast, to avoid English cruisers. Landing at Dumbarton on 18 May, he at once went to Glasgow, where, on the 22nd, he wrote as regent of Scotland to Francis I signifying his assent to the treaty between France and England, in which Scotland was to be included. On the 26th he was received with acclamation in Edinburgh, and comedies, says Leslie, were acted to welcome him. Parliament met on 12 July, when Albany was declared tutor and governor both of the kingdom and the king, the queen mother having forfeited her right of guardianship and regency by her marriage to the young Earl of Angus [see Douglas, Archibald , sixth Earl of Angus ]. Early in August she was forced to surrender Stirling and her children to Albany. Though closely watched, she escaped to Tantallon, and thence on 23 Sept. to Harbottle, where she gave birth on 30 Oct. to Lady Margaret Douglas [q. v.], afterwards Countess of Lennox and mother of Darnley. Albany resided at Holyrood. Among the nobles who had urged his coming to Scotland was Lord Hume or Home, the chamberlain [see Home, Alexander , third Lord Home ] but an imprudent remark Albany made when he first saw Hume, who was a little man, ‘Minuit præsentia famam,’ alienated the proud border chief. He and his clan rebelled, and towards the end of August Albany assembled a large army on the Borough Muir, with which he marched to the borders, visited on his way De la Bastie at Dunbar, and seized Hume Castle and the chamberlain before 12 Sept. Hume was put in charge of James Hamilton, first earl of Arran [q. v.] but that feeble noble liberated Hume, and entered into a band or league with him and Angus against Albany, which was abetted by Lord Dacre of the north, the English warden of the marches. Albany returned north and seized Arran's estates but at Hamilton Castle, the chief seat of Arran, terms were made. Arran was pardoned and detached from the league. Albany also endeavoured by conciliatory language to induce Margaret, who had fled to England, to return to Scotland, but without success. The sudden death of her infant ​ son, the Duke of Ross, led to suspicion of poison, with which Margaret did not hesitate to charge Albany. In February 1516 he was at Linlithgow, and from 19 April to 20 June at Falkland. Between these dates he appears to have come to the north of England and to have made an offer to visit Henry VIII, which Wolsey declined. Henry addressed a letter to the Scottish estates, asking them to dismiss Albany, but the parliament of Edinburgh, on 1 July 1516, sent an emphatic and spirited refusal. On 24 July 1516 Albany agreed with Wolsey to prolong the truce with England to St. Andrew's day, 1517, and this was ratified in January 1517 by the commissioners of the estates.

Parliament again met at Edinburgh in the end of September 1516 (24th according to Buchanan), but its record has not been preserved. Albany was present, and Hume, the chamberlain, and his brother were condemned to death for treason, and executed on 8 and 9 Oct. Immediately after these executions Albany went to the borders and took possession of their estates. Returning early in November, on the 12th of that month parliament confirmed the divorce of his father from his first wife, Catherine Sinclair, daughter of the Earl of Orkney [see Stewart, Alexander, Duke of Albany ], and declared Albany next heir to the kingdom and only heir of his father, thus bastardising his elder brother Alexander, who, in compensation, was made bishop of Moray and abbot of Scone. At the same time he got the reluctant consent of the estates to his return for six months to France. Before he left a regency, consisting of the two archbishops and the earls of Huntly, Argyll, Angus, and Arran, was appointed. Lord Erskine and the earl marshal were named guardians of the king, De la Bastie warden of the marches, and Lord Fleming of Cumbernauld chamberlain. The fortresses of Dunbar, Inchgarvie, and Dumbarton were placed in the hands of French garrisons. On 6 June 1517 Albany sailed from Dumbarton to France, taking with him as hostages the sons of several leading nobles. During this first period of his regency Albany had been singularly successful. He had removed or conciliated his chief adversaries, baffled Henry VIII, and restored peace on the borders. His expenditure had been lavish, as the exchequer accounts show but it was repaid by the tranquillity of the realm. So far from being ‘a coward and a wilful and furious fool,’ as Wolsey called him, he had proved an active commander and a prudent governor. His weakness was that his heart was not in Scotland, and he returned to France with his work only half accomplished.

The attempt to conduct the government in Albany's absence by dividing the power between the chief Scottish nobles and De la Bastie and the French commanders failed. No sooner had the duke left Scotland than the old dissensions broke out among the nobles. On 15 June Queen Margaret returned to Scotland, little more than a week after Albany's departure. Towards the end of July or beginning of August De la Bastie was slain by David Hume of Wedderburn in revenge for Albany having put his chief to death. There was a surcease both of the courts and parliament, and the nobles soon became jealous of the growing influence of Angus.

Albany had full power while absent to represent Scotland in foreign affairs, and did not neglect his commission. He promoted the interests of the Scottish merchants who traded with France, and negotiated the treaty of Rouen on 26 Aug. 1517, by which France and Scotland entered into an offensive and defensive alliance against England and Francis I promised his eldest daughter in marriage to James V if the marriage to the king of Spain or his brother did not take place or failing her, his second daughter, if he had another. In the spring of 1518 his sister-in-law, Madeline de la Tour d'Auvergne, was married to Lorenzo, duke of Urbino, the nephew of Leo X, who wrote to Francis I he could deny Albany nothing. Through the influence of France and his affinity with the pope, Albany procured on 5 March 1518 from Leo X a confirmation of all the privileges already granted to the kings and kingdom of Scotland by the Holy See. In 1519 a writer called Gremond or Dremond Dornat translated into French for Albany's use the chronicles of Fordun and Bower, a proof of his desire to become acquainted with the history of Scotland. In June 1519 the Scottish estates wrote to the pope, requesting him to use his influence with Francis I to procure the return of Albany to Scotland, and Lord Fleming of Cumbernauld was sent to France as ambassador of James V to solicit the French king's permission but Francis had, by a secret article of his treaty with England, promised not to allow Albany to leave France while James V was a minor.

Meantime the quarrel between Margaret Tudor and her husband Angus had reached a crisis, and the rivalry between Arran and Angus led to a contest for the possession of Edinburgh. Angus gained the upper hand in April 1520. Arran fled to France, and probably returned with Albany in the following year. The distracted state of Scotland, which made the Scots more than ever anxious to ​ have Albany back, is reflected in two poems of William Dunbar: one, ‘When the Governor passed to France,’ prays God to ‘help this pure realm in partys all divydit,’ and the other, written in 1520 or early in 1521, speaking in the name of the nobles, entreats him ‘to return and not to absent himself for the sake of “worldly gear.”’

At last, in November, or perhaps not till 3 Dec. 1521, Albany returned to Scotland. He remained less than a year, till 27 Oct. 1522, but the short period was a time of busy intrigues. Already, in November 1521, it had been bruited that Albany was aiding Margaret at the court of Rome in her suit for divorce from Angus, which was true, with the object of marrying her himself, which was certainly false. The first trace in the voluminous correspondence of Henry VIII of the latter rumour is in a letter by Wolsey to his master from Calais, in which he says he has done what he could with the pope's ambassador to prevent the divorce, ‘which shall not proceed when the pope shall be informed that the same is procured only for marriage betwixt the Duke of Albany and the queen, whereby the destruction of the young king shall ensue.’ It is probable that Wolsey was himself the originator of the calumny. There is no proof that either Albany or Margaret had designs on the life of her son, James V. As to the divorce, there was a serious obstacle: Albany had a wife still living. There were plausible grounds for a divorce between Margaret and Angus, which was in fact procured in 1527, mainly by the influence and money of Albany. But there is no proof that Albany wished, or could have obtained, a divorce from Anne de la Tour d'Auvergne, whose sister was married to the pope's nephew. Nor, though the rumour was persistently spread, is there any reason to believe there were amatory relations between them. Their temporary reconciliation and mutual support were entirely politic, and on Margaret's part, as soon appeared, insincere. Albany aided her in procuring the payment of part of her dowry, which had been withheld, as well as her divorce. In the balance of parties in Scotland and in his conflict with England it was important for him to have the queen dowager and the sister of the English king as his ally. At a meeting at Kirk of Steele on 14 Dec. 1521 between Angus, Hume, and John, third lord Somerville, they drew up a series of charges against Albany, in which they accused him of having been too intimate with the queen on his return to Scotland. Dacre, who forwarded it to Henry VIII, followed it up by a letter of 20 Dec., in which he magnified the scandal, alleging that ‘aid must be given to the Scotch lords, or the young king will be destroyed, and a Frenchman will be king and marry the king's sister.’ There were many meetings between Albany and Margaret in the end of 1521 and beginning of 1522 but they had quite enough legitimate business to transact without the invention of so nefarious a plot. Charles V, to whom its alleged existence had been communicated by Wolsey, shrewdly remarked that ‘he did not think any pope would have given the duke the dispensation he would require [for marrying Margaret], especially as he has children by his present wife’ though, if this latter statement was not an error, the children died young, for none survived their mother.

Henry VIII and Wolsey were not, however, to be stayed in prosecuting the charge which was formally made in a letter brought by the Clarencieux herald to the Scottish estates, accusing Albany with ‘endangering the life of the young king and working the perdition of his sister’ by procuring the divorce of Margaret and marrying her himself. Albany, Margaret, and the estates in separate answers indignantly repudiated the accusation. Albany privately informed Clarencieux that he preferred his French estates to the crown of Scotland, and that one wife was enough for him. The lords in parliament on Monday, 8 Feb. 1522, unanimously assured Clarencieux, who brought Henry's letter, that they had invited Albany and would not dismiss him. The truce between England and Scotland expired on 2 Feb., and both sides prepared for war. Hostilities began by seven vessels which Henry sent early in April to the Forth. They seized Scottish ships and ravaged the villages on the coast. In July a raid was made across the western border and Kelso partially burnt. On 18 July the Scottish parliament in Edinburgh, at which Albany was present, agreed that the king should be sent for safe custody to Stirling, under the custody of Lord Erskine, and a muster for the invasion of England in September was sanctioned.

The queen, though apparently still acting in concert with Albany, had now entered into a secret correspondence with Dacre, in which she not only betrayed Albany's plans, but undertook to do her best to prevent the invasion of England and procure peace. Albany advanced from Edinburgh on 2 Sept. towards Carlisle with one of the largest armies ever collected in Scotland it was said to number eighty thousand men, but this is probably an exaggeration. An attempt to conclude a truce was made on 6 Sept. Albany ​ rejected the proposal to grant even a delay for twelve days to ascertain Henry's approval of its terms, and marched to Lauder on the 7th, to Annan on the 9th, and on the 11th pitched his tents on the debatable ground near the Chapel of Solan, within four miles of Carlisle. The situation was critical for England. Up to this point Albany had wisely rejected every dilatory proposal. But in a private interview, where only interpreters were present—for Albany could not speak English, nor Dacre French—an abstinence or truce was agreed on between Albany and Dacre for one month, and without waiting for its expiry Albany disbanded his army and returned to Edinburgh before the end of the month. Perhaps it would be more correct to say the army disbanded itself, for, according to Leslie, the Scots absolutely refused to fight out of Scotland. On the 27th he despatched his secretary, Jehan de Barron, to England to request the extension of the truce till midsummer, and that France should be included. This condition was of course impossible. After appointing a new council of regency, the chancellor, Huntly, Argyll, and Arran, with Gonzolles, a French officer (called Grosellis or Grosillis by Scottish writers and records), he sailed, on a galley with oars, from Dumbarton to France on 25 Oct., promising to return before 15 Aug. 1523 on pain of forfeiting the regency. The conduct of Albany at this juncture has been variously judged. France was still his first interest Scotland was to him only a means to promote the interest of France. He declared in his letters to Francis that he was absolutely at the disposal of Francis, his master. He pointed out the increasing influence of England in the Scottish parliament, now the queen dowager had gone over to it, and the reluctance of the Scots to fight. He concluded by asking the French king to say whether he was to go or stay in Scotland, but hinted that he was tired of the country and its customs. Supplies were not sent. No orders came to stay. The Scots lords refused to fight, and practically no course was open but to retreat, and it is unreasonable to accuse him of personal cowardice or pusillanimity. But his diplomatic skill may be reasonably impugned. To allow his whole army to disperse and leave the borders open to new English raids was to throw up the game. His hasty return to France without receiving positive orders was evidently prompted by personal desire. Possibly another private reason combined with this. His wife was already ill of the disease of which she died in 1524. Even if there was, as seems likely, no great affection between them, her will had not yet been made, and after her death Albany was engaged in discussions as to her inheritance, which was left to her niece, Catherine de' Medici.

Albany remained in France till the middle of September 1523, taking an active part in the scheme by which Richard de la Pole [q. v.] was to invade England with the aid of Christian, duke of Holstein, afterwards king of Denmark. Meanwhile the queen dowager was corresponding with her brother and Dacre, and endeavouring to bring over the Scottish lords to the English side while the English, under Surrey, were constantly wasting the Scottish borders. On 25 Sept., the day when Jedburgh was burnt by them, Albany, who had again evaded the English cruisers, landed in the Clyde. He brought with him four thousand French infantry, one hundred knights, and eighty cavalry, as well as artillery, provisions, and gold. The gold was freely used to influence the needy Scottish barons. The queen wished to retreat to England, but Wolsey and Henry declined to receive her, and she now tried to play off Albany and the French against the English, ready to take part with whichever would help her most.

In the beginning of October the Scottish parliament sanctioned a muster at Edinburgh on the 20th, with provisions for twenty days. On 22 Oct. Albany started from Edinburgh by the road to Lauder, and, despatching Robert, fifth lord Maxwell [q. v.], with five thousand men to the west border, advanced himself with the main body of his troops by way of Melrose, which he reached on the 24th. But after a fruitless attack on Wark, which failed partly because the Scots refused to second the assault by the French troops, Albany on 3 Nov. made a precipitate retreat.

The English ministers and generals, and Skelton, the poet-laureate, scoffed at Albany who, ‘void of all brain, shamefully retreated back to his great lack when he heard tell that my Lord Amirell [Admiral] was coming down to make him frown.’ His prestige in Scotland, which had survived the misfortunes of the former year, was now lost. It did not help his popularity that while he was always running away to France when he was most wanted in Scotland, he left Frenchmen in some of the most important posts, and was for them, as for himself, always exigent about money. He received upwards of 1,200l. for his personal expenses at Wark, made a demand that royal domains should be sold to pay for the bootless campaign, and for forty thousand crowns of the Sun for the cost of his voyage to France (though this was to be repaid at Dieppe). The parliament in ​ Edinburgh, on 17 Nov., rejected this proposal, and new guardians, one the Frenchman Gonzolles, now captain of Dunbar, were appointed for the king. The king was to remain at Stirling, where his mother's visits were carefully regulated. Leave of absence was readily granted to Albany on condition that if he did not return in four months he should forfeit the regency. Gonzolles was nominated treasurer, but it is doubtful whether he ever exercised the office.

Albany sailed from Dumbarton on 20 May 1524, and never saw Scotland again. On 30 July, before the expiry of the four months, James V, now a boy of twelve, was, in Scottish phrase, erected king at Holyrood, and an instrument signed by the leading nobles and prelates which annulled Albany's regency. The parliament which met on 14 Nov. passed an act declaring that he had broken his promise to return, and thereby forfeited the office of tutor and governor. Albany lived for twelve years after his departure from Scotland. Though he continued a not unimportant factor in continental politics, he never attained the same position as when governor of Scotland. Shortly after his return he accompanied Francis I in the campaign of Italy against Charles V which ended in the disaster of Pavia on 24 Feb. 1525, where Francis was taken prisoner. He had been detached at Milan from the main army, and sent with two hundred lances, six hundred light horse, and eight thousand infantry to make a diversion against the Spaniards in Naples. In the middle of February he was stopped by an illness, and the capture of Francis I put an end to the expedition. Albany retreated to the papal territory, where his presence in Rome led to fights between the faction of the Colonna who favoured the emperor, and the papal faction of the Orsini. Albany and his troops went to the coast, and were soon after recalled by the queen regent, in June 1525. His appointment to this important command shows that in the opinion of Francis I he was not an incompetent general. The French ambassador in England at this time engaged that Albany should not return to Scotland during the minority of James V, but he had no wish go thither. Through his influence with Clement VII he was instrumental in obtaining, on 11 March 1527, the decree for Margaret's divorce from Angus. He paid the cost of the divorce, which her agent, Duncan, at Rome assured him would amount to not less than six hundred ducats. The English court and Henry VIII himself in 1527 revived the rumour that Margaret desired to marry Albany, but in March 1528 she declared her secret marriage to Henry Stewart, brother of Lord Avandale, with whom she had already had an illicit amour.

Between 1530 and 1533 Albany, as we learn from the Spanish state papers, several times visited Rome as French ambassador. He was narrowly watched by the envoys of the emperor, who suspected, not without reason, that the chief object of his diplomatic activity was to get a footing again for the French in Italy, and renew the league against the emperor. But the only result achieved was the marriage of his wife's niece Catherine to the Duke of Orleans, which gave the pope a family interest in the French royal succession. When absent from Italy Albany carried on an active correspondence with M. d'Inteville, the French ambassador who succeeded him at Rome Strozzi, the pope's ambassador in France, and more than one cardinal. This correspondence, which is in the French archives, has not yet been published. It probably related to the expenses of the divorce, and to the marriage of his wife's niece, Catherine de' Medici, with Henry, duke of Orleans, the second son of Francis I, which was celebrated at Marseilles by the pope on 28 Oct. 1534, and the arrangements prior to this marriage as to the inheritance of Auvergne and Boulogne between Albany, the Duke of Orleans, and Catherine de' Medici. Albany was selected by Francis I to conduct Catherine to France, probably on account of his office as high admiral as well as his relationship. When in Italy he obtained a cardinal's hat for his uterine brother, Philip de la Chambre.

Another matter in which Albany took a leading part was the institution of the court of session in Scotland, and the endowment of its judges out of the revenues of the Scottish bishops, which required the sanction of the pope. He had started this project while regent, but the bull of Clement VII was not issued till 15 Sept. 1531, the court was not instituted till 1532, and the bull for its endowment was not procured till 1535. Albany was also largely concerned in the negotiations for the marriage of James V. The marriage of James to a French princess had been agreed to by the treaty of Rouen, which Albany had negotiated in 1517. It was naturally renewed when James became of a marriageable age, and the bride first selected was Madeline, daughter of Francis I. Eventually, however, in 1534 the choice of the Scottish ambassadors, David Beaton and John, lord Erskine, fell on Marie de Bourbon, daughter of the Duc de Vendôme, with whom a contract of marriage was entered into at Crémieux in Dauphiné on 6 March 1536. ​ Albany was named one of the proxies for James in a procuratory dated 29 Jan. 1535, and being unable to attend the signature of the contract through ill-health, the notaries went to his house and read it to him, where he added his signature on 29 March 1536. It was his last public act, for he died on 2 June of that year. Among the unpublished documents in the French archives there is a significant commission to Jean Doutet to verify the debts of the late Duke of Albany, and a decree against him for a small debt has also been preserved. There is some evidence that James V claimed his succession, but no proof that he recovered any estate. He had always been lavish in expenditure, and not improbably died bankrupt. He left no legitimate issue, and contracted no second marriage, acting on his saying that one wife was enough. An illegitimate daughter by Jean Abernethy, his mistress in Scotland, perhaps married Jean de l'Hospital, comte de Choisy, in 1547.

The character of Albany, notwithstanding the different views taken of it both by contemporaries and by historians, does not seem difficult to understand. He was no general, but he was an able negotiator, succeeding in almost all he undertook—the treaty of Rouen, the divorce of Margaret, the protection of the Scots both in France and at Rome, the institution of the court of session, and the marriage of James to a French princess, though after his death Madeline of France was substituted by James's personal choice for Marie de Bourbon. His services were valued equally by James V and Francis I, with whom he was so great a favourite as to have the entry to the royal bedchamber, a privilege not so common as it afterwards became. The miscarriage of his Scottish regency was due to the inherent difficulties of the situation, but his dislike of a life in Scotland, and strong bias in favour of France contributed to it. The history of his relations with Queen Margaret and her son, when fairly examined, refutes the calumnies of Wolsey and Henry VIII. His straightforward manner contrasts favourably with the duplicity of the English ministers and diplomatists, and with the plotting of the Scottish nobles. He was a Frenchman in Scotland, but retained a good deal of the Scot when abroad, and this explains much of his conduct. It is probable that he was passionate according to Dacre, when displeased he threw hat after hat into the fire. He was certainly superstitious, carrying a relic in an ornament suspended to his neck, and his habit was to swear by it as his favourite oath. There are many signs that he was extravagant, but his conduct to Queen Margaret and to his French followers shows that he was generous, though not particular whether the money he expended was his own or drawn from the French or Scottish revenues it is probable he spent more than he received.

There is a good portrait of his broad face, dark beard, and handsome features in the enigmatical group now in Lord Bute's collection at Cardiff, in which he is represented as receiving a paper from Margaret, to whom he is making a payment, probably of her dowry, in 1522, as recorded in the exchequer rolls, with the figure of a herald pointing to a butterfly floating in the air between them, which perhaps represents this payment. The picture has been attributed to Holbein, but must have been painted before he came to England, and there is no likelihood that the painter ever saw Albany.

[Acts of Parliament of Scotland, ii., Exchequer Rolls, vol. xiv., where an attempt is made by the present writer to explain the Cardiff picture State Papers of Henry VIII Cal. State Papers, Spanish, 1531–5 Teulet's Relations Politiques de la France et de l'Espagne avec l'Ecosse, 1862, tome i. Contemporary Histories of Buchanan, Leslie, and Lindsay of Pitscottie Michel's Les Écossais en France, les Français en Écosse gives many minute details as to Albany, and a print of his coat of arms. Of modern historians, Pinkerton and Tytler are the best Burton is meagre. Brewer, in his History of Henry VIII, has much information, but views Albany too much with the eyes of Wolsey.]

Index to Dukes and Duchesses

Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven [Great Britain, 1715]
1st: Robert Bertie (26 Jul 1715-26 Jul 1723) with a special remainder to the heirs of his father and mother
2nd: Peregrine Bertie (26 Jul 1723-1 Jan 1742)
3rd: Peregrine Bertie (1 Jan 1742-12 Aug 1778)
4th: Robert Bertie (12 Aug 1778-8 Jul 1779)
5th: Brownlow Bertie (8 Jul 1779-8 Feb 1809)

Duke of Argyll [Scotland, 1701]
1st: Archibald Campbell (23 Jun 1701-25 Sep 1703)
2nd: John Campbell (25 Sep 1703-4 Oct 1743)
3rd: Archibald Campbell (4 Oct 1743-15 Apr 1761)
4th: John Campbell (15 Apr 1761-9 Nov 1770)
5th: John Campbell (9 Nov 1770-24 May 1806)
6th: George William Campbell (24 May 1806-22 Oct 1839)
7th: John Douglas Edward Henry Campbell (22 Oct 1839-25 Apr 1847)
8th: George John Douglas Campbell (25 Apr 1847-24 Apr 1900)
9th: John George Edward Henry Douglas Sutherland Campbell (24 Apr 1900-2 May 1914)
10th: Niall Diarmid Campbell (2 May 1914-20 Aug 1949)
11th: Ian Douglas Campbell (20 Aug 1949-7 Apr 1973)
12th: Ian Campbell (7 Apr 1973-21 Apr 2001)
13th: Torquhil Ian Campbell (21 Apr 2001- )

Duke of Atholl , co. Perth [Scotland, 1703]
1st: John Murray (30 Jun 1703-14 Nov 1724)
2nd: James Murray (9 Jul 1746-8 Jan 1764)
3rd: John Murray (8 Jan 1764-5 Nov 1774)
4th: John Murray (5 Nov 1774-29 Sep 1830)
5th: John Murray (29 Sep 1830-14 Sep 1846)
6th: George Augustus Frederick John Murray (14 Sep 1846-16 Jan 1864)
7th: John James Hugh Henry Stewart-Murray (16 Jan 1864-20 Jan 1917)
8th: John George Stewart-Murray (20 Jan 1917-16 Mar 1942)
9th: James Thomas Stewart-Murray (16 Mar 1942-8 May 1957)
10th: George Iain Murray (8 May 1957-27 Feb 1996)
11th: John Murray (27 Feb 1996-15 May 2012)
12th: Bruce George Ronald Murray (15 May 2012- )

Duke of Beaufort [England, 1682]
1st: Henry Somerset (2 Dec 1682-21 Jan 1700)
2nd: Henry Somerset (21 Jan 1700-24 May 1714)
3rd: Henry Scudamore (24 May 1714-24 Feb 1745)
4th: Charles Noel Somerset (24 Feb 1745-28 Oct 1756)
5th: Henry Somerset (28 Oct 1756-11 Oct 1803)
6th: Henry Charles Somerset (11 Oct 1803-23 Nov 1835)
7th: Henry Somerset (23 Nov 1835-17 Nov 1853)
8th: Henry Charles FitzRoy Somerset (17 Nov 1853-30 Apr 1899)
9th: Henry Adelbert Wellington FitzRoy Somerset (30 Apr 1899-24 Nov 1924)
10th: Henry Hugh Arthur FitzRoy Somerset (24 Nov 1924-5 Feb 1984)
11th: David Robert Somerset (5 Feb 1984-16 Aug 2017)
12th: Henry John FitzRoy Somerset (16 Aug 2017- )

Duke of Bedford [England, 1470]
1st: George Neville (5 Jan 1470-4 May 1483) because he was about to marry Princess Elizabeth, eldest daughter of King Edward IV

Duke of Bedford [England, 1694]
1st: William Russell (11 May 1694-7 Sep 1700)
2nd: Wriothesley Russell (7 Sep 1700-26 May 1711)
3rd: Wriothesley Russell (26 May 1711-23 Oct 1732)
4th: John Russell (23 Oct 1732-14 Jan 1771)
5th: Francis Russell (14 Jan 1771-2 Mar 1802)
6th: John Russell (2 Mar 1802-20 Oct 1839)
7th: Francis Russell (20 Oct 1839-14 May 1861)
8th: William Russell (14 May 1861-27 May 1872)
9th: Francis Charles Hastings Russell (27 May 1872-14 Jan 1891)
10th: George William Francis Sackville Russell (14 Jan 1891-23 Mar 1893)
11th: Herbrand Arthur Russell (23 Mar 1893-27 Aug 1940)
12th: Hastings William Sackville Russell (27 Aug 1940-9 Oct 1953)
13th: John Ian Robert Russell (9 Oct 1953-25 Oct 2002)
14th: Henry Robin Ian Russell (25 Oct 2002-13 Jun 2003)
15th: Andrew Ian Henry Russell (13 Jun 2003- )

Duke of Bolton [England, 1689]
1st: Charles Powlett (9 Apr 1689-27 Feb 1699)
2nd: Charles Powlett (27 Feb 1699-21 Jan 1722)
3rd: Charles Powlett (21 Jan 1722-26 Aug 1754)
4th: Harry Powlett (26 Aug 1754-9 Oct 1759)
5th: Charles Powlett (9 Oct 1759-5 Jul 1765)
6th: Harry Powlett (5 Jul 1765-25 Dec 1794)

Duke of Buccleuch [Scotland, 1663]
1st: James Scott (20 Apr 1663-15 Jul 1685) with special remainder to the heirs of his body who succeed to the Earldom of Buccleuch
2nd: Francis Scott (6 Feb 1732-22 Apr 1751)
3rd: Henry Scott (22 Apr 1751-11 Jan 1812)
4th: Charles William Henry Montagu-Scott (11 Jan 1812-20 Apr 1819)
5th: Walter Francis Montagu Douglas Scott (20 Apr 1819-16 Apr 1884)
6th: William Henry Walter Montagu Douglas Scott (16 Apr 1884-5 Nov 1914)
7th: John Charles Montagu Douglas Scott (5 Nov 1914-19 Oct 1935)
8th: Walter John Montagu Douglas Scott (19 Oct 1935-4 Oct 1973)
9th: Walter Francis John Montagu Douglas Scott (4 Oct 1973-4 Sep 2007)
10th: Richard Walter John Montagu Douglas Scott (4 Sep 2007- )

Duke of Cleveland [England, 1670]
1st: Barbara Villiers (3 Aug 1670-9 Oct 1709) with special remainder to her eldest son, Charles Palmer and then to her 'second' son, George Palmer
2nd: Charles Fitzroy (9 Oct 1709-9 Sep 1730)
3rd: William Fitzroy (9 Sep 1730-18 May 1774)

Duke of Cleveland [United Kingdom, 1833]
1st: William Henry Vane (29 Jan 1833-29 Jan 1842) although Gibbs writes a long criticism of this selection of title, given its previous history in being created for his 'notorious ancestress as the actual wages of her prostitution'
2nd: Henry Vane (29 Jan 1842-18 Jan 1864)
3rd: William John Frederick Vane (18 Jan 1864-6 Sep 1864)
4th: Harry George Powlett (6 Sep 1864-21 Aug 1891)


James's younger daughter Anne succeeded when William died in 1702. The Act of Settlement provided that, if the line of succession established in the Bill of Rights were extinguished, the crown would go to a German cousin, Sophia, Electress of Hanover, and to her Protestant heirs. [156] Sophia was a granddaughter of James VI and I through his eldest daughter, Elizabeth Stuart, the sister of Charles I. Thus, when Anne died in 1714 (less than two months after the death of Sophia), she was succeeded by George I, Sophia's son, the Elector of Hanover and Anne's second cousin. [156]

James's son James Francis Edward was recognised as king at his father's death by Louis XIV of France and James's remaining supporters (later known as Jacobites) as "James III and VIII". [157] He led a rising in Scotland in 1715 shortly after George I's accession, but was defeated. [158] Jacobites rose again in 1745 led by Charles Edward Stuart, James II's grandson, and were again defeated. [159] Since then, no serious attempt to restore the Stuart heir has been made. Charles's claims passed to his younger brother Henry Benedict Stuart, the Dean of the College of Cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church. [160] Henry was the last of James II's legitimate descendants, and no relative has publicly acknowledged the Jacobite claim since his death in 1807. [161]

Added 2020-12-13 11:42:43 -0800 by Gary Bell

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About John Stewart, 3rd Earl of Lennox

John Stewart, 3rd Earl of Lennox


JOHN Stewart, son of Sir ALAN Stewart of Darnley & his wife Catherine Seton ([8 Jul/11 Sep] 1495). Lord Darnley 1460. Lord Darnley claimed the Earldom of Lennox in 1473, as the heir of Elizabeth daughter of Duncan Earl of Lennox, whom he claimed (wrongly it appears) was the Earl's second daughter. The claim was disputed by Sir John Haldane of Gleneagles, whose wife was descended from Elizabeth's older sister Margaret, in whose favour the king and the Lords of the Council found 12 Jan 1476. However, a settlement was presumably reached as Lord Darnley eventually took his seat in the parliament of 1488 as Earl of Lennox[731].

m (1438) MARGARET Montgomerie, daughter of ALEXANDER 1 st Lord Montgomerie & his wife Margaret Boyd of Kilmarnock.

John & his wife had ten children:

1. MATTHEW (-killed in battle Flodden 9 Sep 1513). 11th Earl of Lennox.

m firstly MARGARET Lyle, daughter of ROBERT Lord Lyle & his wife ---.

m secondly (contract 9 Apr 1494) ELIZABETH Hamilton, daughter of JAMES Lord Hamilton & his second wife Lady Mary Stewart (of Scotland) (-after Apr 1531). Matthew & his second wife had six children:

a) JOHN (-murdered [Linlithgow] 4 Sep 1526). 12th Earl of Lennox.

c) MARGARET . m firstly JOHN 2nd Lord Fleming . m secondly ALEXANDER Douglas of Mains.

d) ELIZABETH . m HUGH Campbell of Loudun.

e) AGNES . m WILLIAM Edmonstone of Dundreath.

f) JANET (-before 1529). m as his first wife, NINIAN 3rd Lord Ross, (-1556).

2. Sir WILLIAM (-before 1503). Seigneur d'Olzon et de Grey.

4. Sir ROBERT Stuart (-1543). Seigneur d'Aubigny, Marshal of France, Comte de Beaumont-le-Roger.

m firstly (1499) ANNE Stuart Ctss de Beaumont-le-Roger, daughter of BERNARD Stuart Seigneur d'Aubigny Duc de Terranuova & his second wife Anne de Maumont Ctss de Beaumont-le-Roger (-before 1527).

m secondly JACQUELINE de la Queulle, daughter and co-heiress of FRANÇOIS Seigneur de la Queulle & his wife ---.

5. Sir JOHN of Henriestonn (-1512). Seigneur d'Oizon. Rector of Kirkenner.

m firstly (before 1486) MARY Sempill, daughter of THOMAS Sempill of Eliotstown & his wife ---.

m secondly as her second husband, ANNE de Concressault, widow of --- Monypenny, daughter of ALEXANDER Seigneur de Concressault & his wife ---. Sir John & his first wife had one child:

a) MARGARET . m JOHN Fraser of Kuoik in Ayrshire.

6. ELIZABETH . m ARCHIBALD 2nd Earl of Argyll (-killed in battle 1513).

7. MARION . m (1472) ROBERT Crichton of Kinnoull 1st Lord Crichton.

8. JANET . m NINIAN 2nd Lord Ross of Halkhead (-1556).

9. ELIZABETH . m ([1480]) Sir JOHN Colquhon of Luss.

10. ALAN of Cardonald . m ---. The name of Alan´s wife is not known.

JOHN Stuart, son of MATTHEW Stuart 11th Earl of Lennox & his second wife Elizabeth Hamilton (-murdered [Linlithgow] 4 Sep 1526). 12th Earl of Lennox.

m ([1511/12]) as her first husband, ELIZABETH Stewart, 8th daughter of JOHN Stewart 1st Earl of Atholl & his second wife Eleanor Sinclair .

John & his wife had four children:

1. MATTHEW Stuart (Dunbarton Castle 21 Sep 1516-murdered Stirling 4 Sep 1571, bur Stirling). 13th Earl of Lennox.

2. ROBERT Stuart (-St Andrew´s 29 Aug 1586). Bishop of Caithness 1543. Earl of Lennox 1578-1579. Earl of March 1579-1580. m (5 Dec 1578, divorced 19 May 1581) as her second husband, ELIZABETH Stewart, widow of HUGH Fraser Lord Lovat, daughter of JOHN Stewart 4th Earl of Atholl & his first wife Elizabeth Gordon of the Earls of Huntly. Robert had illegitimate children by an unknown mistress.

3. JOHN Stuart (-1567). Seigneur d'Aubigny. m (1542) ANNE de Quenelle, 4th daughter of FRANÇOIS Seigneur de Quenelle & his second wife Anne de Rohan.


4. HELEN Stuart (-1564). m firstly WILLIAM 6th Earl of Erroll . Mistress of JAMES V King of Scotland, son of JAMES IV King of Scotland & his wife Margaret Tudor (Linlithgow palace, Fife 15 Apr 1512-Falkland castle 14 Dec 1542). m secondly (1549) JOHN 11th Earl of Sutherland (-1567).

John Stewart, 3rd Earl of Lennox

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

John Stewart, 3rd Earl of Lennox (c. 1490-4 Sep 1526, Linlithgow, West Lothian) was a prominent Scottish magnate. Stewart was the son of Matthew Stewart, 2nd Earl of Lennox, and Elizabeth Hamilton, daughter of James Hamilton, 1st Lord Hamilton.

On 19 January 1511 he married Anne Stewart, daughter of John Stewart, 1st Earl of Atholl, and Eleanor Sinclair.

The Earl of Lennox had led an army to Linlithgow with the intention of liberating the young King James V from the pro-English Douglases. He was defeated by a smaller force led by the Earl of Arran at Linlithgow Bridge. He survived the battle and was taken captive only to be subsequently murdered by John Hamilton of Finnart. Lennox was succeeded by his son Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox, the father of Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley and grandfather of James VI of Scotland.

G. E. Cokayne et al., eds. The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct, or Dormant. Reprint ed. (Gloucester, UK: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000). John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Lennox was born circa 1490.

He died on 4 September 1526 at Linlithgow, West Lothian, Scotland, murdered in cold blood while a prisoner by Sir James Hamilton of Finnart, 'the Bastard of Arran', as he was a potential rival to the Hamiltons as eventual heir presumptive to the throne.2

Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley

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Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley, Stewart also spelled Stuart, also called (1565–67) Earl of Ross, Duke of Albany, (born Dec. 7, 1545, Temple Newsom, Yorkshire, Eng.—died Feb. 9/10, 1567, Edinburgh), cousin and second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, father of King James I of Great Britain and Ireland (James VI of Scotland), and direct ancestor of all subsequent British sovereigns.

Darnley was the son of Matthew Stewart, 4th earl of Lennox, whose pretension to the throne of Scotland was contested by James Hamilton, 2nd earl of Arran. Darnley’s mother, formerly Margaret Douglas, had a claim to the English crown as granddaughter of Henry VII. She planned to secure her son’s succession in England by his marriage with the other candidate, Mary. The couple had become acquainted in France shortly after the death of Mary’s first husband, the French king Francis II.

In February 1565 Darnley, who had been living in England, went to Scotland with the permission of Queen Elizabeth I. By late April it was known that Mary wished to make him her husband. She created him successively earl of Ross (a rank previously reserved for a son of the Scottish king) and duke of Albany. Elizabeth and the English privy council sent word that the proposed marriage was “dangerous to the common amity” of the two countries.

Nonetheless, on July 29, 1565, the marriage was celebrated according to the Roman Catholic rite. It was offensive to the Scottish Protestant ministry, for whom John Knox was the spokesman to the political ambition of James Stewart, earl of Moray (Mary’s illegitimate half brother) and to the Hamilton claim to the Scottish throne.

It became evident, even to Mary, that superficial charm was Darnley’s only positive attribute. This gave way to indolence, arrogance, drunkenness, and jealousy of Mary’s secretary, David Riccio, in whose murder (March 9, 1566) Darnley was involved. He betrayed his accomplices, but they showed Mary his written agreement to Riccio’s murder, and he was unable to clear himself with her.

The birth (June 19, 1566) of a son, James, to Mary and Darnley was eventually to solve the problem of the English, as well as the Scottish, succession. But Darnley remained an embarrassment to all. While Mary was absent from their temporary residence, Kirk o’Field, near Edinburgh, the house was blown up. The body of Darnley, who had apparently been strangled, was found in a nearby garden. Three months later Darnley’s widow married James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, the instigator of the murder.

This article was most recently revised and updated by Heather Campbell, Senior Editor.

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