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Truce of Andrusovo, 30 January 1667
The Truce of Andrusovo ended the Thirteen Years War (1654-67) between Muscovy and Poland-Lithuania. The truce was originally to last for thirteen and a half years. The Ukraine was partitioned between Muscovy and Poland-Lithuania. The dividing line was the Dnieper River, with Muscovy getting the left bank and Poland-Lithuania retaining the right bank. Kiev, on the right bank, was to be held by Muscovy for two years and then returned to Poland-Lithuania, but the city was retained by Russia, and when the truce became a permanent peace in 1686 Russia retained Kiev. Muscovy also finally regained Smolensk, Chernihiv and parts of Witebsk, areas lost during the Russian Time of Troubles (1604-1613).
Truce of Andrusovo
The Truce of Andrusovo (Polish: Rozejm w Andruszowie, Russian: Андрусовское перемирие , Andrusovskoye Pieriemiriye, also sometimes known as Treaty of Andrusovo) established a thirteen-and-a-half year truce, signed in 1667 between the Tsardom of Russia and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, which had fought the Russo-Polish War since 1654 over the territories of modern-day Ukraine and Belarus.
Afanasy Ordin-Nashchokin (for Russia) and Jerzy Chlebowicz (for the Commonwealth) signed the truce on 30 January/9 February 1667 in the village of Andrusovo not far from Smolensk. Representatives of the Cossack Hetmanate were not allowed.
Truce of Altmark
The six-year Truce of Altmark (or Treaty of Stary Targ, Polish: Rozejm w Altmarku, Swedish: Stillståndet i Altmark) was signed on 16 (O.S.)/26 (N.S.) September 1629 in the village of Altmark (Stary Targ), in Poland, by the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Sweden, ending the Polish–Swedish War (1626–1629). 
The truce allowed Sweden to retain control of Livonia and the mouth of the Vistula River. Sweden also evacuated most of the Duchy of Prussia but kept the coastal cities. Poland had other Swedish gains returned from the 1625 invasion. Most of Livonia north of the Daugava River was ceded to Sweden (Swedish Livonia), but Latgale, the southeastern area, remained under Polish rule. Sweden received the right to two third of all the shipping tolls at Polish ports, such as at Gdańsk (Danzig) and Elbląg (Elbing) and from the Duchy of Prussia, for six years. The shipping tolls financed Sweden's involvement in the Thirty Years' War. 
The Truce of Altmark was signed shortly after Sweden had been defeated by Poland led by Field Crown Hetman Stanisław Koniecpolski and Holy Roman Imperial troops at Trzciana, which nearly lead to the capture of King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden. Gustavus was wounded several times and was once saved by one of his men. 
The Polish Parliament (Sejm) did not impose new taxes to pay the soldiers of the imperial army fighting under Hans Georg von Arnim-Boitzenburg and low morale made some of them mutiny or go over to Sweden. Several other countries intervened diplomatically, which eventually forced Sigismund III of Poland to enter the truce. 
In 1635, the truce was extended by the Treaty of Stuhmsdorf. Sweden gave up the Prussian ports, and the Poland ceded most of Livonia with Riga but kept the Latgale region.
English for Students
1649 : King Charles I of England executed : Charles I, king of Great Britain and Ireland (1625–49), was viewed as an authoritarian ruler by members of Parliament—whose quarrels with him led to the English Civil Wars—and was executed in London this day in 1649.
1995 : Flooding forced the evacuation of more than 100,000 people from low-lying areas of The Netherlands.
1948 : Indian nationalist Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated by an orthodox Hindu Brahman.
1933 : President Paul von Hindenburg named Adolf Hitler chancellor of Germany.
1933 : The fictional character the Lone Ranger was introduced on radio station WXYZ in Detroit, Michigan.
1912 : Barbara Tuchman, one of the foremost popular historians in the United States in the second half of the 20th century and a two-time Pulitzer Prize winner, was born.
1667 : The Truce of Andrusovo ended the Thirteen Years' War between Russia and Poland.
9 : The Roman emperor Augustus dedicated the shrine Ara Pacis (“Altar of Peace").
ANDRUSOVO, PEACE OF
The Peace of Andrusovo (1667) concluded a thirteen-year period of conflict between Muscovy, Poland-Lithuania, and Sweden, known as the Thirteen Year's War (1654 – 1667). It marked the end of Poland-Lithuania's attempts at eastward expansion, and divided the Ukraine into Polish (right bank) and Russian (left bank) spheres of influence on either side of the Dnieper River. The treaty allowed Muscovy to maintain temporary hold over the two key cities of Smolensk (thirteen and a half years) and Kiev (two years) but Muscovy defied those provisions and retained these cities permanently, paying only a token indemnity to the Poles. The agreement at Andrusovo, though originally intended to be provisional, was confirmed by the so-called "Eternal Peace" of 1686. Thus, the treaty marked Muscovy's ascendance over Poland-Lithuania in the region.
The Peace of Andrusovo is significant in that it defined relations between Muscovy and Poland-Lithuania for much of the remainder of the century. Subsequent treaties extended, clarified, or confirmed the 1667 Peace of Andrusovo. Largely because of this treaty, Muscovy and Poland-Lithuania developed a mutual defensive stance against the Crimean Tatars and the Ottoman Empire in the south. It also affected how the two nations defined other aspects of their relationship, such as the status of Kiev, the Zaporozhian Cossacks, and of Orthodox populations in Polish-held territories.
The creation of Polish and Russian spheres of influence had a far-reaching impact on their subject populations. The Poles pursued a policy of Polonization of Belarus, forbidding the use of the Belarussian language, and restricting the political involvement of the Orthodox believers. The Russians limited the power of the hetmans and returned the practice of serfdom to the Left Bank region. The divided Ukrainians sought to gain advantage by playing Muscovy, Poland, and the Ottomans against one another, with the result that continuous warfare reduced their population and destroyed their lands. Still, the division remained in effect and contributed to Muscovy's predominance.
In 1648, Bohdan Khmelnytsky led a popular uprising of Zaporozhian Cossacks and Ukrainian peasants discontented with the rule of Polish and Lithuanian magnates. Although the initial phase of the rebellion ended (after much destruction) at the Battle of Berestechko (1651), it brought into focus the rivalry between Russia and the Commonwealth for hegemony over Ukraine and over the eastern Slavic lands in general. Thus, in October 1653, the Russian Zemsky Sobor declared war on the Commonwealth, and in June 1654 the forces of Tsar Alexis of Russia invaded the eastern half of Poland-Lithuania, starting the Russo-Polish War of 1654–67. In the summer of 1654, the Russians managed to capture most important cities and strongholds of today's Belarus. Smolensk was captured after a siege on October 3, 1654. The Swedish Empire, which technically already was at war with the Commonwealth (a ceasefire agreement existed from 1629 and was prolonged from 1635 to 1661), invaded in July 1655 and occupied the remaining half of the country.
Following the Thirty Years' War, the Swedish Empire emerged as one of the strongest nations on the continent. It had a large army but little money to pay its soldiers. The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, weakened by wars with the Cossacks and Tsardom of Russia, seemed like easy prey, also because its best soldiers had been either killed in the 1652 Battle of Batih or massacred after it. Furthermore, Swedes remembered claims to their throne by Polish kings Sigismund III Vasa and his sons Władysław IV Vasa and John II Casimir, who themselves belonged to the House of Vasa. An earlier conflict, the Polish–Swedish War (1626–29) had ended with the Treaty of Stuhmsdorf.
The Polish–Lithuanian King John II Casimir (reigned 1648–68) lacked support among the Commonwealth nobility (szlachta) due to his sympathies with absolutist Austria and his open contempt for the "Sarmatist" culture of the nobility. Earlier, in 1643, John Casimir had become a member of the Jesuits and had received the title of Cardinal. Nevertheless, in December 1646, he returned to Poland and, in October 1647, resigned his position as Cardinal to stand for election to the Polish throne, after the death of his brother Władysław IV Vasa. He became King in 1648. However, some of the nobility supported Charles Gustav (King of Sweden from 1654 to 1660 and John Casimir's cousin) for the Polish–Lithuanian throne. Many members of the Polish nobility regarded John Casimir as a weak king or a "Jesuit-King" Grand Treasurer Bogusław Leszczyński, a Protestant, and Deputy Chancellor of the Crown Hieronim Radziejowski, an old enemy of the Polish King who had been exiled to Sweden, encouraged Charles Gustav to claim the Polish crown. Two Lithuanian noble princes, Janusz Radziwiłł and Bogusław Radziwiłł, introduced dissension into the Commonwealth and began negotiations with the Swedish king Charles X Gustav of Sweden aimed at breaking up the Commonwealth and the Polish–Lithuanian union.  They signed the Treaty of Kėdainiai (1655), which envisaged the Radziwiłł princes ruling over two duchies carved out from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania under Swedish protection.
In July 1655 two Swedish armies, operating from Swedish Pomerania and the Province of Pomerania, entered Greater Poland, one of the richest and most developed provinces of the Commonwealth, which had for centuries been unaffected by any military conflicts, and whose levée en masse had not been used to fighting. Greater Poland's noble camp, located in the valley of the Noteć river, near the town of Ujście, looked more like a large party, as the szlachta, gathered there to face the Swedish Army, was more interested in drinking. To make matters worse, two powerful magnates, the Voivode of Poznań Krzysztof Opaliński, and the Voivode of Kalisz Andrzej Karol Grudziński, argued with each other whether to fight or to give up. Polish troops lacked gunpowder, cannons, and even food, which was stolen at local villages by hungry soldiers. 
After an easy Swedish victory at the Battle of Ujście, Krzysztof Opaliński surrendered Greater Poland to Charles Gustav. On July 31, 1655, the army commanded by Arvid Wittenberg captured Poznań, and on August 20 near Konin, the armies of Wittenberg and Charles Gustav joined forces, and headed for Warsaw. On September 2, the Poles lost the Battle of Sobota, and on September 4, the Swedes captured Łowicz. Four days later, the Swedish army entered the Polish capital, becoming the first foreign army in history to capture Warsaw.  King Charles Gustav left a garrison in Warsaw, under Bengt Gabrielsson Oxenstierna, and headed southwards, in pursuit of John Casimir. On September 16, the Swedes defeated Polish troops in the Battle of Żarnów, and the Polish forces gave up resistance and surrendered to the invaders. The Polish king headed towards Kraków on September 25, and then fled to the Głogówek castle near Prudnik in Upper Silesia. Kraków was left in the hands of Stefan Czarniecki on October 3 Swedish forces once again defeated the Poles in the Battle of Wojnicz, which opened the road to Kraków. The ancient capital of Poland was captured after a siege, on October 13, 1655. With the three most populated and best developed Polish provinces in his hands (Greater Poland, Lesser Poland and Mazovia), Charles Gustav decided to head back northwards to Royal Prussia, which was defended by the Voivode of Malbork, Jakub Wejher. The Swedes, who were generally superior in training, discipline, and equipment, advanced rapidly. 
Meanwhile, in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, whose eastern part had been occupied by another Swedish army under Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie since August 1655, Janusz Radziwiłł and his cousin Bogusław Radziwiłł signed the Union of Kėdainiai (October 20, 1655), which ended Lithuania's union with Poland. The decision of the Radziwiłłs was the result of the 1654 Russian invasion, as Janusz Radziwiłł accused the Poles of not helping the Lithuanians with the defence of the Grand Duchy. The Russian capture of Vilnius (August 9, 1655), and the subsequent slaughter of its residents convinced the Lithuanian nobility that Swedish protection was the best solution.  The situation of the Commonwealth was desperate, but hope appeared with the Truce of Vilna (November 3), in which Poland and the Tsardom of Russia formed an anti-Swedish alliance. With Russian forces attacking Sweden in Livonia, (see Russo-Swedish War (1656–58)), Poland finally had time to recoup and gather fresh forces. On October 12, 1655, with permission from King John Casimir, Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg signed the Treaty of Rinsk, in which the Royal Prussian nobility agreed to allow Brandenburgian garrisons in their province to defend it against the Swedish invasion (the treaty did not include the cities of Gdańsk, Elbląg and Toruń). In November and December 1655 the Swedish army under Gustaf Otto Stenbock captured all the towns of Royal Prussia except for Gdańsk, Puck and Malbork.
To prevent John Casimir's return to Poland, Swedish units protected the border with Silesia. On November 18, 1655, the Swedes besieged the monastery at Jasna Góra, located in Lesser Poland, near the border. Led by the Grand Prior Augustyn Kordecki, the garrison of this symbolic sanctuary-fortress of Poland held off its enemies in the Siege of Jasna Góra. The defense of Jasna Góra galvanized Polish resistance against the Swedes. The news of the siege spread across the nation, and in several areas guerrilla units were created, outraged at the Swedes' attempt to seize the monastery. On December 7, 1655, the unit of Colonel Gabriel Wojniłłowicz defeated the Swedes and their Polish collaborators near Krosno.  On December 13, Polish troops under Wojniłłowicz recaptured Nowy Sącz, and soon afterwards Sweden lost Biała, Dukla, Biecz, Wieliczka, and Oświęcim. By late 1655, the situation in southern Lesser Poland had deteriorated to such an extent for the invaders that on December 27 they decided to lift the siege of Jasna Góra. On December 16, 1655, in Sokal, Polish Crown hetmans urged the nation to fight the Swedish armies. Two days later, King John Casimir left the Głogówek in Silesia, and via Racibórz and Cieszyn, returned to Poland, arriving at Lubowla on December 27. Two days later, the Tyszowce Confederation was formed in support of the Polish king. John Casimir himself met with hetmans Stanisław Rewera Potocki, Jerzy Sebastian Lubomirski, Stanisław Lanckoroński and Stefan Czarniecki in Krosno, on December 31, 1655. The meeting was also attended by Primate Andrzej Leszczyński, and eight voivodes.
While in Krosno, the Polish king found out about the end of the siege of Jasna Góra, and about the death of Janusz Radziwiłł. On January 12, 1656, John Casimir left Krosno, and after three days, arrived at Łańcut Castle,  which belonged to the Lubomirski family. On February 10, the king came to Lwów, which, together with Gdańsk, was one of only two major cities of the Commonwealth not seized by any of Poland's enemies. Soon Polish Army units began to concentrate in the area of Lwów, including militias from Red Ruthenia, Volhynia and Lublin, as well as forces under Potocki and Prince Lubomirski, together with the garrison of Kamieniec Podolski fortress. Charles Gustav, after finding out about the return of the Polish king, ordered his armies to concentrate in Łowicz. On February 8, 1656, the Swedes defeated Czarniecki in the Battle of Gołąb, and continued their march towards Lwów, reaching the Zamość Fortress on February 25. On March 1, realizing that without heavy guns it was impossible to capture the mighty stronghold, the Swedish army gave up the siege, and headed towards Bełżec. On March 3, Charles Gustav, whose units were harassed by Polish guerilla forces, decided to retreat.  At the same time, guerilla warfare also broke out in Mazovia and Greater Poland, and Lithuanian units under the Grand Hetman of Lithuania Paweł Jan Sapieha began moving towards Red Ruthenia.
On March 11, the Swedish army arrived at Jarosław, fighting its way across the San river. Charles Gustav sent some of his forces to capture Przemyśl, but on March 16 they returned to Jarosław without success. On March 22, the Swedish army set off northwards, along the San and Vistula rivers, back to Warsaw.  They were followed by units of Stefan Czarniecki and Aleksander Koniecpolski, and during the retreat, Polish troops supporting the invaders changed sides, joining the forces of John Casimir. On March 30, the starving, cold and tired Swedish army of 5,000 stopped near Sandomierz, which was already in Polish hands. The Swedes camped among the forests of Sandomierz Forest near Gorzyce, where they were quickly surrounded by approximately 23,000 Poles and Lithuanians. To help the besieged army, on March 27 Frederick VI left Warsaw with 2,500 reiters and dragoons, so John Casimir ordered the mounted units of Czarnecki and Lubomirski to face the margrave. Frederick's army was defeated on April 7 in the Battle of Warka. At Gorzyce, however, second-quality Polish forces remained, and the Swedish king managed to break out (April 5), and on April 13, Charles Gustav reached Warsaw. Meanwhile, the Polish king made the Lwów Oath (April 1), in which he entrusted the Commonwealth to the Blessed Virgin Mary's protection, and declared her 'The Queen of the Polish Crown'.
After the Battle of Warka, Czarniecki and Lubomirski decided to head towards Greater Poland and Kujawy, to support guerrilla forces active there. By April 9, Polish troops reached Royal Prussia, capturing Bydgoszcz and Nakło (April 19). The Polish attempt to capture Toruń, on April 17, was a failure. After a short rest, Stefan Czarniecki considered a raid of Swedish Pomerania, but other Polish leaders opposed this idea.  Charles Gustav decided to prevent the Poles from taking control of the northern districts of the country, and departed Warsaw with an army of 10,000 (April 17). On April 21, the Lithuanians under Sapieha freed Lublin, and on April 23, the Lithuanian army reached Praga, which today is a right-bank district of Warsaw. The forces of Czarniecki and Lubomirski joined other troops near Piła, but on May 7 they were defeated in the Battle of Kłecko, despite their numerical superiority. After the battle, the surviving Polish units regrouped near Gniezno, and in late May, they headed for Warsaw, to help the Lithuanians in the siege of the Polish capital (April 24 - July 1). Warsaw was being defended by Arvid Wittenberg with 2,000 soldiers, as the main Swedish army was busy besieging Gdańsk. Wittenberg capitulated on July 1, 1656.
Already in late 1655, Charles Gustav realized that it would be impossible for him to control the Commonwealth. The Swedish king decided to find allies, who would help him to divide Poland-Lithuania. On June 29, 1656, he signed the Treaty of Marienburg, in which he offered Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg a reward for fighting on his side. Brandenburg-Prussia was promised sovereignty in four voivodeships - Poznań, Kalisz, Łęczyca, and Sieradz. On July 28, a re-enforced Swedish–Brandenburgian army, under Charles Gustav, set out for Warsaw. Even though the allied army was smaller, it still managed to defeat the Poles and Lithuanians in the Battle of Warsaw (1656) (July 28–30), and to recapture Warsaw. This victory, hovewer, achieved little, as the Poles retreated behind the Wieprz, where they regrouped, and were soon ready to continue fighting. Finally, Charles Gustav decided to abandon Warsaw, and retreat to Royal Prussia. To punish Brandenburg-Prussia, Commonwealth forces decided to invade the Duchy of Prussia. In early October 1656, an army of 11,000 under Wincenty Korwin Gosiewski entered Prussia, supported by 2,000 Crimean Tatars. On October 8, Gosiewski's army won the Battle of Prostken (October 8), but after the Tatars decided to return to the Crimea, the Polish–Lithuanian army was defeated in the Battle of Filipów (October 22). In November 1656, Greater Poland's troops invaded the Brandenburg province of Neumark, which resulted in withdrawal of Brandenburg forces from most of Greater Poland. Charles Gustav, knowing that he needed the support of the Elector, agreed to sign the Treaty of Labiau (November 20), which granted full sovereignty to the Prussian ruler, in exchange for his complete military support of Sweden in the ongoing war. The Commonwealth, on the other hand, had already been negotiating with the House of Habsburg. On December 1, 1656, the first Treaty of Vienna was signed, which was followed by a second Treaty of Vienna, in which Emperor Leopold I promised to aid John Casimir with 12,000 troops against the Swedish-Brandenburgian alliance. By late 1656, Swedish troops had been pushed out of most of the Commonwealth. They only held the right-bank half of Royal Prussia, northern Mazovia, Łowicz, Kraków, and Tykocin.
In 1653, the Transylvanian Hungarian ruler George II Rákóczi signed an alliance with Poland,  and the relations between the Commonwealth and Transylvania were friendly. George had even been offered the Polish crown, on condition that he convert to Catholicism.  Stunning Swedish successes, however, made Rákóczi change his mind. On May 18, 1656, Charles X Gustav, in a letter sent from Malbork, offered the Hungarian prince Red Ruthenia, in exchange for military support against the Commonwealth. Meanwhile, Rákóczi had already been negotiating with Bohdan Khmelnytsky, and on September 7, 1656, Transylvania and the Zaporizhian Sich signed a peace treaty, which obliged both sides to help each other in war. On December 8, 1656, the Treaty of Radnot was signed, which divided Poland-Lithuania among Charles X Gustav, Bogusław Radziwiłł, Elector Frederick William, Bohdan Khmelnytsky, and George II Rákóczi. In late January 1657, the Transylvanian army of 25,000 crossed the Carpathians, heading towards Medyka, where 10,000 Cossack allies awaited them. To face the new invader, the army of hetman Stanisław Rewera Potocki rushed southwards. At the same time (January 2), in the Battle of Chojnice, the Swedes defeated the Poles. On February 26, Stefan Czarniecki and King John Casimir met in Kalisz, where they decided to prevent the Swedish and Transylvanian armies from meeting.
After joining the Cossacks, Rákóczi decided not to attack Lwów, but set off towards Kraków, where the situation of the Swedish garrison under Wirtz was desperate. On March 21, Rákóczi captured Tarnów, and on March 28, he reached Kraków. Along the way to the ancient Polish capital, the Transylvanian-Cossack army burned and looted towns and villages, murdering thousands. Since his army was too busy looting Lesser Poland, only 5,000 soldiers reached Kraków, which by the Treaty of Radnot, was to be ruled by Transylvania. After leaving 2,500 soldiers to help the Swedish garrison of Kraków, Rákóczi's army headed northwards, along the Vistula. On April 12, 1657, the Transylvanian-Cossack army met with Swedish forces under Charles X Gustav, at Ćmielów. The joined forces began to follow the Polish Crown army under Stanisław Potocki, and the Lithuanian army under Paweł Sapieha, to force a decisive battle. On April 29, the Polish and Lithuanian armies joined forces at Łosice, and in early May 1657, the Poles decided to organize a revenge raid on Transylvania, under hetman Jerzy Sebastian Lubomirski. On May 13, Rákóczi and Charles X Gustav seized the fortress of Brześć Litewski, and on May 17, after a three-day siege, the Swedes, Cossacks, and Transylvanians captured Warsaw. Soon afterwards, however, the Dano-Swedish War began, and Charles X Gustav left Poland with most of his troops. The remaining Swedish army was commanded by Gustaf Otto Stenbock. The Swedish withdrawal made Rákóczi uneasy, as he was well aware of the poor quality of his soldiers. On July 7–8, 1656, at Łańcut Castle, King John Casimir and his hetmans agreed that Stefan Czarniecki would follow Rákóczi and the Cossacks, while Lubomirski's and Potocki's divisions together with Crimean Tatars  would guard the border, preventing the Transylvanian-Cossack army from leaving the Commonwealth.
On June 20, 1657, Stenbock was ordered by Charles X Gustav to abandon Rákóczi and head with his army to Stettin. To save his skin, the ruler of Transylvania began a quick retreat southwards, towards the Carpathians. On July 11, Stefan Czarniecki's division defeated Rákóczi at Magierów near Lwów, and on July 20, the Transylvanian-Cossack army was completely destroyed in the Battle of Czarny Ostrów in Podolia. Three days later, Rákóczi signed a peace treaty with the Commonwealth, in which he promised to break the alliance with Sweden, withdraw his troops from Kraków and Brześć Litewski, and pay for the damage inflicted by his army. On July 26, remnants of the Transylvanian army were surrounded by the Tatars near Skałat. Rákóczi himself managed to flee, and the army was temporarily commanded by John Kemény, who himself was captured by the Tatars. After six months of fighting in Poland, Rákóczi's army of 25,000 ceased to exist, with all survivors taken prisoner by the Tatars.
On August 30, the Swedish garrison left Kraków, and throughout August and September 1657, all Swedish troops in Poland moved northwards, to Royal Prussia. Altogether, by autumn of that year, only some 8,000 Swedish soldiers remained in Poland - Lithuania. The Swedes still kept some Prussian cities, as Malbork, Elbląg, Sztum, Brodnica, Grudziądz, and Toruń. On September 11, an Austrian army of 11,000, allied with Poland, concentrated near Kraków and set off to Płock, where it spent the winter. Polish army commanders and King John Casimir, gathered in Poznań on November 26, decided to delay the attack on Swedish forces in Royal Prussia until spring 1658. On November 6, 1657, Poland and Brandenburg-Prussia signed the Treaty of Bromberg. Ducal Prussia, which had previously allied itself with Sweden and attacked Poland, changed sides and guaranteed military support of the Commonwealth, in return for sovereignty (it had been a fief of Poland since 1466). This treaty is regarded as one of the worst mistakes in Polish history.
In the spring of 1658, the Polish army, together with its Austrian allies under Raimondo Montecuccoli, began a campaign in Royal Prussia, where several key towns and cities were still in Swedish hands. On July 1, the siege of Toruń began. The heavily fortified city was defended by 2400 soldiers under Barthod Hartwig von Bulow. The Polish troops included the divisions of Krzysztof Grodzicki, Jan Sapieha and Stefan Czarniecki. Furthermore, they were provided support by the Brandenburgian-Prussian army of Bogusław Radziwiłł, which after the Treaty of Bromberg changed sides. Altogether, almost 25,000 soldiers besieged Toruń. After a prolonged artillery bombardment, the main attack took place in the night of November 16–17, and on December 30 Toruń capitulated. Meanwhile, Stefan Czarniecki's division headed to Denmark–Norway, to help the Danes in the Dano-Swedish War. In October 1658, the Polish army of 4500 reached Hamburg, and in December 1658, with the help of Polish troops, the fortress of Kolding was captured (see Battle of Kolding).
On July 1, 1658, the Sejm ordered the expulsion of the Polish Brethren, who were accused of collaborating with the Swedish invaders.
In 1659, the Swedish army still remaining in Poland under Lorens von der Linde was withdrawn to major Royal Prussian fortresses - Malbork, Głowa Gdańska, Grudziądz, Elbląg, and Brodnica. In August 1659, the Polish army captured Głowa and Grudziądz, and soon afterwards, the starving Swedish garrison at Brodnica surrendered. The siege of Malbork was continued, and Polish - Brandenburgian troops blocked Elbląg. In December 1659, the siege of Elbląg began. Meanwhile, in late 1658, the Polish–Russian truce ended when Russian forces under Ivan Andreyevich Khovansky (Tararui) and Jurij Aleksiejewicz Dołgorukow again attacked the Polish - Lithuanian units (see Russo-Polish War (1654–67)). The reason for the attack was the Treaty of Hadiach, which prepared the basis for a Polish–Lithuanian–Ruthenian Commonwealth. Muscovy was opposed to this newly established state, and decided to wage another war. The Russians managed to capture large parts of the Commonwealth, but were later defeated in the Battle of Konotop and the Battle of Polonka.
On May 3, 1660, the Treaty of Oliva was signed, which ended the Polish - Swedish war. After the conclusion of the conflict, Poland - Lithuania initiated a large offensive against the Russians, who were beaten in the Battle of Chudnov. In 1661, Vilnius was recaptured (December 2), and in 1663 - 64, Polish forces invaded Left-bank Ukraine. The war with Russia ended with the Truce of Andrusovo (January 30, 1667).
The Deluge was the climax of a series of wars that took place in Poland - Lithuania in the mid-17th century. The Commonwealth was first affected by the Khmelnytsky Uprising, which began in 1648, and affected southeastern provinces of the country. In the final stages of the uprising, the Russians invaded Poland–Lithuania in 1654, reaching as far west as the Vistula river near Puławy. The Commonwealth also fought forces from Transylvania and Brandenburg-Prussia, but the Duchy of Prussia gained formal Polish recognition of its independence outside of the Polish state (Treaty of Wehlau, 1657). The Tatars of the Crimean Khanate and the Nogai Horde conducted almost annual slave raids in the territories controlled by the Commonwealth.  In all these other invasions, only the Russian invaders caused the most similar damages to the Swedes, due to Russian raids, destructions and rapid incursion which crippled Polish industries. [ citation needed ]
With the Treaty of Hadiach on September 16, 1658, the Polish Crown elevated the Cossacks and Ruthenians to a position equal to that of Poland and Lithuania in the Polish–Lithuanian Union, and in fact transformed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth into a Polish–Lithuanian–Ruthenian Commonwealth (Polish: Rzeczpospolita Trojga Narodów, "Commonwealth of Three Nations"). Supported by Cossack Hetman Ivan Vyhovsky and the starshyna, the treaty aimed to change the face of Eastern Europe. However, its terms never came into full operation: Russia refused to recognize Hadiach, and maintained its claims to Ukraine. The Russo-Polish War (1654–67) ended with the Treaty of Andrusovo of 13 January 1667. (Poland-Lithuania profited from Turkish participation in the Russo-Turkish War (1676–81) due to Ottoman links with the Crimea. The peace settlement gave Moscow control over the so-called Left-bank Ukraine (left of the river Dnieper), with the Commonwealth retaining Right-bank Ukraine (right of the Dnieper). While initially the agreement stipulated that Russia would return Left-bank Ukraine to the Commonwealth in twenty years, the division became permanent with the Eternal Peace Treaty of 1686.
The Deluge brought to an end the era of Polish religious tolerance: mostly non-Catholic invaders antagonized the mostly Catholic Poles. The expulsion of the Protestant Polish Brethren from Poland in 1658 exemplified the increasing intolerance. During the Deluge, many thousands of Polish Jews also fell victim to violence carried out by the Zaporozhian Cossacks. 
The Swedish invasion affected the richest provinces of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (Greater Poland, Lesser Poland, Mazovia, Pomerelia, Kujawy, Podlasie), which for the most part had not been affected by major wars for 200 years. According to Professor Andrzej Rottermund, manager of the Royal Castle in Warsaw, the Swedish army robbed Poland of her most precious goods - thousands of works of art, books and valuables.  Most of these items have never been returned to Poland, and are kept both in private Swedish hands and in Stockholm museums, such as the Swedish Army Museum, and Livrustkammaren. Almost all cities, towns, castles and churches in locations where Swedish troops were stationed were destroyed, and in guides to many Polish towns and cities one can find notes that read "object destroyed during Swedish invasion". From the Royal Castle in Warsaw the Swedes plundered approximately 200 paintings, a number of carpets and Turkish tents, musical instruments, furniture, Chinese porcelain, weapons, books, manuscripts, marbles, even dresses of maids and door frames pulled from walls.  Meanwhile, the Russian invaders in the East had also destroyed and damaged much of the eastern part's infrastructure, partly due to heavy agricultural fertile developments there.
Hubert Kowalski of the University of Warsaw Institute of Archeology says that Swedes stole anything they could lay their hands on—windows, stairs, chimneys, sculptures, floors, doors and gates. Most goods were loaded on boats and transported along the Vistula to the Baltic Sea and then to Sweden. In November 2011, archaeologists of the University of Warsaw found approximately 70 items (total weight five tons), which probably come from the Warsaw Royal Castle. They sank in the Vistula while being transported to Sweden.  Even though Article 9 of the Treaty of Oliva stated that Sweden should return all stolen goods, all items are still kept in Stockholm and other Swedish locations. Several Polish kings (John II Casimir, John III Sobieski and Stanisław II Augustus) sent official missions to Sweden, but without success. In most situations, Swedish authorities claimed that they did not know where stolen goods were.  In 1911, Kraków's Academy of Science sent its own mission, which was made up of renowned professors Eugeniusz Barwiński, Ludwik Birkenmajer and Jan Łoś. In Stockholm and Uppsala they found 205 manuscripts and 168 rare Polish books, describing their foundings in a report. In 2002, the Warsaw Royal Castle organized an exhibition, "Eagle and Three Crowns", which presented many items stolen from Poland, and kept in Swedish museums. After the Deluge, the Commonwealth became a "cultural desert". Poland and Lithuania lost 67 libraries and 17 archives. Of all major cities of the country, only Lwów and Gdańsk were not destroyed, and when Swedish soldiers were unable to steal an item, they would destroy or burn it. In ruins were castles, palaces, churches, abbeys, towns and villages. As a result of the Swedish invasion, few pre-Baroque buildings remained in Poland. An estimated 3 million died. 
Among others, Swedish troops stole such items as:
- both Polish and Lithuanian state records (Metrica Regni Poloniae),
- the royal library from Warsaw,
- libraries from Ujazdów Castle, Toruń, Bydgoszcz, Malbork, Poznań, Grudziądz, Gniezno, Lublin, Jarosław, Vilnius, Sandomierz, Radom, and Kraków, also archives and libraries from most towns of Royal Prussia. Most of the stolen books are kept in the University Library at Uppsala, the Royal Library at Stockholm, and private libraries of the Bielke, Oxenstierna, Rosenhahne, Wrangel and Brahe families,
- all Warsaw palaces – completely robbed were the Kazanowski Palace, the Ossoliński Palace, the Daniłłowicz Palace, the Primate Palace, the Bishophoric Palace, the Royal Palace and the Royal Castle,
- castles and churches, which were robbed and destroyed, as were almost all Polish towns the most notable examples are Golub-Dobrzyń, Krzyżtopór, Wieluń, Krasnystaw, Wawel, Tęczyn, Lanckorona, Pieskowa Skała, Kielce, Sandomierz, ChęcinyNiepołomice, Ojców, Wiśnicz, Łobzów, Kruszwica, Rabsztyn.
According to the estimates of Polish scholars I. Ihnatowicz, Z. Landau, A. Mączak and B. Zientara, the invasion by the Swedish army and its allies (Brandenburg-Prussia and Transilvania), resulted in the loss of 25% of the population in four core Polish provinces. Lesser Poland lost 23% of population, Mazovia 40% in villages and 70% in towns, Greater Poland 50% in villages and 60% in towns. Royal Prussia lost some 60% of its population. 
In January 2013 Marek Poznański, a Palikot Movement member of the Polish parliament, announced his plan to send thousands of postcards to European politicians and journalists, in which he wanted to convince the recipients that Poland should get financial compensation from Sweden for the destruction of the country in the deluge. Poznański claims that in the 1660 Treaty of Oliwa, Sweden pledged to return all stolen goods, which never happened. The MP had previously intervened at the Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Culture he also visited the Embassy of Sweden in Warsaw.  A businessman from Warsaw, Sławian Krzywiński, joined Poznański, creating the Foundation of Reconstruction of Destruction Caused by the Swedish Invasion (Fundacja Odbudowy Zniszczeń Dokonanych w Czasie Potopu Szwedzkiego). According to Krzywiński, looted goods are still kept in Swedish museums and private collections. Among others, Poland lost the Braniewo Library, works of Nicolaus Copernicus, including the 1543 Nuremberg edition of De revolutionibus orbium coelestium, and the oldest printed text of Bogurodzica. Krzywiński states that as an act of goodwill, the Swedish side should cover the cost of reconstruction of the Rawa Mazowiecka castle, which was destroyed by them in the 1650s. 
Effect on the fate of the Commonwealth Edit
One of the most notable effects of the devastating Deluge was the subsequent weakening of Poland's international standing. While Sweden destroyed more, Russia also took part and was second only to Sweden in the level of destruction. With the entire Polish nation destroyed by the Swedes and Russians, Russia was able to rise, found the Russian Empire in early 18th century and play a major role in the Partitions of Poland in the latter half of the 18th century.
The Deluge had a major effect on Poland, and there are several books describing the war. In 1886 Henryk Sienkiewicz described the Swedish invasion in his novel Роtор. Based on the novel, Jerzy Hoffman directed the film The Deluge (Роtор) in 1974, a classic historical work. It starred Daniel Olbrychski as the character Andrzej Kmicic, a patriot who valiantly fought against the Swedish invasion. The film received a nomination for an Oscar in 1974, but lost to the Italian film Amarcord.
In 2000, Renata Ocieczek wrote the book "Czasy potopu szwedzkiego w literaturze polskiej" ("The time of the Swedish deluge in Polish literature"),  and in 2006 Jacek Płosiński wrote "Potop szwedzki na Podlasiu" ("Swedish deluge in Podlasie")  Other books about this topic include: "Warszawa 1656" by Mirosław Nagielski, "Krwawy sztorm" ("Bloody storm") by Augustyn Necel (it describes the deluge in the region of Kaszuby), "Znak Jastrzębca" ("The sign of the Jastrzębiec") by Stanisław Maria Jankowski, and "Pamiętnik oblężenia Częstochowy" ("The memoir of the siege of Częstochowa"), by Father Augustyn Kordecki. Furthermore, James Michener describes the Deluge in his novel Poland (1983). The Deluge has also found its way into video games. The video game Mount & Blade: With Fire & Sword (named after the first book of Sienkiewicz's trilogy) contains a quest called "The Deluge" that is based on the events of the actual Deluge.
January 30 in history
1018 – Poland and the Holy Roman Empire conclude the Peace of Bautzen.
1607 – An estimated 200 square miles (51,800 ha) along the coasts of the Bristol Channel and Severn Estuary in England are destroyed by massive flooding, resulting in an estimated 2,000 deaths.
1648 – Eighty Years' War: The Treaty of Münster and Osnabrück is signed, ending the conflict between the Netherlands and Spain.
1649 – King Charles I of England is beheaded.
1661 – Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England is ritually executed two years after his death, on the anniversary of the execution of the monarch he himself deposed.
1667 – The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth cedes Kiev, Smolensk, and left-bank Ukraine to the Tsardom of Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo.
1703 – The Forty-seven Ronin, under the command of Ōishi Kuranosuke, avenge the death of their master.
1789 – Tây Sơn forces emerge victorious against Qing armies and liberate the capital Thăng Long.
1790 – The first boat specializing as a lifeboat is tested on the River Tyne.
1806 – The original Lower Trenton Bridge (also called the Trenton Makes the World Takes Bridge), which spans the Delaware River between Morrisville, Pennsylvania and Trenton, New Jersey, is opened.
1820 – Edward Bransfield sights the Trinity Peninsula and claims the discovery of Antarctica.
1826 – The Menai Suspension Bridge, considered the world's first modern suspension bridge, connecting the Isle of Anglesey to the north West coast of Wales, is opened.
1835 – In the first assassination attempt against a President of the United States, Richard Lawrence attempts to shoot president Andrew Jackson, but fails and is subdued by a crowd, including several congressmen as well as Jackson himself.
1841 – A fire destroys two-thirds of Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.
1847 – Yerba Buena, California is renamed San Francisco.
1858 – The first Hallé concert is given in Manchester, England, marking the official founding of The Hallé orchestra as a full-time, professional orchestra.
1862 – The first American ironclad warship, the USS Monitor is launched.
1889 – Archduke Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria, heir to the Austro-Hungarian crown, is found dead with his mistress Baroness Mary Vetsera in the Mayerling.
1902 – The first Anglo-Japanese Alliance is signed in London.
1908 – Indian pacifist and leader Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi is released from prison by Jan C. Smuts after being tried and sentenced to two months in jail earlier in the month.
1911 – The destroyer USS Terry makes the first airplane rescue at sea saving the life of Douglas McCurdy ten miles from Havana, Cuba.
1911 – The Canadian Naval Service becomes the Royal Canadian Navy.
1913 – The British House of Lords rejects the Irish Home Rule Bill.
1925 – The Government of Turkey throws Patriarch Constantine VI out of Istanbul.
1930 – The Politburo of the Soviet Union orders the extermination of the Kulaks.
1933 – Adolf Hitler is sworn in as Chancellor of Germany.
1942 – World War II: Japanese forces invade the island of Ambon in the Dutch East Indies.
1943 – World War II: Second day of the Battle of Rennell Island. The USS Chicago (CA-29) is sunk and a U.S. destroyer is heavily damaged by Japanese torpedoes.
1944 – World War II: The Battle of Cisterna, part of Operation Shingle, begins in central Italy.
1944 – World War II: American troops land on Majuro, Marshall Islands.
1945 – World War II: The Wilhelm Gustloff, overfilled with German refugees, sinks in the Baltic Sea after being torpedoed by a Soviet submarine, killing approximately 9,500 people in what is the deadliest known maritime disaster.
1948 – Mahatma Gandhi, known for his non-violent freedom struggle, is assassinated by Nathuram Godse, a Hindu extremist.
1956 – African-American civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr.'s home is bombed in retaliation for the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
1959 – MS Hans Hedtoft, said to be the safest ship afloat and "unsinkable" like the RMS Titanic, strikes an iceberg on her maiden voyage and sinks, killing all 95 aboard.
1960 – The African National Party is founded in Chad, through the merger of traditionalist parties.
1964 – Ranger program: Ranger 6 is launched.
1964 – In a bloodless coup, General Nguyễn Khánh overthrows General Dương Văn Minh's military junta in South Vietnam.
1965 – Some one million people attend former Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill's funeral, the biggest in the United Kingdom up to that point.
1968 – Vietnam War: Tet Offensive launch by forces of the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese Army against South Vietnam, the United States, and their allies.
1969 – The Beatles' last public performance, on the roof of Apple Records in London. The impromptu concert is broken up by the police.
1971 – Carole King's Tapestry album is released to become the longest charting album by a female solo artist and sell 24 million copies worldwide.
1972 – The Troubles: Bloody Sunday — British Paratroopers open fire on and kill fourteen unarmed civil rights/anti-internment marchers in Derry, Northern Ireland.
1972 – Pakistan withdraws from the Commonwealth of Nations.
1975 – The Monitor National Marine Sanctuary is established as the first United States National Marine Sanctuary.
1979 – A Varig Boeing 707-323C freighter, flown by the same commander as Flight 820, disappears over the Pacific Ocean 30 minutes after taking off from Tokyo.
1982 – Richard Skrenta writes the first PC virus code, which is 400 lines long and disguised as an Apple boot program called "Elk Cloner".
1989 – Closure of the American embassy in Kabul, Democratic Republic of Afghanistan.
1994 – Péter Lékó becomes the youngest chess grandmaster.
1995 – Workers from the National Institutes of Health announce the success of clinical trials testing the first preventive treatment for sickle-cell disease.
2000 – Off the coast of Ivory Coast, Kenya Airways Flight 431 crashes into the Atlantic Ocean, killing 169.
2003 – The Kingdom of Belgium officially recognizes same-sex marriages.
2013 – Naro-1 becomes the first carrier rocket launched by South Korea.
Saints' Days and Holy Days
Martina, Virgin and Martyr. Double.
Charles I of England
Hippolytus of Rome
Anglican, Episcopal, Lutheran
Synaxis of the Three Holy Hierarchs:
Saint Basil the Great, Saint Gregory the Theologian, and Saint John Chrysostom.
Hieromartyr Hippolytus, priest, of Antioch, martyred in the period of the
Hieromartyr Hippolytus of Rome, Bishop of Rome, and those with him:
Martyrs Censorinus, Sabinus, Ares (Aares), the virgin Chryse (Chryse
of Rome), Felix, Maximus, Herculianus, Venerius, Styracius, Mennas,
Commodus, Hermes, Maurus, Eusebius, Rusticus, Monagrius, Amandinus,
Olympius, Cyprus, Theodore the Tribune, the priest Maximus, the deacon
Archelaus, and the bishop Cyriacus, at Ostia, – under Roman Emperor
Claudius Gothicus and a vicarius named Ulpius Romulus (269)
Venerable Zeno the Hermit, of Antioch (414), disciple of St. Basil the Great.
Martyr Theophilus the New, in Cyprus (784)
Venerable Kyriakos, ascetic of the Great Lavra of St. Sabbas the Sanctified (7th-8th c.)
Saint Peter I of Bulgaria, King of Bulgaria (969)
Pre-Schism Western Saints
Saint Martina of Rome, a martyr in Rome under Alexander Severus (228)
Saint Savina of Milan (Sabina), born in Milan, she ministered to martyrs in prison
and buried their bodies during the persecution of Diocletian (311)
Saint Armentarius of Antibes, first Bishop of Antibes in Provence in France (ca. 451)
Martyrs Felician, Philippian and Companions, a group of 126 martyrs in North Africa
Saint Tudy (Tudclyd, Tybie), a virgin in Wales Llandydie church in Dyfed
is named after her (5th c.)
Saint Adelgonda, foundress of Maubeuge Abbey (680)
Saint Balthildes, Queen of France (680)
Saint Armentarius of Pavia, Bishop of Pavia (ca. 711)
Saint Amnichad (Amnuchad), a monk and then a hermit at Fulda monastery (1043)
Post-Schism Orthodox Saints
Venerable Zeno the Faster, of the Kiev Caves Monastery (14th century)
New Martyr Hadji Theodore of Mytilene (Mt. Athos) (1784)
New Martyr Demetrius of Sliven (1841)
Saint Theophil, fool-for-Christ, of Svyatogorsk Monastery (1868)
Blessed Pelagia of Diveyevo Monastery, fool-for-Christ (1884)
New Martyrs and Confessors
New Hieromartyr Vladimir Kristenovich, Priest (1933)
New Martyr Stephen Nalivayko (1945)
Finding of the Wonderworking Icon of Panagia Evangelistria of Tinos (1823)
Commemoration of the deliverance of the island of Zakynthos from the plague
by Saint George the Great-Martyr (1688)
Truce of Andrusovo, 30 January 1667 - History
Although Poland-Lithuania escaped the ravages of the Thirty Years' War, which ended in 1648, the ensuing two decades subjected the country to one of its severest trials. This colorful but ruinous interval, the stuff of legend and the popular historical novels of Nobel laureate Henryk Sienkiewicz (1846-1916), became known as the potop, or deluge, for the magnitude of its hardships. The emergency began with an uprising of Ukrainian Cossacks that persisted in spite of Warsaw's efforts to subdue it by force. After the rebels won the intervention of Muscovy on their behalf, Tsar Aleksei conquered most of the eastern half of the country by 1655. Taking advantage of Poland's preoccupation, Charles X of Sweden rapidly overran much of the remaining territory of the commonwealth in 1655. Pushed to the brink of dissolution, Poland-Lithuania rallied to recover most of its losses to the Swedes. Swedish brutality raised widespread revolts against Charles, whom the Polish nobles had recognized as their ruler in the meantime. Under Stefan Czarniecki, the Poles and Lithuanians drove the Swedes from their territory by 1657. Further complicated by noble dissension and wars with the Ottoman Turks, the thirteen-year struggle over control of Ukraine ended in the Truce of Andrusovo in 1667. Although Russia had been defeated by a new Polish-Ukrainian alliance in 1662, Russia gained eastern Ukraine in the peace treaty.
Despite the improbable survival of the commonwealth in the face of the potop, one of the most dramatic instances of the Poles' knack for prevailing in adversity, the episode inflicted irremediable damage and contributed heavily to the ultimate demise of the state. When Jan II Kaziemierz abdicated in 1668, the population of the commonwealth had been nearly halved by war and disease. War had destroyed the economic base of the cities and raised a religious fervor that ended Poland's policy of religious tolerance. Henceforth, the commonwealth would be on the strategic defensive facing hostile neighbors. Never again would Poland compete with Russia as a military equal.
ALEXIS I (RUSSIA) (1629 – 1676 ruled 1645 – 1676)
ALEXIS I (RUSSIA) (1629 – 1676 ruled 1645 – 1676), tsar of Russia. Alexis Mikhailovich came to the throne at the age of sixteen in 1645. His long and eventful reign saw the beginnings of the rise of Russia's power and the earliest phases of the Europeanization of its culture. At first he ruled under the influence of his former tutor, the boyar Boris Morozov. Morozov tried to pay for the defenses of the southern frontier and other outlays by changing the tax system, introducing a new tax on salt and other burdens in place of the older general sales tax and tavern monopoly. He consolidated his power at court in January 1648, when Alexis married Mariia Miloslavskaia and Morozov her sister Anna. The tax measures led to increasing discontent and ultimately to a revolt in Moscow in June 1648, which led to the temporary eclipse of Morozov. Gentry discontent added to urban unrest, and the outcome was the Assembly of the Land of 1649, which compiled the first systematic Russian law code, printed by order of the tsar. Morozov was able to come back to power, seconded by the boyar Ilia Miloslavskii, Alexis's father-in-law, and other boyar allies. Discontent in towns and border fortresses led to a further series of revolts (Novgorod and Pskov, 1650).
Alexis also brought to power in the church a group of reformist priests led by his chaplain Stefan Vonifat'ev, who argued for a stricter moral code (for instance, that taverns should be closed on Sundays), changes in the liturgy to make the words more accessible, and preaching. The appointment of Nikon in 1652 to the patriarchal throne made possible the adoption of the program and brought a new and powerful figure to court.
Domestic concerns soon gave way to war with Poland. In 1648 the Ukrainian Cossacks in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, led by Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky, rose against the state and nobility, in defense of Orthodoxy against forced union with Rome and for the rights of Cossacks and peasants. They immediately sent an embassy asking for help from Alexis, but Russia was reluctant to exchange its budding friendship with Poland for an alliance with Cossack and peasant rebels. The urban revolts also complicated the situation. By early 1653, however, Khmelnytsky offered to come under the tsar's "high hand," and Alexis agreed to fight Poland, calling an Assembly of the Land to ratify the decision. In 1654 Alexis concluded the Pereyaslav treaty with the Cossacks, making them a sort of vassal state to Russia.
The war at first went well for Russia. In 1654 – 1655 Alexis conquered Smolensk and almost all of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. At the same time Sweden entered the war, overrunning much of western Poland. In 1656 Alexis made a truce with Poland, apparently afraid that a complete Polish collapse was undesirable, and declared war on Sweden, continuing without success until 1661. Revived Polish fortunes after the 1660 peace with Sweden led to a standoff, draining Russian resources and resulting in the copper revolt of 1662 in Moscow, a response to adulterated currency. Peace negotiations under Afanasii Lavrentevich Ordin-Nashchokin ended in 1667 with the treaty of Andrusovo.
In the treaty Russia returned Lithuania but received Smolensk and its territory, the Cossack Ukraine east of the Dnieper and the city of Kiev, for two years, which Russia retained after the time was up. The treaty signified a fundamental shift of power away from Poland toward Russia and also gave Russia a southern border much closer to the Crimea and the Ottomans. Those powers and the Ukrainian hetmans were the main concerns for Alexis from then on. He relied on Ordin-Nashchokin to conduct foreign affairs, but the latter's failures in Ukraine led to the rise of Artamon Matveev, from 1671 the tsar's principal favorite. The death of Morozov in 1661 and of Ilia Miloslavskii, Tsaritsa Mariia, and Alexis's eldest son (1669) opened the political field but also endangered the succession. Alexis married Nataliia Naryshkina, the daughter of a musketeer colonel, in 1671. The birth of Peter (later Peter the Great) in 1672 ensured the succession and reinforced the importance of Matveev, Nataliia's ally, to the end of Alexis's reign.
Patriarch Nikon pursued reform in the church, correcting the liturgical texts to agree with the Greek versions. These changes brought forth protests from his former allies, chiefly the archpriest Avvakum Petrovich, who claimed they were incorrect and harmful to the faith. Avvakum and his followers were sent into exile in Siberia and the far north. Meanwhile Nikon's relations with the tsar deteriorated, as Nikon also built up patriarchal power in the church. In 1658 a clash over precedence caused Nikon to leave his duties and retire to the nearby Voskresenskii monastery. As he did not abdicate his office, the church had no head for the next eight years. Attempts to solve the dispute failed, and simultaneously opposition to Nikon's liturgical reforms spread. At a church council in 1666 – 1667 Nikon was formally deposed and the opposition to the liturgical reforms declared schismatic. The church hierarchy returned to normal, but dissent continued to spread and deepen. The selection of Ioakim (1674) brought to the patriarchate a powerful advocate of the new liturgy, the education of the clergy, and patriarchal power, leading to clashes with Alexis in his last years.
The reforms in the church inspired the invitation of Ukrainian clerics to Moscow. The Ukrainians had studied at the Kievan Academy (founded 1633), which taught a European curriculum in Latin on Jesuit models but with Orthodox faith. Epifanii Slavinetskii (died 1675) made new translations of the church fathers and the liturgy and preached sermons in and around the court. In 1664 Simeon Polotskii (1629 – 1680) was tutor to Alexis's sons and the first Russian court poet as well as preacher. Among the boyar elite knowledge of Polish and some Latin began to spread, as did interest in the religious culture of Kiev, centered on the baroque sermon. The foreign community of Moscow ("the German suburb"), largely composed of German, Dutch, English, and Scottish merchants and mercenary officers, contributed other Western elements. Alexis established the first theater in Russia at his court in 1672, using a Lutheran pastor for his playwright and the boys from the German school as actors. Alexis acquired Western paintings, a telescope, and other new things.
Alexis also began the reform of the Russian army, substituting infantry armed with muskets and drilling in the Western manner for the gentry cavalry and undrilled musketeers of earlier times. This army allowed him to win against Poland, but it was very expensive, and after 1667 formations of the new type were much less numerous. Russia maintained extensive trade with England and Holland through Arkhangel'sk, though Alexis tried to favor Russian merchants. He revoked the English Muscovy Company's privileges in 1649, using the execution of Charles I as a pretext, and decreed mildly protectionist toll rates. At the same time he gave privileges to the Dutch to set up iron and munitions works. During these years Russia's agrarian base expanded enormously, in spite of serfdom, through colonization of the southern steppe and Volga basin. The reign of Alexis saw the further consolidation of the Russian state and society, important cultural and religious changes, and the rise of Russian power. It laid the foundation for the far-reaching changes wrought by his son Peter.
Oleksandr Palii, A History of Ukraine, 13.02.2018
In the fall of 1653, during a campaign against Ukraine, a 50,000-strong Polish army led by King John II Casimir was encircled near the village of Zhvanets in Podillia. The Polish army began to suffer from hunger and epidemics. However, the position of the Crimean Khan once again saved Poland from a complete rout and the Polish king from captivity. This forced the hetman to sharply change his international political orientation.
Muscovy, which had repeatedly suffered defeats from Poland (in 1569&ndash1581, 1604&ndash1618 and 1632&ndash 1634), was afraid to intervene in the conflict. Moscow wanted Ukraine and Poland to exhaust each other.
However, the defeat of Poland and the threat of Khmelnytsky making an alliance with Turkey or Sweden encouraged Moscow to conduct new negotiations with the Ukrainian hetman. These ended in January 1654 with the signing of the Treaty of Pereyaslav. Under this agreement, Ukraine entered into a military alliance with Moscow which pledged to fight against Poland. In their turn, the Cossacks promised military assistance to Moscow in regaining control over Smolensk and making campaigns against Lithuania (Poland).
The agreement had two restrictions: even though taxes were to be collected by Ukrainian officials in Ukraine, part of them had to go to Moscow. Moreover, Ukraine was not to negotiate with Turkey and Poland. Even though the original of the 1654 treaty was &ldquolost&rdquo in Muscovite archives, the statements and letters of the then leaders clearly show that Ukraine fully preserved its sovereignty.
The Ukrainian clergy and military commanders refused to pledge allegiance to the Muscovite tsar because they knew about the utter lawlessness and wild tyranny that reigned supreme in Muscovy. In the 15th through the 17th century, a father had the legal right to sell his children into slavery in Muscovy. Only after selling them three times and if they were bought out each time, did the father lose this right. In contrast, people in Ukraine were used to freedom. Even at the hardest of times under the Polish rule, only a minority of the population were serfs. Moreover, serfdom involved mandatory labor for the landlord he did not have authority over the personal freedom of peasants.
Ivan Bohun, painting based on an old portrait, 19th century.
The Cossack colonel, Ivan Bohun, warned: &ldquoMost atrocious slavery reigns supreme in Muscovy. People do not and cannot have any property because everything is the property of the tsar. Muscovite boyars call themselves &lsquoslaves of the tsar&rsquo. The entire Muscovite people are slaves. In Muscovy, people are sold on the market just like we sell cattle. To join these people is worse than to jump into a fire alive.&rdquo
Moreover, the Bratslav, Kropyvna, Poltava and Uman Cossack regiments, a number of Ukrainian cities and the famous military commander, Ivan Sirko, refused to swear allegiance to the tsar.
Nevertheless, to fulfill its obligations, the Ukrainian army went into the northern Slavic lands of Lithuania and seized Smolensk. The hetman&rsquos rule was established in one half of the modern territory of Belarus and Cossack regiments were formed in the likeness of Ukrainian ones.
As they fought for the Muscovites, Ukrainians did not receive sufficient reinforcement. In Podillia, they desperately fought to keep the Poles away from Ukrainian castles and towns. E.g., a wife of the Cossack sotnyk (captain), Mariana Zavysna, even blew up her gunpowder magazine in the Busha castle in Podillia, killing the attackers and herself.
Muscovy violated the Pereyaslav Treaty less than two and a half years after signing it. Poland promised to the Muscovite tsar that he would be elected king and the Muscovite government concluded the Truce of Vilna with Poland in October 1656.
It was at this time that, ignoring Moscow&rsquos protests, hetman Khmelnytsky made an alliance with Sweden, which was at war with Muscovy, Semyhraddia (Transylvania) and Brandenburg. Khmelnytsky opted for Sweden as this remote country had no claim to Ukrainian lands. But Khmelnytsky died on 6 August 1657 while making preparations for a new campaign.
The Liberation War of Bohdan Khmelnytsky restored Ukraine&rsquos statehood &mdash four centuries after the fall of the Kyivan Rus&rsquo and 178 years after the demise of the Kyiv principality.
The Ukrainian people suffered huge losses and scored a series of glorious victories, but the outcomes were not commensurate with the scale of victories. Ukraine&rsquos main problem was the disloyalty of its allies who tried to take advantage of its hardships.
In 1657, Ivan Vyhovsky, a Ukrainian noble from the Kyiv region who was close to Khmelnytsky and served as the general chancellor, was elected the next hetman (1657&ndash1659).
In an effort to subdue Ukraine, the Muscovite government started forming a &ldquofifth column&rdquo by sending agents with money and promises and fueling a civil war. The threat of Muscovite aggression forced Vyhovsky to make an alliance with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Crimea and Sweden.
Treaty of Hadiach (1658), original, with the signature of the Polish king
Under the Treaty of Hadiach of 1658, Ukraine as a sovereign state with the name &ldquoGreat Principality of Rus&rsquo&rdquo joined the Commonwealth on an equal basis with Poland and Lithuania. The Ukrainian army was to have 30,000 Cossacks and 10,000 hired soldiers. The Polish troops were banned from the territory of the principality. The Kyiv Mohyla Academy was granted the same rights as Cracow University in Poland, which was well-known across Europe. A second academy or university had to be founded in another city in Ukraine. The Treaty of Hadiach was extremely beneficial for Ukraine and surpassed everything the Cossacks gained during the Liberation War.
In the spring of 1659 the 150,000-strong Muscovite army entered Left-Bank Ukraine. In Konotop (Sumy region), 4,000 Cossacks of the Nizhyn and Chernyhiv regiments locked up the city. The two-month defense of Konotop under the command of the Nizhyn colonel, Hryhorii Hulianytsky, engaged the bulk of the Muscovite forces. On 28&ndash29 June 1659 the decisive Battle of Konotop took place on the Sosnivka River. Before the battle, the Cossacks went into the enemy&rsquos rear and dammed up the river, faking a retreat to lure the enemy and defeated the Muscovite army. Some 30,000 Muscovites were killed and many more thousands were captured. When the Muscovite tsar received the news about the defeat, he ordered an evacuation from Moscow.
However, hetman Ivan Vyhovsky was unable to take advantage of the victory. Part of the Cossack officers, who had been secretly bribed and incited by Moscow, opposed him. Moreover, a union with Poland was not popular among the Cossacks after the Ukrainian-Polish wars. Poland made concessions too late. In order to prevent any unrest, Vyhovsky renounced the hetmanship in October 1659.
Ukraine soon had five contenders for the hetman's mace at once. The period known as "the Ruin" began. Its main causes were the aggressive enroachments of Muscovy, Poland, The Ottoman Empire and the Crimean Khanate.
Denunciations, plotting and careerist bickering were undermining the country. Offering positions and money, foreign governments bribed unworty officers and the dregs of society to sell the interests of the country.
In 1665, hetman Ivan Briukhovetsky was lured to Moscow and there deliberately signed the Moscow Articles under big pressure. These Articles prohibited the Ukrainian hetman from pursuing his own foreign policy. The number of Muscovite troops was increased and the Ukrainian government pledged to provide them with food &mdash free of charge. The general chancellor, Zakhar Shyikevych, refused to sign the Articles and was immediately exiled to Siberia in shackles.
A short time afterward, both Poland and Muscovy signed the Truce of Andrusovo in 1667, fully partioning Ukraine along the Dnipro river. The Cossacks perceived it as a treachorous betrayal from the part of Moscow. Muscovy managed Ukrainian lands as if they belonged to it, rather than entered into a union with an independent state.
1649 Treaty of Zboriv &mdash Poland recognized Ukraine in its Kyiv, Chernyhiv and Bratslav voivodeships
1651 Treaty of Bila Tserkva &mdash Poland recognized Ukraine only in Kyiv voivodeship
1654 Treaty of Pereyaslav &mdash Ukraine & Muscovy united versus Poland
1656 Truce of Vilnius &mdash Poland & Muscovy united versus Ukraine
1657 Treaty of Korsun &mdash Ukraine and Sweden tried to unite versus Poland
1658 Treaty of Hadiach &mdash Ukraine & Poland united versus Muscovy
1667 Truce of Andrusovo &mdash Poland & Muscovy divided Ukraine along the Dnipro