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Are Emil Ludwig's “Talks with Mussolini” reliable?

Are Emil Ludwig's “Talks with Mussolini” reliable?


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In 1932 Emil Ludwig interviewed over several days Benito Mussolini and then published with Mondadori publishing house the result, as the book Talks with Mussolini. After having approved the draft with only minimal corrections, Mussolini blocked the book and imposed more extended modifications. Nowadays the complete version is available (in Italian, since 1950).

My question is: are the talks as reported by Ludwig reliable? In other words, may we take the sentences attributed to Mussolini as his own?


Rise of Fascism in Europe: Fascist Ideology and Movements in Europe

In the 1920s, Europe experienced a rise in Fascism, and later Nazism. Both Fascism and Nazism promote nationalism and focus more on unity as a nation. Unlike Communism, Fascism tries to keep the division of (and conflict between) classes to a minimum without changing the class system. Communism, which was thriving in Russia during this time, sought to change the standing economic structures to spread wealth equally. Although Fascism and Nazism were ideologically similar, the racism and discrimination at the center of Nazi beliefs were not part of Fascism initially. When Nazism began, Adolph Hitler (leader of the Nazi party) claimed to have admiration for the already successful Benito Mussolini (head of the Italian Fascist party) (Knox 125). Later, however, Hitler criticized Mussolini and the Italian people for being “racially impure”. Mussolini dismissed the German leader, thinking him unstable (Knox 125).

Fascism varied in the different countries that it spread to. There were notable Fascist parties in Hungary, Spain, Portugal, Britain, France, and Romania. France had two significant Fascist movements, the Action Francaise and the Juenesse Patriotes. Fascism in Romania took the face of a National-Christian movement (Payne 379). Although Fascism itself has no religious affiliation, various Fascist leaders in Europe morphed the original concept with religious ideologies in an effort to gain the confidence of their people. Issues between the Christian fascists and the Pagan fascists arose, reflecting the conflict between Christianity and Paganism (“World War I and Fascism”).

European Fascist Parties and the Rise of Fascism

The fascist party in Britain played an important role in the 1920s with the help of Oswald Mosely, but far more influential was the original Fascist Party from Italy. Their success had much to do with the pairing of the Italian fascists and the German Nazis. Mussolini was concerned with the worldview of the Italian people, wanting the country and its people to become something greater than they were. Both Mussolini and Hitler knew that they would not be able to expand their movements through Europe (as both wanted to do) without support outside of their country (Gillette 45).

The pairing came to be because of the strong nationalist, anti-social democracy, and anti-communist cores (Rodogno 46-48). Although there was no anti-semitism initially (Mussolini’s wife, a contributor to the Italian fascist party, was of Jewish heritage), racism and anti-Semitism became a part of the Fascist Party as the parties continued to work together. Indeed, Mussolini is quoted in Talks with Mussolini (1932) as saying: “Race? It is a feeling, not a reality. Ninety-five per cent, at least. Nothing will ever make me believe that biologically pure races can be shown to exist today… National pride has no need of the delirium of race” (Ludwig 199). Needing more ammunition to fuel his reign over Italy, Mussolini eventually incorporated racialist attitude into his agenda.

Fascism’s rise to power had much to do with the First World War. Italy fought on the side of the Allies as a defense mechanism against Austro-Hungarian aggression the war left Italy devastated. The country had little money left and the Liberal Party that had been head of the country could no longer hold control. When the Fascist party promised freedom from the current poverty and chaos, they were met with great enthusiasm from the Italian people (O’Brien).

Italy. Fascism Doctrine and Institutions. By Giovanni Gentile and Benito Mussolini. Rome: Ardita, 1935. The Doctrine of Fascism Benito Mussolini (1932). World Future Fund. Web. 22 Mar. 2013.

Gillette, Aaron. “Racial Theory and Fascism, 1915-1935.” Racial Theories in Fascist Italy. London: Routledge, 2002. 45. Print.

Knox, MacGregor. Common Destiny: Dictatorship, Foreign Policy, and War in Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge UP, 2000. 125. Print.

Mussolini, Benito, and Emil Ludwig. Talks with Mussolini,. Trans. Eden Paul and Cedar Paul. Boston: Little, Brown, 1933. 199. Print.

O’Brien, Paul. Mussolini in the First World War: The Journalist, the Soldier, the Fascist. Oxford: Berg, 2005. N. pag. Print.

Payne, Stanley G. A History of Fascism, 1914–1945. Madison: University of Wisconsin, 1995. 379. Print.

Rodogno, Davide. Fascism’s European Empire: Italian Occupation during the Second World War. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge UP, 2006. 46-48. Print.

“World War I and Fascism.” Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica Inc., 2013. Web. 22 Mar. 2013.


Emil Ludwig

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Emil Ludwig, original name Emil Cohn, (born Jan. 25, 1881, Breslau, Ger. [now Wrocław, Pol.]—died Sept. 17, 1948, near Ascona, Switz.), German writer internationally known for his many popular biographies.

Ludwig was trained in law but at 25 began writing plays and poems. After serving as foreign correspondent for a German newspaper during World War I, he wrote a novel (Diana, originally published as two works, 1918–19 Eng. trans., 1929). In 1920 he published a biography of J.W. von Goethe, which established him as a writer in the “new school” of biography that emphasized the personality of the subject.

Ludwig’s work has elicited a mixed response because his biographies combine fiction with fact. Many of his biographies have appeared in English translation: Napoleon (1927) Bismarck (1927) William Hohenzollern (1927) Goethe (1928) The Son of Man (1928), a highly controversial biography of Christ Lincoln (1929) Hindenburg (1935) Cleopatra: The Story of a Queen (1937) Roosevelt: A Study in Fortune and Power (1938) Three Portraits: Hitler, Mussolini, Stalin (1940) and Beethoven (1943). Othello (1947) is an imaginative retelling of William Shakespeare’s tragedy.


Can anyone recommend a good Mussolini biography?

Post by Potsdamerplatz » 11 May 2008, 03:03

I really need to get hold of a good biography of Benito Mussolini with emphasis on his fall from power, arrest & imprisonment and the final few weeks of his life.

Thanks in advance for all replies received.

Re: Can anyone recommend a good Mussolini biography?

Post by Richard Hargreaves » 13 May 2008, 22:37

There aren't really any biographies in English on Mussolini which are comparable with those on, say, Hitler or Stalin. Not that I've seen anyway. Richard Bosworth's Mussolini and its sister volume Mussolini's Italy are the best I've read by far.

F W Deakin's The Brutal Friendship is a history of German-Italian relations from around 1942-1945. There are numerous versions of it floating around, including a two-volume Pelican paperback. The second volume, The Fall of Mussolini, is going for 1p on Amazon. From memory, it's an abridged version of the second half of the original single-volume history.

Re: Can anyone recommend a good Mussolini biography?

Post by Potsdamerplatz » 13 May 2008, 22:53

Thanks Richard. The book on Amazon Marketplace at 1p is going to be snapped up soon and it's seems to be exactly what I'm looking for.

Re: Can anyone recommend a good Mussolini biography?

Post by Potsdamerplatz » 16 May 2008, 00:06

I also decided to get this one "Mussolini: The 600 Last Days" by Ray Moseley. It gets excellent reviews on both Amazon sites (including a 5-star review by a member of this forum)

Re: Can anyone recommend a good Mussolini biography?

Post by Richard Hargreaves » 16 May 2008, 11:21

Funnily enough, I saw it in Waterstone's yesterday and had a flick through. Looked very good indeed although it's not really my 'field' as I'm more interested in 1940-43. There's a new book on Italy's plans for war

which is surprisingly cheap for CUP.

Re: Can anyone recommend a good Mussolini biography?

Post by Worldwarstoday » 20 Sep 2012, 07:26

I purchased the book by Ray Moseley earlier this year:

Have to admit I was disappointed as there is not as much content dedicated to the final few days of his life as I would have hoped for. Perhaps all the conflicting stories as to what happened during Mussolini's time in custody and the manner of his execution deterred the author from making bold statements and exploring some of the myths.

Not many photographs either and to omit the very last known 2 photographs of Il Duce in Milan, April 1945 (the last being Mussolini leaving his meeting with Cardinal Schuster on 25th April) is a poor show. I would have expected much better

Re: Can anyone recommend a good Mussolini biography?

Post by J. Duncan » 21 Sep 2012, 10:23

There are many competent biographies of Mussolini and the older ones are much better than the tripe being mass produced today (tailor written) for mass readers with all of their post-modern biases. I have Bosworth's books and they suck compared to what was written on him from 1945 to the 1970's. Mussolini was not a baffoon and he was quite a fascinating figure with many dynamic ideas and contradictions. he also re-created himself and his image many times during his tumultuous life. like a diamond, there are many facets to his life that these earlier works illustrate rather than these more modern slapped-together for profit books I'm finding in the book market today.

For starters, there is Mussolini's own books "My Autobiography" written when he was admired and his "The Fall of Mussolini" in which he describes his own downfall during the events of July 1943. There is also his short book "The Doctrine of Fascism", giving his ideas as to what he believes "fascsim" was at the time he wrote it (early 1930's) Mussolini was a dilletante when it came to ideas, and he changed these as his life perspective changed.

There are the books written by his family: "Mussolini" by his wife, Donna Rachele Mussolini (a really good book)
"My Truth" by his daughter Edda (once hostile, she comes to forgive him)
"Mussolini: The Tragic Women in his Life" by son Vittorio

The diaries of his son-in-law Count Galeazzo Ciano "Diaries 1939-1943" and "Ciano's Hidden Diary" (a better book than the first).

As for the biographical, there is an interesting book from 1932 by Emil Ludwig "Talks with Mussolini" in which Il Duce discusses many subjects and questions put to him by Ludwig.

There is a rather hagiographic but interesting book by Margherita Sarfatti (an early mistress) titled "DUX", but which gives the reader a load of insight into the formation of Mussolini's world view. There is also Megaro's "Mussolini in the Making". Any book by A. James Gregor is good on learning about how fascism developed within the mind of Mussolini.
"Fascism and developmental Dictatorship" and "The ideological Origins of fascism" come to mind here.

Of good general biographies, Christopher Hibbert's "Il Duce" is still one of the best. On his downfall there is the early book (1949) by Dombrowski titled "Mussolini: Twilight and Fall". Not much written on the Salo Republic (in English language) but Hibbert gives a good overview of the 1943-1945 period when Mussolini was a captive in more ways than one (the germans, his mistress Petacci, his family, and his very angry wife).

Mussolini's life is very interesting. named after revolutionaries by a blacksmith socialist father, he was a delinquent youth, a hell-raiser handy with knives, a woman chaser (and beater), a left-wing socialist agitator, an anti-clerical atheist who later became more pious with age, a man who studied the koran with one of his mistreses (rafenelli), a WWI soldier, nationalist fascist, diplomat on the world stage, ruthless dictator, imperialist aggressor, bombastic speaker, family man who had the father of his grandchildren shot for treason, Socialistic dreamer and fantasist from 1943-1945.
Too many facets to enumerate but these older books really give a better picture of the man than the newer ones.


French and English editions of works by Ludwig

The following French editions of Emil Ludwig's books were published in the period 1926–1940: Biographies: Goethe (3 volumes), Napoléon, Bismarck, Trois Titans, Lincoln, Le Fils de l'Homme, Le Nil (2 volumes). Political works: Guillaume II, Juillet 1914, Versailles, Hindenburg, Roosevelt, Barbares et Musiciens, La Conquête morale de l'Allemagne, Entretiens avec Mussolini, La Nouvelle Sainte-Alliance.

Biographies of Goethe, Napoleon, Bismarck and Wilhelm Hohenzollern are available in English from G. P. Putnam's Sons (New York and London).

Emil Ludwig was – and remains – renowned for a popular biography of Napoleon published in English in 1926, just after it was published in Germany in the original German, while Ludwig was still living there. This book is still quite readable today – Ludwig has a rare gift of evoking a vanished era in straightforward plain prose. The book has a rare quality of immediacy, as if what Ludwig writes of were almost current history. Napoleon was published by a New York publishing house renowned for titles of intellectual and scholarly interest in its day, Boni & Liveright.

  • Leaders of Europe, Ivor Nicholson and Watson Ltd. (1934), translated by James Murphy
  • Bismarck
  • Diana
  • Genius and Character
  • Gifts of Life
  • Goethe
  • Hindenburg
  • July '14
  • Wilhelm Hohenzollern
  • Nine Etched from Life
  • Lincoln
  • Napoleon
  • On Mediterranean Shores
  • The Practical Wisdom of Goethe
  • Schliemann
  • Son of Man (Jesus)
  • Talks with Mussolini
  • Three Titans
  • The Davos Murder
  • Defender of Democracy
  • Masaryk of Czechoslovakia
  • The Nile: The Life-Story of a River, The Viking Press (1937), translated by Mary H. Lindsay

Calvert and Schliemann

In 1865, Calvert had excavated trenches into Hisarlik and found enough evidence to convince himself that he had found the correct site. In August of 1868, Calvert invited Schliemann to dinner and to see his collection, and at that dinner, he recognized that Schliemann had the money and chutzpah to get the additional funding and permits to dig at Hisarlik that Calvert could not. Calvert spilled his guts to Schliemann about what he had found, beginning a partnership he would soon learn to regret.

Schliemann returned to Paris in the fall of 1868 and spent six months becoming an expert on Troy and Mycenae, writing a book of his recent travels, and writing numerous letters to Calvert, asking him where he thought the best place to dig might be, and what sort of equipment he might need to excavate at Hisarlik. In 1870 Schliemann began excavations at Hisarlik, under the permit Frank Calvert had obtained for him, and with members of Calvert's crew. But never, in any of Schliemann's writings, did he ever admit that Calvert did anything more than agree with Schliemann's theories of the location of Homer's Troy, born that day when his father sat him on his knee.


Frankl was born the middle of three children to Gabriel Frankl, a civil servant in the Ministry of Social Service, and Elsa (née Lion). [1] His interest in psychology and the role of meaning developed when he began taking night classes on applied psychology while in junior high school. [1] As a teenager he began corresponding with Sigmund Freud. [ citation needed ] After graduation from high school in 1923, he studied medicine at the University of Vienna. During his studies, he specialized in neurology and psychiatry, with a focus on depression and suicide.

In 1924, Frankl's first scientific paper was published in The International Journal of Psychoanalysis. [7] In the same year, he was president of the Sozialistische Mittelschüler Österreich, the Social Democratic Party of Austria's youth movement for high school students. [1] During this time Frankl began questioning the Freudian approach to psychoanalysis. He joined Alfred Adler's circle of students and had his second scientific paper, Psychotherapy and Worldview (Psychotherapie und Weltanschauung) published in Adler's International Journal of Individual Psychology in 1925. [1] Frankl was expelled from Adler's circle [2] when he insisted that meaning was the central motivational force in human beings. From 1926, he began refining his theory, which he termed logotherapy. [8]

Psychiatry Edit

Between 1928 and 1930, while still a medical student, he organized youth counselling centers [9] to address the high numbers of teen suicides occurring around the time of end of the year report cards. The program was sponsored by the city of Vienna and free of charge to the students. Frankl recruited other psychologists for the center, including Charlotte Bühler, Erwin Wexberg and Rudolf Dreikurs. In 1931 not a single Viennese student died by suicide. [10] [ unreliable source? ]

After obtaining his M.D. in 1930, Frankl gained extensive experience at Steinhof Psychiatric Hospital where he was responsible for the treatment of suicidal women. In 1937, he began a private practice, but the Nazi annexation of Austria in 1938 limited his ability to treat patients. [1] In 1940 he joined Rothschild Hospital, the only hospital in Vienna still admitting Jews, as head of the neurology department. Prior to his deportation to the concentration camps, he helped numerous patients avoid the Nazi euthanasia program that targeted the mentally disabled. [2] [11]

In 1942, just nine months after marrying his wife, Frankl and his family were sent to the Theresienstadt concentration camp. His father died there of starvation and pneumonia. In 1944, Frankl and the surviving members of his family were taken to Auschwitz, where his mother and brother were gassed. His wife died later of typhus in Bergen-Belsen. Frankl himself spent a total of three years in four different concentration camps. [6]

Following the war, he became head of the neurology department of the Vienna Polyclinic Hospital and established a private practice in his home. He actively worked with patients until his retirement in 1970. [2]

In 1948, Frankl earned a PhD in philosophy from the University of Vienna. His dissertation, The Unconscious God, examines the relation of psychology and religion. [12] In this, Frankl advocates for the use of the Socratic dialogue (self-discovery discourse) to be used with clients, to get in touch with their spiritual unconscious. [13]

In 1955, Frankl was awarded a professorship of neurology and psychiatry at the University of Vienna, and as visiting professor, he lectured at Harvard University (1961), at Southern Methodist University, Dallas (1966), and at Duquesne University, Pittsburgh (1972). [8]

Throughout his career, Frankl argued that the reductionist tendencies of early psychotherapeutic approaches dehumanised the patient, and advocated for a rehumanisation of psychotherapy. [14]

The American Psychiatric Association awarded Frankl the 1985 Oskar Pfister Award for his contributions to religion and psychiatry. [14]

Man's Search for Meaning Edit

Soon after his return to Vienna [ clarification needed ] , he wrote Man’s Search for Meaning over a nine-day period. [15] The book, originally titled A Psychologist Experiences the Concentration Camp, was released in German in 1946.

The English translation of Man's Search for Meaning was published in 1959 and became an international bestseller. [2] Frankl saw this success as a symptom of the "mass neurosis of modern times" since the title promised to deal with the question of life's meaningfulness. [16]

In 1991, Man's Search for Meaning was listed as one of the ten most influential books in the U.S. by respondents in a survey conducted for the Library of Congress and the Book of the Month Club. [17]

Logotherapy and existential analysis Edit

Frankl developed logotherapy and existential analysis, which are based on philosophical and psychological concepts, particularly the desire to find a meaning in life and free will. [18] [19] Frankl identified three main ways of realizing meaning in life: by making a difference in the world, by having particular experiences, or by adopting particular attitudes.

The primary techniques offered by logotherapy and existential analysis are: [20] [18] [19]

    : clients learn to overcome obsessions or anxieties by self-distancing and humorous exaggeration.
  • Dereflection: drawing the client's attention away from their symptoms, as hyper-reflection can lead to inaction. [21]
  • Socratic dialogue and attitude modification: asking questions designed to help a client find and pursue self-defined meaning in their life. [22]

His acknowledgement of meaning as a central motivational force and factor in mental health is his lasting contribution to the field of psychology. It provided the foundational principles for the emerging field of positive psychology. [23]

  • 1956: Promotion Award for Public Education of the Ministry of Education, Austria
  • 1962: Cardinal Innitzer Prize, Austria
  • 1969: Austrian Cross of Honour for Science and Art, 1st class
  • 1976: Prize of the Danubia Foundation
  • 1980: Honorary Ring of Vienna, Austria
  • 1981: Austrian Decoration for Science and Art
  • 1985: Oskar Pfister Award, USA
  • 1986: Honorary doctorate from the University of Vienna, Austria
  • 1986: Honorary member of the association Bürgervereinigung Landsberg im 20. Jahrhundert
  • 1988: Great Silver Medal with Star for Services to the Republic of Austria
  • 1995: Hans Prinzhorn Medal
  • 1995: Honorary Citizen of the City of Vienna
  • 1995: Great Gold Medal with Star for Services to the Republic of Austria

In 1941 he married Tilly Grosser, who was a station nurse at Rothschild Hospital. Soon after they were married she became pregnant, but they were forced to abort the child. Tilly died in the Bergen Belsen concentration camp. [2] [1]

His father Gabriel, originally from Pohořelice, Moravia, died in the Theresienstadt Ghetto concentration camp on 13 February 1943, aged 81, from starvation and pneumonia. His mother and brother, Walter, were both killed in Auschwitz. His sister, Stella, escaped to Australia. [2] [1]

In 1947 he married Eleonore "Elly" Katharina Schwindt. She was a practicing Catholic, and the couple respected each other's religious backgrounds, going to both church and synagogue, and celebrating Christmas and Hanukkah. They had one daughter, Gabriele, who went on to become a child psychologist. [2] [4] [24]

Frankl died of heart failure in Vienna on 2 September 1997 and was buried in the Jewish section of the Vienna Central Cemetery. [25]


Ближайшие родственники

About Emil Ludwig von Frankenberg und Ludwigsdorf, Brigadier General

Emil Otto Wilhelm Ludwig von Frankenberg und Ludwigsdorf (Born: 7. October 1813 in Breslau Died: 31. August 1900 in Nieder-Schüttlau) was a Prussian Major General.

Emil comes from the Silesian Uradelsgeschlecht Frankenberg. After his schooling he served in the Prussian military and was promoted to Brigadier General. In 1848 he married Luise Henriette von Frankenberg and Ludwigsdorf (1825 1902).

From 1867-69 Emil was the Commander at Frankfurt am Main

Emil Otto Wilhelm Ludwig von Frankenberg und Ludwigsdorf (* 7. Oktober 1813 in Breslau † 31. August 1900 in Nieder-Schüttlau) war ein preußischer Generalmajor.

Leben:' Rittergut Nieder-Schüttlau um 1860, Sammlung Alexander Duncker Er stammt aus dem schlesischen Uradelsgeschlecht Frankenberg. Nach dem Schulbesuch schlug er die preußische Militärlaufbahn ein und wurde bis zum Generalmajor befördert. Verheiratet war er seit 1848 mit Luise Henriette von Frankenberg und Ludwigsdorf (1825�).

1867-69 Kommandant von Frankfurt am Main

Von Frankenberg website:

FAMILY (English literal translation):

Silesian Uradelsgeschlecht. To the root Frankenberg and Proschlitz include: → Friedrich (1600-50) and his son → Johann Heinrich (1643-98), both of Württemberg oil forensic governors, → Carl Magnus (1696-1757), President of the Chamber of Hesse and chief steward, Karl → (1746-1819), Prussian major General, →, Egbert (1841-98), Prussian Lieutenant General, his son → Werner (1868-1933) and → Oskar (1856-1932), Prussian general, both majors. -

Sylvius the Eberhard Freiherr von Frankenberg brothers Ludwigsdorff (1682-1764), Prussian Privy Council and the acting head of Schmalkalden (see Strieder 16), and Sylvius → Karl (1689-1775): the tribe Frankenberg and Louis Dorff include Württemberg Privy Council and the Lord Chamberlain, Chancellor of the University of T࿋ingen, and their sons Sylvius Friedrich Freiherr von Frankenberg and Louis Dorff (1728-1815), gotha​​-old burg shear Privy Council and Minister of State (see ADB VII), and → Karl Ludwig Sylvius (1732 - 95), Prussian major General (see Priesdorff II, p 332), Prussian general, the further majors Karl Wolfgang (1730-91, p Priesdorff II, pp. 331 f, portrait) and his brother Christopher Alexander (1732-95, ibid p 379), Moritz (1820-90, IX, ibid, p 134 et seq) and Emil (1813-1900, VII, ibid, p 220), 1867-69 commander of Frankfurt am Main, continue → Leopold (1785 -1878), Prussian Privy Council, President and Chief Kronsyndikus the top of Appeals member of the Prussian House of Lords, → Robert (1807-73), Prussian general of infantry (see Priesdorff VII, pp. 144 f, Portrait) → Adalbert (1833-1900), a Prussian lieutenant general, military writer (ibid., X, pp. 372 f, P) → Alexander (1855-1921), a Prussian lieutenant general, →, Egbert (* 1858), coburg-gothaischer court theater director, writer (s . Wi. 1928), and → Albrecht (1900-40), Director hut.

Schlesisches Uradelsgeschlecht. Zum Stamm Frankenberg und Proschlitz gehören unter anderem: 𡤯riedrich (1600�) und sein Sohn →Johann Heinrich (1643�), beide württembergisch-ölsische Landeshauptleute, �rl Magnus (1696�), hessischer Kammerpräsident und Oberhofmeister, →Karl (1746�), preußischer Generalmajor, 𡤮gbert (1841�), preußischer Generalleutnant, sein Sohn →Werner (1868�) und →Oskar (1856�), beide preußische Generalmajore. –

Zum Stamm Frankenberg und Ludwigsdorff gehören unter anderem: die Brﳞr Sylvius Eberhard Freiherr von Frankenberg und Ludwigsdorff (1682-1764), preußischer Wirklicher Geheimer Rat und Verweser der Herrschaft Schmalkalden (s. Strieder 16), und →Sylvius Karl (1689�), württembergischer Geheimer Rat und Oberhofmeister, Kanzler der Universität T࿋ingen, und deren Söhne Sylvius Friedrich Freiherr von Frankenberg und Ludwigsdorff (1728-1815), gotha-altenburgischer Wirklicher Geheimer Rat und Staatsminister (s. ADB VII), und →Karl Ludwig Sylvius (1732�), preußischer Generalmajor (s. Priesdorff II, S. 332), ferner die preußischen Generalmajore Karl Wolfgang (1730-91, s. Priesdorff II, S. 331 f., Porträt) und sein Bruder Christoph Alexander (1732-95, ebenda S. 379), Moritz (1820-90, ebenda IX, S. 134 f.) und Emil (1813-1900, ebenda VII, S. 220), 1867-69 Kommandant von Frankfurt am Main, weiterhin →Leopold (1785�), preußischer Wirklicher Geheimer Rat, Kronsyndikus und Chefpräsident des Oberappellationsgerichts, Mitglied des preußischen Herrenhauses, →Robert (1807�), preußischer General der Infanterie (s. Priesdorff VII, S. 144 f., Porträt), �lbert (1833�), preußischer Generalleutnant, Militär-Schriftsteller (ebenda X, S. 372 f., P), 𡤪lexander (1855�), preußischer Generalleutnant, 𡤮gbert (* 1858), coburg-gothaischer Hoftheaterintendant, Schriftsteller (s. Wi. 1928), und 𡤪lbrecht (1900�), Hüttendirektor.

HISTORY OF THE FRANKENBERG FAMILY:

Amorbach, eine kleine, saubere Gemeinde mit einer ehemaligen Benediktiner - Abteikirche. Die Legende weiß zu berichten, daß diese Abtei eine der frühesten Klostergründungen im mainfränkischen Raum ist. Im ..grünem Saal des Klosters Amorbach ist sein Standbild in doppelter Lebensgrö෾, angetan mit der Ritterrüstung, aufgestellt. Urkunden aus dem Jahre 714 bestätigen, daß auf dem heutigen St. Gotthardsberg ﲾr Amorbach Gaugraf Ruthard von Frankenberg seinen Sitz gehabt hat. Er lebte in einem Lande, das einst die Franken erobert hatten. Sie wurden zur zeit des Ritters Frankenberg von Karl Martell , dem Herzog der Franken , regiert. Der Gaugraf Frankenberg soll im Jahre 734 den heiligen Pirminius ins Land gerufen haben, damit dieser unter den heidnischen Bewohnern des Odenwaldes das Christentum predigte. Mit Karl Martells und des Gaugrafen Unterstützung soll auch das erste Kirchlein erbaut worden sein. Gewiß laufen in dieser legende Wahrheit und Dichtung durcheinander. Jedoch der Ritter Frankenberg ist urkundlich nachgewiesen, ebenso die Tatsache, daß er aus dem Elsaß stammte und in diesem Land ohne Nachkommen gestorben ist.

Ha෿urt am Main -Marianische Ritterkapelle, erwähnt schon in den Jahren 1363/64, vollendet 1455,wie am s࿍lichen Portal zu lesen ist. Die Gro෾n Prozessionen die bis zu tausend Ritter mit Gefolgleuten in prachtvollen Gewändern umfaßten, zogen zu ihren Festen zurRitterkapelle in Ha෿urt. Viele Rittertage wurden in diese Stadt einberufen. �r zweihundert Embleme fränkischer, schw๋ischer oder anderer adeliger Geschlechter am Chorfries sollen deren Mithilfe beim Bau anzeigen.

All das besichtigte ich voller Interese, denn auch Vorfahren meines Namens waren am Bau beteiligt, was durch das Wappen an der Nordseite der Ritterkapelle bewiesen wird. In dem 1868 von Karl - Alexander von Heideloff in Stuttgart herausgegebenen Buch . Deutsches Fürsten - und Ritteralbum der Ritterkapelle zu Ha෿urt. heißt es ﲾr diese Vorfahren :

Das Geschlecht der noch blühenden Freiherren und Grafen von Frankenberg wird von einigen aus der Pfalz, von anderen aus Hessen hergeleitet, wo sie als kaiserliche Vögte mit der Aufsicht der bei Altfrankenberg befindlichen Silbergruben betraut gewesen sein sollen. Im 12.Jahrhundert haben sie bereits in Schlesien ihre Heimat und zwar in zwei Hauptlinien mit den Stammschlössern Ludwigsdorf im Fürstenturm Öls und Proschlitz im Fürstentum Brieg. Reichbegütert und hochangesehen verbreiteten sie sich auch bald ﲾr andere Teile des Landes und finden sich in hohen Ämtern bei den Herzögen von Schlesien und der Kaiser.

Es trifft zu, daß der Name im 12. und 13. Jahrhundert im ganzen damaligen Reich auftrat. Die Entstehung des Namens ist einfach zu deuten : Entweder nannten sich die Vorfahren nach Burgen, Stํten, Dörfern, Flecken, Klöstern und Bergen, die den namen Frankenberg trugen, oder es waren Franken, die zufällig am Berge wohnten und so gerufen wurden. Die Festigung des namens ging aus verschiedener Schreibweise im Laufe der Jahrhunderte hervor. Der Generalmajor von Frankenberg, mit dem in der Familie häufig vorkommenden Vornamen Moritz, gab 1878 in Darmstadt ein Buch heraus unter dem Titel : .. Notizen ﲾr die Familie der Grafen, Freiherrn und Herrn von Frankenberg - Proschlitz, Ludwigsdorf und Lüttwitz..Hier heißt es ﲾr die Anfänge der Familie :Die einigerma෾n verläßlichen Nachrichten ﲾr die Vorfahren der ältesten Zeit erstrecken sich bis 1056, wo Hartmann von Vrankenberch, Ritter vom heiligen Grabe als im Dienste Kaiser Heinrich IV. genannt wird.(Notizen. S.25)

Neben seinen Forschungen hat ein anderer, Carl - Alexander von Frankenberg, in den Jahren 1900 und 1902 in Breslau zwei Broschüren herausgegeben. In ihnen beschreibt er . Bilder Frankenberg'scher Vergangenheit von 1500 - 1806 ..unter Benutzung verschiedener Quellen. Seine Angaben sind zusammengesucht. Die Quellen stammen vornehmlich aus dem Staatsarchiv Breslau : aus Herrmann Koelling : . Geschichte der Stadt Pitschen. Sinapius : Schlesien . aus Gustav Fraytags - Bilder aus deutscher Vergangenheit .

Als die Zeit der feudalen Ritter zu Ende ging, wanderten viele Frankenbergs aus ihrer fränkischen Heimat aus und zogen - nach Osten . �r ihren Weg gibt es keine Urkunden. Lediglich eine besagt ,daß auf dem Landtage zu Dresden, im Jahre 1206 , Henricus de Frankenberc Zeuge bei der Entscheidung des Markgrafen Dietrich von Mei෾n bezüglich der Feste Thonen ( Burg Tonna in Sachsen ) gewesen ist. Danach tauchen die Frankenbergs in dem vom polnischen Fürstengeschlecht der Piasten beherrschten Schlesien auf.1290 war Bernoldus von Frankenberg Rat des Herzogs Boleslas in Schweidnitz und Jauer. Er und Ubaldus von Frankenberg erhielten vom polnischen Herzog die Güter Proschlitz ( Proslitzky ), Rosen, Nassadel und Woislawitz als Lehen. Von Bernoldus ,dem ältesten Vorfahr meiner engeren und direkten Familie - Alle Angaben bei Moritz von Frankenberg - Notizen ﲾr die Familie . S.25/26.

Zu Zeiten des Hohenstaufen -Kaisers Fridrich I.,genannt ,,Barbarossa ,, war Polen ein vom ,,heiligen Römischen Reich Deutscher Nation -abhängiges Lehnsherzogtum. Unter ihnen waren die Frankenberge mit andere deutschen Kolonisten als Pioniere deutscher Kultur in das slawische Land gezogen, hatten deusches Recht und damit grö෾re Freiheit zu den polnischen Leibeigenen gebracht und durch die so erhöhte Schaffensfreudigkeit den Wohlstand mitgehoben und deutsche Ansiedlungen gegründet. (Bilder Frankenbergscher Vegangenheit, S.7.Qullenangabe von nun an :Bilder . )

. Carl - Alexander berichtet weiter, daß die Frankenbergs in de Reformationszeit auf ,,ihren alten Stammsitzen in Gegend von Kreutzurg , Pitschen , Constad , Haupts์hlich auf Proschlitz , Rosen , Reinersdorf , Roschkowitz , Neudorf und Nassadel im Namslauischen auf Reichen und im Oelsnischen als als Herren auf Stroppen , Essdorf und Krompach sa෾n.

. Carl -Alexander gelten :daß die Familie - während der Zeit 1500 bis 1740 allein in Schlesien eine Stadt, Landsberg, sowie ﲾr100 Dörfer und Güter ihr eigen nannte und, daß zum Schuß des 16.Jh. gleichzeitig drei Mitglieder der Familie in schlesischen Fürstentümern Landeshauptleute waren, eine Stellung, welche die hཬhste Verwaltungs - sowie Militärbehörde in sich vereinigte - (Bilder, S. 8 )

Das 1855 von Leopold von Ledebur in Berlin herausgegebene ,, Adelslexikon der preußischen Monarchie ,, gibt sogar an, daß die Familie Frankenberg von 1297 bis 1854 in Schlesien hundertfünfundvierzig Güter besessen hat und damit einen gro෾n Teil Schlesiens ihr eigen nannte.Zweiundvierzig dieser Güter trugen - nach Ledebur - eindeutig, slawische Namen, zum Beispiel - Bogislawitz ( Boguslawice ), Czirkow (Ciarka ) , Cziasnau ( Ciasna ), Kilbazcin (Kielbasin ), Nieschwitz, Orzesche ( Orzesze ), Ptakowitz ( Ptakowice ), Skriwizin, Sbytschin, Slawenzitz ( Slawencin ), Tillowitz ( Tulowice ), Wienskowitz (Wiᆜkowice ), Woidnikowe ( Wodników ), Woislawitz, Zarengoschütz (Bd.I, S. 229/30 )

Auch von den Kaisern waren den Frankenberg's besondere Rechte verliehen worden. Kaiser Rudolf II bestätigt ihnen zum Beispiel : 1593 in einem böhmisch geschriebenen Verleihungsbriefe das Zollrecht, welches die Proschlitzer auf Roschkowitz und auf Landsberg auch aus࿋ten, indem sie Schlagbäume auf ihrem Gebiet errichteten und von den Durchfahrenden die Entrichtung eines Zolls verlangten.( Recht auf ein Zollhaus -d.Verf.) durch Adam von Frankenberg d. Jüngeren in Unschütz und erhielten ein Urteil (Bilder, S.9 )

,, Einen Nachweis den Vermögensstand der Familie zu jener Zeit gibt ein Prozeß des Gesamtgeschlechtes 1612 und 1613 gegen Adam von Frankenberg auf Bankwitz. Zur Verteilung der Prozeßkosten hat jeder der beteiligten Vettern aus beiden Linien, Proschlitz und Ludwigsdorf, sein Vermögen selbst eingeschätzt. Rein menschlich betrachtet wird sich da wohl niemand zu hoch eingestuft haben, da keiner gerne mehr Gerichtskosten bezahlt, als er muß. Die Summe ergibt, wenn man dem alten Gerichtsschreiber trauen darf, das enorme Gesamtkapital von 954 000 Reichstalern, hohen Geldwert wohl einer wenigstens fünfmal so hohen Summe heutzutage(1900! - d.Verf. ) gleichkommen würde. Hans von Frankenberg auf Proschlitz figuriert darin allein mit einem Vermögen von 1200 000 Talern. - ( Bilder, S.10 )

Bis 1528 trugen in Schlesien alle Familienangehörigen den Namen .. Frankenberg.. Die Familie zählte als ein Ganzes, lediglich die Güter waren getrennter Besitz. 1528 kam es zur Bildung zweier Zweige, da sich der ältere Sohn nach dem 1297 urkundlich nachgewiesenen Gute den Zunamen ,,Proschlitz ,,gab, der jüngere, Besitzer von Ober - und Niederludwigsdorf, führte seitdem den Zunamen ,,Ludwigsdorf ,, .Diese Tatsache wird exakt in dem Buch ﲾr das ,,Fürsten -und Ritteralbum der Ritterkapelle zu Ha෿urt ,, aufgeführt. Mitte des 17. Jahrhunderts erfolgte die Freiherrenerhebung der Linie ,,Ludwigsdorf ,, für Johann - Wolfgang von Frankenberg. Der König von Böhmen ernannte dessen Nachkommen zu Grafen, eine Linie, die Anfang dieses Jahrhunderts ausgestorben ist. Wenzel von Frankenberg und Ludwigsdorf erhielt die ,,Grafenwürde ,,vor allem wegen seines Wiedereintritts in die Katholische Kirche. Er war Landeshauptmann von Glogau (vergleichbar mit einem Regierungspräsidenten ), später dann sogar Vizekanzler von Böhmen, und galt als einer der befähigtsten männer eines Landes, das nunmehr zur österreichisch - habsburgischen Krone gehörte.

Beide Linien vermehrten sich in Schlesien zahlenmäßig schnell, was natürlich der gro෾ Grundbesitz erleichterte. Im 19.Jahrhundert wurde ein Zweig der Familie von Lüttwitz mit dem Gute ,,Bielwiese,, belehnt und dem Recht, den Namen von Frankenberg zu tragen. So entstand noch ein dritter Zweig, dessen Angehörige, wie auch zwischen den beiden anderen Linien, nur noch namensverwandt waren, sofern nicht untereinander Ehen geschlossen wurden, was mehrfach vorgekommen ist.

Irgendeine organisatorische Form des Zusammenschlusses der Familien kannte man damals nicht. Alle lebten einzeln, allmählich auch bis nach Ostpreu෾n hin verstreut, und hatten nur den vom Namen her gegebenen losen Zusammenhang.

Gesamt - Familien - Verein. am 19.Mai 1884 in Breslau gegründet und in Berlin am 20.Oktober 1884 notariell bestätigt. (Geneal. Handbuch von W. von Huek, Limburg a. d. L, A, Bd. IX, 1969, S. 112 ) Gemeinsam mit dem Grafen Friedrrich (Fred) und Generalmajor Moritz von Frankenberg und Ludwigsdorf rief Caesar Ernest Sylvius von Frankenberg und Proschlitz die Organisation ins Leben, wobei Caesar von 1897 bis 1912 zum Vorsitzenden berufen wurde. Danach trat der bis 1911 als Schatzmeister fungierende Wilhelm Hans Friedrich aus dem Hause Ludwigsdorf an die Spitze des Vereins, der, wie schon sein Vorgänger, nicht nur ein gro෾s Vermögen, sondern auch einen klingenden Titel mitbrachte . Königlichpreußischer Generalmajor a la Suite der Armee mit der Uniform des Ulanen - Regiments Nr. 13, Oberstallmeister Seiner Majestät des Kaisers und Königs, königlich - preußischer Wirklicher Geheimer Rat, Excellenz und Ritter hoher Orden.

Nach der Niederlage im erstem Weltkrig, die auch das Ende der Monarchie bedeutete und für die Frankenbergs den Verlust einiger Besitzungen in Schlesien mit sich brachte, konstituierte sich der Verband am 9. Februar 1919 erneut und änderte sein Statut das nun zwischen der Familien - Stiftung und dem Familien -Verein deutlich unterscheidet und in der ersteren . ein Zweckvermögen mit den Aufgaben der Unterstützung und Förderung der Familien - Mitglieder und ihrem weiblichen Angehörigen, in dem Familien - Verein eine gerichtlich eingetragene Vereinigung Gleichgesinnter zur Pflege und Hebung der Wohlfahrt und Ehre des Geschlechtes erblickt. ( Familien Zeitschrift, 11.Jahrg, Heft 4/1920, S.1 )

Am 25.August 1962, lie෾n rührige Organisatoren aus den drei Frankenberg - Linien den Verband in Hamburg neu erstehen, jetz eingetragen als . Verein bürgerlichen Rechts . im Vereinsregister der Bundesrepublik Deutschlands.

Quelle - Tradition im Kreuzverhör - Meine Familie in der Geschichte - Egbert v. Frankenberg. Verlag der Nation Berlin - 1980

FRANKENBERG FAMILY HISTORY (English transliteration):

Amorbach, a small, clean town with a former Benedictine - Abbey Church. The legend has to report that this abbey is one of the earliest monastic foundations in the Franconian region. In the green room of the monastery .. Amorbach is his image in two life-size, clothed in the armor, situated. Confirm documents from the year 714, that in today's St. Gotthard mountain over Amorbach Gaugraf Ruthard of Frankenberg has had its headquarters. He lived in a land that had once conquered the Franks. You have to time the knight Frankenberg of Charles Martel, Duke of the Franks ruled. The Gaugraf Frankenberg said to have called the Saint Pirmin into the country in 734, so that preached Christianity among the pagan inhabitants of the Odenwald. With Charles Martel and the Gaugrafen support also the first church to have been built. Certainly running through each other in this legend truth and fiction. However, the Knights Frankenberg is documented evidence, and also the fact that he came from Alsace, and died without issue in this country.

Ha෿urt am Main Marian Knights Chapel, mentioned in the years 1363/64, completed in 1455, as can be read at the southern portal. The Great processions that included up to a thousand knights with Gefolgleuten in magnificent robes, attracted to their festivals zurRitterkapelle in Hassfurt. Many Knights were convened days in this city. About two hundred emblems Franconian, Swabian and other noble families in the choir Fries to show their use in the construction.

I visited all the full Interese, because my name's ancestors were involved in the construction, as evidenced by the coat of arms on the north side of the Knights Chapel. In the 1868 by Charles - Alexander of Heideloff book published in Stuttgart . German princes - and Knight of the Knights album chapel Ha෿urt . it is about these ancestors:

The sex of the still thriving barons and earls of Frankenberg is derived from some of the Palatinate, Hesse other from where they should have been entrusted with the supervision of an imperial governors of the silver mines located in Altfrankenberg. In the 12th century they already have in their home and Silesia in two main lines of the trunk locks Ludwig village in the principality oil and Proschlitz in the Principality Brieg. Reichbegütert highly regarded and they soon spread to other parts of the country and are found in high offices in the Dukes of Silesia and the Emperor.

It is true that the name in the 12th and 13 Century around the then Empire occurred. The origin of the name is easy to interpret: either called themselves the ancestors of castles, towns, villages, stains, monasteries and mountains, bearing the name Frankenberg, or were Franks, who lived on the mountain and were randomly so called. The strengthening of the name arose from different spelling over the centuries. Major General von Frankenberg, with the frequently occurring in the family name was Moritz, 1878 in Darmstadt a book with the title: .. Notes on the family of the counts, barons, and Mr. von Frankenberg - Proschlitz, Ludwig village and Luttwitz .. Here it is about the beginnings of the family: the fairly reliable news about the ancestors of the earliest period extending to 1056, where Hartmann of Vrankenberch, Knight the Holy Sepulchre as the service is called Emperor Henry IV. (Notizen. .. p.25)

In addition to his research, has another, Carl - Alexander von Frankenberg, published in the years 1900 and 1902 in Wroclaw two brochures. In them, he describes . Images Frankenberg'scher past by 1500 - 1806 .. using various sources. His statements are culled. The sources mainly come from the State Archives Wroclaw: from Herrmann Koelling: . history of the city Pitschen . Sinapius: Silesia . from Gustav Fraytags - Pictures from German past.

When the time of feudal knights came to an end, many people emigrated from Frankenberg from their native Franconia and attracted - to the east. On their way, there are no records. Only a means that is in the country days to Dresden in 1206, Henricus de Frankenberc witness with respect to the decision of Margrave Dietrich of Meissen of festivals clays (Burgtonna in Saxony) have been. After that Frankenberg's dive into the dominated by the Polish princely family of the Piast Silesian auf.1290 Bernoldus of Frankenberg was a counselor of the Duke Boleslas in Świdnica and Jawor. He and Ubaldus of Frankenberg received by the Polish Duke goods Proschlitz (Proslitzky), roses, wet and needle Woislawitz as a fief. Bernoldus of the oldest direct ancestor of my immediate family and - Valid at Moritz von Frankenberg - Notes on the family . S.25/26.

At the time of the Hohenstaufen emperor Fridrich I., called Barbarossa, Poland was one of the, Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation-dependent Lehnsherzogtum . Among them, the Franconia Mountains with other German settlers as pioneers of German culture were pulled the Slavic country deusches law and thus had brought greater freedom to the Polish serfs and mitgehoben by the so Schaffensfreudigkeit increased prosperity and established German settlements. (Images Frankenberg shear Vegangenheit, S.7.Qullenangabe from now on: images . )

. Carl - Alexander reported further that the Frankenberg's on in de time of the Reformation, its old trunk sitting in area of ​​Kreutzurg, Pitschen, Constad, mainly on Proschlitz, roses, Reinersdorf, Rosh Rothkowitz, Neudorf and wet nobility, in Namslauischen on rich and Oelsnischen than as men sat on strops, and Essdorf Krompach.

Carl-Alexander . apply: that the family - during the period 1500-1740 alone, a city in Silesia, Landsberg, and ﲾr100 villages and goods called her own and that the excess of the 16th century three members of the same family were governors in Silesian principalities, a position which the highest administrative - as well as military authority united in himself - (images, p.8)

The 1855 by Leopold von Ledebur in Berlin issued, Adelslexikon of the Prussian monarchy, indicates even that the family Frankenberg has owned one hundred and forty goods from 1297 to 1854 in Silesia, and thus a large part of Silesia wore their own nannte.Zweiundvierzig these goods - by Ledebur - clearly Slavic name, for example - Bogislawitz (Bogusᐪwice), Czirkow (Ciarka), Cziasnau (Ciasna), Kilbazcin (Kielbasin), Nieschwitz, Orzesze (Orzesze), Ptakowitz (Ptakowice), Skriwizin, Sbytschin, Slawenzitz (Slawencin ), Tillowitz (Tulowice), Vienna Rothkowitz (Wiᆜkowice), Woidnikowe (Wodników), Woislawitz, Zarengoschütz (Vol.I, p.229 / 30)

Also by the emperors to Frankenberg's special rights had been awarded. Emperor Rudolf II confirmed them, for example: 1593 in a bohemian written award letters that legislation, which also exercised the Proschlitzer on Rosh Rothkowitz and Landsberg, by building barriers in their field and required by the drive-through ends of the payment of an inch (right to a customs house. -d.Verf.) by Adam von Frankenberg in Unschütz the Younger and received a ruling (photos, p.9)

, A proof of the financial status of the family at that time is a process of overall race in 1612 and 1613 against Adam von Frankenberg Bankwitz. The distribution of the process, each of the costs involved cousins ​𠂿rom both lines, and Ludwig Proschlitz village, estimated its assets itself. From a purely human because no one will probably have to highly rated because no one happy to pay court costs when he has to. The sum is, if we may trust the old court clerk, the enormous total capital of 954 000 thalers, probably a high monetary value at least five times as large sum today (1900 -. D.Verf) would be equivalent. Hans von Frankenberg Proschlitz figured it alone with a capacity of 1200 000 thalers. - (Images, p.10)

To 1528 contributed in Silesia all family members name .. Frankenberg .. The family counted as a whole, only the goods were separate property. 1528 led to the formation of two branches, as the elder son of the 1297 documentary demonstrated good the surname, Proschlitz, gave the younger, owner of Upper -., And low Ludwig village since led the surname, Ludwig village, this fact is exactly in the book about that, princes and knights chapel of the Knights album to Ha෿urt listed. Middle of the 17th Century was the baron of the survey line, Ludwig village, for Johann - Wolfgang von Frankenberg. The King of Bohemia appointed his descendants to count, a line that has died early this century. Wenzel von Frankenberg and Ludwig village received, earldom, mainly because of its re-entry into the Catholic Church. He was Governor of Glogau (comparable to a Government Minister), then even later Vice-Chancellor of Bohemia, and was considered one of the ablest men of a country, which is now the Austro - belonged to the Habsburg crown.

Both lines proliferated in Silesia in numbers quickly, which of course facilitated the large estates. In the 19th century a branch of the family of Luttwitz with the Good was, Biel meadow, invested and the right to bear the name of Frankenberg. So even created a third branch, whose members, as well as between the other two lines, were only names used, except with the other marriages were contracted, which has happened several times.

Any organizational form of the group of families was not known at that time. All lived separately, also gradually spread to East Prussia back, and had only given from the name-less connection.

Total - Families - Club . founded on May 19, 1884 in Breslau and acknowledged by a notary in Berlin on October 20, 1884. (Geneal. Manual by W. of huek, Limburg an der L, A, Vol IX, 1969, p 112) Together with Count Friedrrich (Fred) and Major General Moritz von Frankenberg and Ludwig village called Caesar Ernest Sylvius von Frankenberg and Proschlitz the organization to life, where Caesar was appointed as Chairman from 1897 to 1912. Thereafter, until 1911, acting as the treasurer Hans Wilhelm Friedrich Ludwig stepped out of the home village at the head of the association, which, like its predecessor, is not only a great asset, but also a sounding titles brought. Königlichpreußischer Major General à la suite of the army with the uniform of the Lancers - Regiment No. 13, equerry to His Majesty the Emperor and King, royal - Prussian Privy Council, and Knight Excellency high order.

After the defeat in the first World War the which also meant the end of the monarchy and the Frankenberg brought the loss of some possessions in Silesia itself, the Association was constituted on 9 February 1919 and again changed its statute which is now between the families - Family Foundation and the Association clearly different and the former . a purpose fund with the tasks of supporting and encouraging families - members and their female relatives in the family - a registered association judicially association of like-minded to care and improving the welfare and honor of the sex seen . (Family Journal, 11 . Jahrg, Issue 4/1920, p.1)

On August 25, 1962, were energetic organizers of the three Frankenberg - lines arise anew the Association in Hamburg, book now registered as a club . civil law . in the register of the Federal Republic of Germany.

  Source - Tradition in cross-examination - My family in history - written by Egbert von Frankenberg. Publisher of the Nation Berlin - 1980

(Entnommen aus: "Die von Frankenberg in der Armee" von 1914) Das Geschlecht der von Frankenberg ist schlesischer Uradel mit gleichnamigem Stammhause bei Frankenstein im Fürstentum Münsterberg, der mit Henricus advocatus de Vrankenberch als Zeugen 1278 zuerst urkundlich erscheint (vergl. Stengel, Gründungsbuch des Klosters Heinrichau).

Woher die Frankenbergs und viele andere uradlige Familien nach Schlesien eingewandert sind, konnte bis heute noch nicht ermittelt werden. Das Hauptziel der deutschen R࿌kwanderung erfolgte im 13. und 14. Jahrhundert in die Gegenden östlich der Elbe, indessen ist trotz vieler Arbeit auf diesem Gebiete die Darstellung der deutschen Besiedelungsgeschichte Schlesiens erst Aufgabe der Zukunft, denn ﲾr den Beginn dieser Bewegung, wie ﲾr Zweck und Gang der Einwanderung bestehen zur Zeit noch gro෾ Meinungsverschiedenheiten.

Die deutsche Kolonisation hat jedenfalls eine tiefgreifende und segensreiche Wandlung aller Verhältnisse in der schlesischen Geschichte hervorgerufen und ihr verdankt Schlesien seine heutige Kultur. *) Da die Frankenbergs vor 1278 in Uffenheim und Mei෾n vorkommen, so liegt die Vermutung nahe, daß sie von Bayern (Franken) ﲾr Sachsen nach Schlesien eingewandert sind.

Das Geschlecht teilte sich 1528 in die beiden Hauptlinien Proschlitz und Ludwigsdorf. In letzterer wurde um 1700 ein gr๏licher Zweig geschaffen, der Grafen von Frankenberg-Ludwigsdorf auf Warthau und Tillowitz.

Im Jahre 1816 trat das Geschlecht der von Lüttwitz hinzu. Durch königliche Bestätigung vom 29. September 1816 erhielt Heinrich Ernst Boguslaw von Frankenberg-Lüttwitz, königlich preußischer Major der Gardes du Corps, die Erlaubnis, unter Vereinigung des von Frankenberg'schen Wappens mit dem seinigen, den Namen Frankenberg-Lüttwitz anzunehmen, als Erb- und Majoratsherr auf Bielwiese bei Steinau.

Der rheinische Zweig mit dem Stammsitz Schloß Frankenberg bei Aachen starb 1826 aus. Wir finden dort um die Mitte des 15. Jahrhunderts Burgherren, die den Namen Freiherr von Merode-Frankenberg und ein anderes Wappen führen. (Schwarzer Schild mit 15 goldenen Kugeln, auf dem Helm schwarze B󼿾lhörner mit 5 solcher kugeln verziert.)

Nach dem Aussterben des direkten Mannesstammes dieser von Merode gelangte die freiherrliche Familie von Bawyr zur rechtmäßigen Erbfolge und nahm den Namen Frankenberg zu dem ihrigen an. Die Bawyr-Frankenberg starben jedoch mit einer Tochter, die einen Herrn von Merode-Hoffalize heiratet, aus. Dieser nannte sich infolge kaiserlicher Bestätigung vom 21. März 1681 Reichsfreiherr Bawyr von Frankenberg. Mit seinen Kindern erlosch die Linie wieder und das Schloß kam an die Freiherren von Merode-Hoffalize zur࿌k. Das letzte Glied dieser Familie, Regina Petronella Franziska Freiin von Merode-Hoffalize genannt Frankenberg, Dechantin des Klosters St. Quirin zu Reuß, verkaufte das Schloß 1825 an den Freiherrn von der Brüggen und starb am 20. Mai 1826 in Düsseldorf.

COLONISATION OF SELESIA (English transliteration):

Taken from: "The von Frankenberg in the army" of 1914) The sex of the Frankenberg Silesian nobility with the same name in Frankenstein family home in the Principality of Münsterberg, who first appears in documents with Henricus de Vrankenberch advocate as a witness in 1278 (see Stengel, founder of the monastery Heinrichau book).

Where the Frankenberg and many other uradlige families immigrated to Silesia, could not be determined until today. The main objective of the German return migration in the 13th and 14 Century in the regions east of the Elbe, however, despite much work in this field, the representation of German colonization history of Silesia only task of the future, because there about the beginning of this movement, such as the purpose and course of immigration currently still major disagreements.

The German colonization has certainly caused a profound and beneficial conversion of all relations in Silesia Silesia owes its history and its contemporary culture. *) Since the Frankenberg occur in Uffenheim and Meissen around 1278, so it seems likely that they migrated over from Saxony to Silesia Bavaria (Franconia).

The gender split in 1528, the two main lines Proschlitz and Ludwig village. In the latter, a count's branch was created in 1700, the Count von Frankenberg Ludwig village on Warthau and Tillowitz.

In 1816, the sex of the Luttwitz came to him. By royal confirmation of 29 September 1816 was Heinrich Ernst Boguslaw from Frankenberg-Luttwitz, royal Prussian Major of the Gardes du Corps, permission under union of of Frankenberg'schen coat of arms with his, to take the name Frankenberg-Liittwitz as inheritance and Heir to Biel meadow at Steinau .

Branch of the Rhine, with its headquarters in Aachen Castle Frankenberg died out in 1826. We found there in the mid-15th Century lords that lead to the name of Baron de Merode-Frankenberg and another crest. (Black plate with 15 gold balls, black buffalo horns on the helmet decorated with 5 such balls.)                                 After the extinction of the direct male tribe of Merode of the baronial family of Bawyr came to the rightful succession and took the name Frankenberg to theirs. However, the Bawyr-Frankenberg died with a daughter who married a Mr. de Merode-Hoffalize out. This was called as a result of imperial confirmation of 21 March 1681 Bawyr baron von Frankenberg. With his children, the line went out again and the castle returned to the barons of Merode Hoffalize. The last member of this family, Regina Petronella Frances, Baroness de Merode-called Hoffalize Frankenberg, Dechantin the monastery of St. Quirin to Reuss, sold the castle in 1825 to Baron von der Brüggen and died on 20 May 1826 in Dusseldorf.


Talk:Benito Mussolini

This quote: "Fascism should more properly be called corporatism, since it is the merger of state and corporate power." does not appear in Enciclopedia Italiana 1932, although often cited to this source. It is very likely not an accurate quote. If anyone can find a source, please post the cite here. The quote has been debated and removed from the Wikipedia pages. Best to post it and then point out it is Questionable.--Cberlet 13:08, 24 Jan 2005 (UTC)

Someone has posted: "[The quote is from Giovanni Gentile, not Mussolini.]" What is the evidence for this? Thanks. --146.115.95.222 02:14, 12 December 2005 (UTC)

In a speech in November 1933 (translated in George Seldes's 1935 Sawdust Caesar, p. 426), Mussolini said, “Corporationism is above socialism and above liberalism. A new synthesis is created. It is a symptomatic fact that the decadence of capitalism coincides with the decadence of socialism. . Corporative solutions can be applied anywhere.” —This unsigned comment is by 199.101.176.90 (talk • contribs) .

Mussollin was credited with the text, which Gentile probably wrote, but the quote still does not apepar as cited.--Cberlet 19:46, 4 January 2008 (UTC)

Isn't that "corporativism" anyway (which I think what the fascist regime's economical structure was called.) User:213.89.77.160 00:33, 6 May 2006

Yes, someone is confusing "corporations" with "corporativism". Quote is still wrong.--Cberlet 19:46, 4 January 2008 (UTC)

The question here is not the definition of corporativism, or corporatism, but the definition of "corporate power".

A question was asked about this quote on google answers - no definitive answer, but some interesting references http://answers.google.com/answers/threadview?id=280606 .. Quoted below..

"I am responding to manticore1234-ga's comment, and in a way, also to the fact that your question was not answered to this point.

I conducted an extensive Research on the question. I too, like manticore1234, found sources that claim that the source is the article "La Dottrina del Fascismo", written actually by the Fascist philosopher/thinker Giovanni Gentile, and published under Mussolini's name in the Enciclopedia Italiana. However, when you go to that article (http://www.piralli.it/dottrina.htm and a full translation in http://cosmo.slique.net/

vikrum/mirrored/texts/mussolini/fascism/) you find that the only reference to corporatism is in section VIII, and not in these words. Of course, one would need a hard-copy of this encyclopaedia, to be sure that it is not in other articles. I also found no source that originally refers to this quotation in Italian."

As the only source for the quote is secondary and published sixty years after Mussolini died (in a book about the United States written by an American without Italian language proficiency) I recommend it be removed, especially in light of the gross misuse of this quote over the years and noted false citations involving it. Furthermore as the quote is used in Crossing the Rubicon to express the common misconception that the "corporations" in corporatism are the same thing as modern limited liability businesses it strongly suggests Ruppert had no knowledge of the actual quote or its context or original source. --71.230.38.50 04:24, 21 April 2009 (UTC)

I was so puzzled by the provenance of this quote, which was most prominently circulated by Bobby Kennedy Jr. at the time that I created a dual language page at my earliest website. I searched both the original and the translation as best I could, and found nothing that could explain it. http://home.gwi.net/

Methinks he, the skepticallibertarian, doth protest too much. - Kolyvansky (talk) 14:46, 23 September 2018 (UTC)

"Former Italian dictator, Benito Mussolini, is quoted as saying, “Fascism should more appropriate be called Corporatism because it is a merger of state and corporate power. However, The Italian word Mussolini used was corporazione, which means guild, not corporation." [ https://fauxcapitalist.com/2010/04/20/fascism-is-not-the-merger-of-government-and-corporations/ ] --JamesPoulson (talk) 23:17, 23 February 2019 (UTC)

On July 31, 1942, during the Italian offensive against partisans in southern Slovenia, Mussolini visited Gorizia and held a speech. Among others he is supposed to mention that "Slovenians should be killed like dogs". Since my Italian is very very poor, is this article about this? Otherwise I have some fragments of this speech in Slovenian but I am examining the npov of the source at the moment.


Google gives me nothing on that, sorry.

In Gorizia Mussolini said (this is Slovenian translation from Italian):

"Ta dežela, ki je uživala skozi dvajset let našo posebno pažnjo, skrb in ljubezen, se je izrodila tako, da bo treba strupeni sad pokončati z ognjem in mečem. V službi nam smrtno sovražnih držav in z njih pomočjo se organizirajo tolpe morilcev, tatov in banditov, ki ogrožajo našo vojsko, jo zahrbtno napadajo in sramote. In tem tolpam je domače prebivalstvo prijazno, jih ščiti, jim daje vsakršno potuho. Preden bi mogel roditi ta proces razkrajanja hujše posledice, ga moramo prestreči. In storili bomo kakor Julij Cezar z nepokorno Galijo: požgal je uporne vasi do tal, poklal vse moške ali jih oddal v vojsko, ženske, starce in otroke pa odpeljal v sužnost daleč od doma."

Rough translation in English would be: This country, which enjoyed our special care and love through 20 years, has degenerated, so we must destroy this poisonous fruit with fire and sword. In service of our enemies, bands of murderers, thieves and bandits are organized, which are endangering our army, attacking it from the back and ashaming it. Local residents are friendly with this bands, are protecting them and giving them connivance. Before this proces of deterioation gives to birth much worse consequences, we must intercept it. And we will do what Julius Caezar did with disobedient Gauls: he burned rebelious willages to ground, he slaughered all men or put them in the army, and he led women, old people and children in slavery far from their homes.


"Democracy is beautiful in theory in practice it is a fallacy"

To Edwin L James of the New York times in 1928

  • Don't worry, papa, I know there is no such person as God.
    • To his strongly atheistic father before leaving for a boarding school run by Salesian monks.
    • The first thing is the state — and from the state are derived the rights and fate of the people. Humans come second.
      • 1932
      • The history of saints is basically the history of insane people.
      • What is one life in the affairs of the state?
        • After running down a child in his car
        • It's good to trust others, but not to do so is much better.
        • Racism is for the blondes (Germans).
        • Ruling the Italians is not difficult it's pointless.
        • Socialism is a fraud, a comedy, a phantom, a blackmail.
        • The Mediterranean sea is our Italian Mare Nostrum.
        • The function of a citizen and a soldier are inseparable.
        • He is a pederast.
          • Said about Hitler before the two were allies (he accused Hitler of assassinating his friend, Austrian dictator Engelbert Dollfuß).

          "Fascism should more properly be called corporatism because it is the merger of state and corporate power." I know he said this, but I can't find the source. Does anyone else know? -- Xhaoz 18:35, 12 February 2010 (UTC)

          This fabricated quote has long been a favorite of two-bit propagandists on both the political left and far-right (the libertarian, free-market capitalists). Mussolini never made the statement and his economic program was not based on the notion of the aggrandizement of business corporations. Rather, corporatism is based on the specific inclusion of labor, state and other peripheral forces in economic structuring. The labour charter of 1927 also clearly stipulated that in instances where private initiative in business became deficient, or where state interests were decisive, nationalization would be utilized. This is not surprising, as nationalized enterprise continued to exist in Italy throughout the duration of Mussolini's first political order and became further cemented in his last order, the short-lived Italian Social Republic.

          --Xhaoz (talk) 18:35, 12 February 2010 (UTC)

          It is important to note who esle died with mussolini, simply reverting it with idiotic explanations only shows how some people are ignorant, dont have capabilities to hold healthy conversations on wikipeedia or anywhere else, such actions only make articles look lackin info, so idiotic as this one is.

          The above posts were made related to an apparent desire to edit the intro with various forms of non-essential and initially incorrect information. I don't have time to comment further right now, as I must be leaving — but there is substantial evidence this is simply troll activity, active over the last few days at least, and not someone who is intent on being a serious contributor.

          you simply cant go around saying its troll,

          words like: "here's interesting link on mussolini + 16 others executed: www.custermen.com/ItalyWW2/ILDUCE/Mussolini.htm they should have had quick trial no matter what, otherwise those who did this are no better than executed, lol - The page is locked but that's good enough for me to make my point, same info will eventually go somewhere else, on one of other articles no problem! - It is important to note who esle died with mussolini, simply reverting it with idiotic explanations only shows how some people are ignorant, dont have capabilities to hold healthy conversations on wikipeedia or anywhere else, such actions only make articles look lackin info, so idiotic as this one is." is all valid, ideas are good! information is not incorrect when proper website given, learn something dude! —This unsigned comment is by 64.107.3.6 (talk • contribs) .

          Here is a quote floating around on the web that isn't on the page.

          Does anyone know if Benito Mussolini actually said this and where it comes from? --JamesPoulson (talk) 23:05, 23 August 2016 (UTC)

          The quote in English is from The Golden Book Magazine Vol. 16 (1932), p. 206. It's a translation of what Mussolini said to Emil Ludwig (Colloqui con Mussolini, 1932): "In ogni anarchico sta dentro un dittatore fallito" (which actually translates as "a failed dictator", not "baffled"). The original quote from their conversation might be in German (a language I don't know). If you look at the English translation from the German by Eden and Cedar Paul (Talks with Mussolini, 1933), they render it: "every anarchist is a dictator who has missed fire." (p. 67).

          Google translates the original quote, in Italian, that Daniel provides above, as "In every anarchist is inside a dictator failed", which when you correct the automatic translation's grammar, gives us "Inside every anarchist is a failed dictator." I can't see how someone would have ever translated the word "fallito" as "baffled".--John Sawyer (talk) 23:58, 16 October 2016 (UTC)

          I'm asking because the Liberal label is very specific to modern U.S. politics.

          It goes back to FDR's adoption of the word after progressive became a political liability as a result of happenings linked to the prohibition. --JamesPoulson (talk) 04:25, 7 September 2018 (UTC)


          Name Day Calendar

          The name day of Ludwig is 25 August.

          History and Origin

          Ludwig is an Old High German given name. Etymologically, the name can be traced back to the Germanic name Hludwig, composed of Hlud or Hluth meaning "famous", and Wig meaning "war". Nicknames are Ludva, Ludia, Luděk, Viky.

          Ludwig may refer to several notable persons:

          • Ludwig Mestler, an Austrian artist noted for his watercolor painting
          • Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, a German painter and printmaker
          • Ludwig Merwart, an Austrian painter and graphic artist
          • Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, a German American architect
          • Ludwig Reichenbach, a German botanist
          • Carl Ludwig Blume, a German-Dutch botanist
          • Carl Ludwig Willdenow, a German botanist
          • Ludwig I, count of Württemberg (1143–1158)
          • Ludwig II, count of Württemberg (1158–1181)
          • Ludwig I, count of Württemberg-Urach (1419–1450)
          • Ludwig II, count of Württemberg-Urach (1450–1457)
          • Ludwig IV, landgrave of Thuringia (1200–1227)
          • Ludwig I of Bavaria, king of Bavaria (1825–1848)
          • Ludwig II of Bavaria, king of Bavaria (1864–1886)
          • Ludwig III of Bavaria, last king of Bavaria (1913–1918)
          • Nicolaus Ludwig Zinzendorf, count of Zinzendorf and Pottendorf (1700–1760)
          • Ludwig IV, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine (1877–1892) (also known in English as Louis IV)
          • Emil Ludwig, a German writer
          • Ludwig Bemelmans, an American author and children's book writer and illustrator
          • Ludwig Thoma, a German author
          • Ludwig Tieck, a German poet
          • Ludwig Uhland, a German poet
          • Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827), German composer and pianist
          • Ludwig-Musser, manufacturer of drums and percussion instruments
          • Ludwig Minkus, an Austrian composer and violin virtuoso
          • Ludwig Spohr (1784–1859), German composer, violinist and conductor.
          • Ludwig Wittgenstein, Austrian philosopher who contributed several ground-breaking works to contemporary philosophy
          • Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach, a German philosopher
          • Ludwig Boltzmann, an Austrian physicist
          • Ludwig Prandtl, a German physicist
          • Ludwig Mond, a German chemist
          • Ludwig Erhard, a West German chancellor
          • Ludwig Scotty, president of Nauru
          • Count Ludwig von Cobenzl, an Austrian diplomat and politician
          • Ludwig Beck, a German general in Nazi Germany, who was involved in an assassination plot against Hitler
          • Carl Ludwig Koch, a German entomologist
          • Ludwig Müller, leader of the Protestant Reich Church
          • Ludwig Leichhardt, a Prussian explorer
          • Ludwig Ortiz, a Venezuelan judoka
          • Ludwig Rödl, a German chess master
          • Ludwig von Benedek, an Austrian general
          • Ludwig von Erlichshausen, grand master of the Teutonic Knights
          • Ludwig Gehre, a German resistance fighter during World War II
          • Ludwig Binswanger, a Swiss psychiatrist
          • Ludwig Schläfli, a Swiss geometer who made important contributions to higher-dimensional spaces
          • Ludwig von Bertalanffy, an Austrian-born biologist known as one of the founders of general systems theory.
          • Ludwig, Elephant at the Munich Zoo

          German: from an old Germanic personal name composed of the elements hlud fame + wīg warrior. It is thus etymologically the same as French Louis. Ludwig was a royal and imperial name, especially in Bavaria, which Louis the German (Ludwig der Deutsche) had received as his portion of his father's empire when the latter divided it in 817. See also Louis, Ludovic.
          Cognates: Scandinavian: Ludvig. Dutch: Lodewijk. Polish: +udwik. Czech: Ludvík. Hungarian: Lajos. French: Louis.
          Pet form: German: Lutz.

          The section "History and Origin" of this page contains content from the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Ludwig (given name)" that content is used under the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the GFDL.

          Comments

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