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14 October 1941

14 October 1941


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14 October 1941

October 1941

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> November

Eastern Front

Fighting ends in the Vyasma pocket

The Holocaust

It is decided to deport all Jews from the "old Reich"



Canadian tanks, troops, guns and planes to Malaya, Oct 1941

Perhaps, but I'm not certain howitzers are needed, the CW forces have lots of artillery, especially as I've just introduced a further two artillery regiments in the OP.

If mobile HE is wanted and we have time to modify the tanks, then I'd say the Valentine's get the 37mm M3 gun from the Stuart and Grant/Lee and swap these into the tanks on the production line in Fort William, Ontario. However, I'd say better to just produce what you've got a get them into the theatre.

Question, where did the 2 pdr guns come from to arm the tanks in Fort William? I do not believe Canada produced anti-tank guns. If they're shipped from Britain, perhaps it's not such a big deal to source M3 guns from across the border instead. Keeping in mind that Worthington knows of this mission in January 1941, he's got some leeway to make small mods to the tanks without causing massive delay.

Zheng He

Tomo pauk

Oldbill

Thank you so much for this wonderful honor.

Admiral Beez

Thank you so much for this wonderful honor.

Logan2879

Galveston bay

Logan2879

The 1st Canadian Division was already in UK in 1940 was well as a section of the 2nd Canadian Division by 1941. Z Force was in Iceland doing Occupation duty from 1940 -1941, which formed part of the 2nd Division. The 3rd Canadian Division and the 4th Division were in Canada and were going to be sent by July 1941 (3rd CID) while the 4th Division by late 1941 was to be converted to an armoured division in early 1942. Also by late November the 5th Division was sent to England to also be converted to an armoured division by early 1942. About the brigades none could have been spare because they were needed for the divisions unless the 10th infantry brigade won't join the 4th armour division and could be sent to Singapore and join C Force to form a good small division. Maybe joining with other regiments from Australia, New Zealand, or Indian, could it be form to a good division.

About the Canadian Armour Corp, I think that 4 tank regiments with 4 independent tank company could be enough for the corp. I will put up a formation of how the corp could be made. Also Canada could provide more canadian air squadrons about 10 to Singapore but that I will explain later.


Menendez, Kitty

American former beauty queen married to José Menendez, worth $14 million. He was the CEO of Live Entertainment, a Los Angeles video-distributing company. They had met when both were students at Southern Illinois University and married soon after she graduated in 1963. They had two handsome sons, Lyle and Eric. They made many moves, upwardly mobile with José's ambitions, a picture-perfect successful family. She closed her eyes to José's infidelities, preferring to center her time on the Beverly Hills house where they moved in 1989. A beauty, she had a face lift as she matured.

On the night of 8/20/1989 at their Beverly Hills home, she and Jose were murdered, blasted point blank with shotguns explosions while sitting in the den watching TV. At 11:47 PM the police got a hysterical call from the elder of their two sons, Lyle, crying "They shot and killed my parents." Kitty had been shot ten times with 12-gauge shotguns, effectively removing that pretty face.


Allison Collection Photos October, 1941- November, 1941

Gale Stops Parachute Record Attempt, 10/14/41 Rapid City, S.D. – Buffeted by high winds, George Hopkins, the mermit of Devil’s Tower, drops to earth in his parachute as he attempts to set new World’s Record for successive parachute jumps at Rapid City, S. D. The gale forced him to abandon the idea after 14 leaps. Credit: ACME

Man Behind the Machine-gun, 10/24/41 GERMANY—This striking photograph, received Oct. 24, 1941 by clipper, shows a grim-faced German machine-gunner ‘sighting’ the enemy.

Ammunition for the Soviet Front, 10/24/41 RUSSIA—Even peasant carts are requisitioned if no lorries are immediately available, so that Soviet infantry in the firing line can get ammunition they need. Here are two Red Army soldiers delivering rifle ammunition and grenades to a forward position. Note the well-protected, camouflaged firing post beside the rough road. Passed by British censor. Credit: ACME

Calm “After” the Storm, 10/24/41 RUSSIA—All was calm when German forces arrived at this scene on the Dneiper River at Strassolessnje. Retreating Soviet forces destroyed the bridge to slow up the Nazi advance. Passed by German censor.Credit: ACME

Destroying to Repair, 10/24/41 Russia—German engineers caused this geyser when they blasted a piece of bridge framework as they went to work repairing a destroyed bridge across the Narva River. The bridge was blasted by retreating Red Army troops to stop the advance of the Germans. (Passed by German censor). Credit: ACME.

King Chats With U.S. Army Officers in R.A.F., 10/24/41 London - King George is pictured during an inspection tour, talking to American Army Officers serving as observers with the Royal Air Force. Radiophoto was flashed from London to New York today. (Passed by British Censor) Credit: ACME Radiophoto

CAPTIVE MINE STRIKE THREATENS STEEL OUTPUT, 10/27/41 CLAIRTON, PA – This pile of coal at the Clairton, Pa., works of the Carnegie-Illinois Steel Corporation looks big, but it will last only two weeks at capacity operation, and prospects of replenishing it are dim as 53,000 miners at pits owned by steel companies stage walkout to enforce C10 demand for a closed shop. Credit: OWI Radiophoto from ACME

BOMBING OF HMS ILLUSTRIOUS IN MEDITERRANEAN, #1, 10/27/41 MEDITERRANEAN—This is the start of German dive-bombing attack on the British aircraft carrier Illustrious, which was the main target of six air attacks in the Mediterranean, suffering several hits. This exclusive picture is the first of a sequence of three, received today by clipper, passed by British censor. The vessel is now undergoing repairs in an American port. Credit: Acme

BOMBING OF HMS ILLUSTRIOUS IN MEDITERRANEAN, #3, 10/27/41 MEDITERRANEAN—The British aircraft carrier Illustrious is almost hidden by spray and smoke from bomb bursts during savage German dive-bombing attack in the Mediterranean. The Illustrious, which made its way to an American shipyard, where it is now undergoing repairs, was the main target of six Nazi attacks by dive bombers. This is the last of three exclusive pictures received today by clipper, passed by British censor. Credit: Acme

Bombing Of HMS Illustrious In Mediterranean (2), 10/27/41 Mediterranean – German Dive Bombers begin to find their range and hits are scored on the British Aircraft Carrier Illustrious, which was their main target during six attacks in the Mediterranean. The vessel made its way to an American port, where it is undergoing repairs. This exclusive picture is the second of a sequence of three, received by clipper today, passed by British Censor. Credit: ACME

BIGGEST PRODUCER DOUBLES STAINLESS STEEL OUTPUT, 10/28/41 CHICAGO, IL—Maj. General Joseph Cummins, Commanding of the Sixth Corps area, and other defense officials (on the platform at left) watch the first pouring from one of two new electric furnaces installed in the corporation. Their output of 100,000 net tons annually doubles the previous output, and makes the plant the greatest producer of stainless steel in the United States. In the glare above the furnace (upper center) can be seen the giant electrodes that produce the intense heat necessary in making the alloy. Credit: OWI Radiophoto from ACME

Germans Enter Kharov, 10/28/41 Another Russian city into which Germany’s military machine has marched is Kharov, on the way to the highly desirable Donets Basin. No cheering crowd greeted the conquerors. No visible damage to the city is apparent from this radiophoto, flashed from Berlin to New York today (October 28).Credit: Official German photo from ACME

Red Army Land-Water Tanks, 10/29/41 RUSSIA—Soviet amphibian tanks make their way across a Russian river. Such scenes as this are now being enacted as the Russians defend their terrain against the German mighty advance and possible pincer movement. Credit: ACME

Milano Shipyards Get Defense Orders, 10/30/41 Benton Harbor, Mich.: One of many mine-sweepers under construction at the Dachel-Carter Shipbuilding Co. yards, here, is shown as it neared final stages, with framework finished. Large diesel engines will be installed in the completed boats. Credit: ACME.

CREW MEMBERS LEAVE DISABLED KEARNY, 10/30/41 WASHINGTON, D.C. – Crew members of the U.S.S. Kearny take leave of their ship to board an accompanying vessel at an unnamed port. The Kearny was damaged by a torpedo while on patrol southwest of Iceland, but was able to limp into port. Credit: OWI Radiophoto from ACME

AXIS PRISONERS WORKING FOR HIS MAJESTY, 10/30/41 German and Italian prisoners captured from Axis submarines and merchant vessels are shown getting a workout on the upper deck of a British warship, scrubbing wire hawsers to earn their passage. The British-censored caption which accompanied the photo said that the prisoners look forward to this work and admitted that they do it well. Credit: Acme

Russians Blow Up Own Railroad Station, 11/2/41 Russia – This is how the railroad station in Viipuri looked to an official German photographer after it was blown-up by retreating Red Army. (Passed by German Censor). Credit: ACME

Scene After Reds Lost Last-Stand Battle, 11/3/41 RUSSIA—This is a street scene. Shown is an unidentified Soviet village after Red Army troops lost a last-stand battle, according to the German censor approved caption accompanying this radiophoto, flashed from Berlin to New York today. Credit: Official German photo from ACME

German Troops in Kalinin, 11/3/41 Russia: German tanks storm into the Soviet city of Kalinin, some 60-miles North of Moscow. Radiophoto was flashed from Berlin to New York today. (Passed by German Censor). Credit: Official German photo from ACME

High altitude performance of Curtiss-Hawk pursuits, 11/13/41 Curtiss – Wright Corp High altitude of new Curtiss Rolls Royce engine.

Strike Clash in West Virginia Captive Mine., 11/18/41 Gary, W. VA.—One man was injured in a clash between pickets and members of an independent miner’s union at a captive mine, operated by the United States Coal & Coke Co., in Gary, November 18. The action occurred, when the independent miners tried to enter the mine and the pickets barred their way. Steel bars were hurled, with a liberal sprinkling of rocks, by both sides. Photo above shows one hapless victim being sprayed with a hose. Credit: ACME.


Chronicle Commentary: June 18, 1941

Today’s paper previews the upcoming boxing match between heavyweight champion Joe Louis and challenger Billy Conn. Fresh from a victory over Buddy Baer less than a month ago, Louis is the 4-to-1 odds favorite for his 14th title defense. However, Polo Grounds fans are in for one of the greatest matches in boxing history tomorrow. Stay tuned.

Louis and Conn will both be boxing for the Army soon, and will have a rematch after the war.

Capt. Thomas Rynning, Arizona Rangers

While not in the paper, it is worth noting the passing of former 2nd Lt. Thomas H. Rynning, who died on this day at the age of 75. The Norwegian immigrant enlisted in the U.S. Eighth Cavalry’s Troop D during the Indian Wars, serving under famed Civil War cavalry officer Gen. Philip Sheridan and alongside then-Lieutenant Leonard Wood (Medal of Honor recipient and namesake of Fort Leonard Wood). Rynning participated in 17 battles and was present during the capture of Geronimo.

“Rough Rider” officers (left to right): Maj. George Dunn, Maj. Alexander O. Brodie, former Confederate general Joseph Wheeler, chaplain Henry A. Brown, Col. Wood, and Lt. Col. Roosevelt.

When war broke out between the United States and Spain, Rynning enlisted with the 1st Volunteer Cavalry Regiment, which was organized by Col. Wood and future president Col. Theodore Roosevelt. During the Battle of San Juan Hill, Rynning led the American charge up Kettle Hill when an enemy bullet killed Capt. William O. “Buckey” O’Neill. Also present at the battle was 10th Cavalry quartermaster 1st Lt. John J. “Black Jack” Pershing, whose nickname comes from his service with the Buffalo Soldiers.

Following the war, he served as Captain of the Arizona Rangers. Rynning is interred at Fort Rosecrans National Cemetery in San Diego.


Nazi-Soviet peace deal October 1941

I have heard of these talks between Soviets and Nazis but never any details.

Raharris1973

I can't say I have confidence reaching a deal at this time is very plausible. However, under almost any terms of a separate Nazi-Soviet peace, Germany is better off relative to OTL. Now that does not mean Germany winning or ultimately being able to hold on to its conquests, but even getting a brief break on the eastern front helps weaken allied cohesion and makes the efforts of Germany's enemies less efficient.

Likewise, I do not see the USSR benefitting in the long run from any separate peace deal. The Soviets can avoid the massive costs of fighting in certain months, but they do not make the gains of OTL. Even if the Soviets use the break to rest, rebuild and then later attack the Germans, the Soviets are probably worse off for it, because the Wallies are never as likely to be as generous with Lend-Lease if they see the Soviets as unreliable allies willing to cut a deal.

Miketr

Musketeer513

Thaddeus

my question would be the borders of any peace deal?

Germany had wanted Finland to occupy up to White Sea, and to eliminate Crimea as base for Soviet air operations, other than that??

Dominic

Unless the USSR is stripped to the equivalent of Best-Litovsk it will be far better off without the Nazis trying to exterminate 90% of their population. Every day that Soviet agriculture, industry, and demography is not being savaged by the Nazis is a day gained relative to OTL. If the Soviets only lose 'border' territories such as Eastern Poland, the Baltics, Bessarabia, and perhaps a few other bits they will be in an excellent position to steam roll the Nazis in conjunction with the Wallies come '43 or '44. The USSR would probably lose ten million fewer people I'd guess, if not many more.

If on the other hand they lose territories to the tune of Brest-Litovsk then things are less clear, those territories will be decimated by the Germans but on the other hand the rest of the USSR will be unscathed. Long term political longevity aside, I still think there's a moderate advantage for the Soviets as presumably large numbers of people in the occupied territories will flee East, reducing the number of casualties, and so long as the USSR is being supported by the Wallies famine on a large scale should not be too likely. the Nazis would be strengthened however, and defeating them even in conjunction with the Wallies will be very costly. One would need to sketch out a detailed scenario to game this.

Mackus

Michele

Merlin

Oberst Josef Schmid not content with the intelligence debacle of the BoB, cocked-up again with analysis on Russian Aviation strengths. Germany estimated the Soviets had about 7,300 combat aircraft in Western Russia, plus 3,000 in the interior and another 2,000 in the Far East. Whereas the actual figures were more like 20,000 on the 22nd June 1941.
Two months before, a team of engineers toured Soviet aircraft factories in the company of the German air attaché in Moscow. Seeing among others, the mass-production facilities for the Mig-3, and the Pe-2. Yet Schmid dismissed such reports that the 'aero-engine facilities at Kuibyshev alone were bigger than Germany's six main assembly factories' as a product of Soviet deception and their gullibility!
With such fantasies - maybe it was a lost cause!?

But too the Op's question, would the Germans retreat to an agreed line, would the Russians agree a line so close to Moscow? I think the Germans would want Minsk, in the centre, but would the give up Smolensk, they would want Odessa in the South, but what about Kiev? Would their go for a independent (pro-German) Ukraine?

Deleted member 1487

my question would be the borders of any peace deal?

Germany had wanted Finland to occupy up to White Sea, and to eliminate Crimea as base for Soviet air operations, other than that??

I think Stalin would offer Brest-Litovsk again plus Belarus and perhaps something else in exchange for pulling back from Moscow and Leningrad. perhaps the Kuban and more of the Caucasus.

That's the thing, we know that with hindsight, but the German planners really did assume that the loss of something like B-L would cripple the USSR. Hitler of course wanted the A-A line because he assumed that war would be endless, while more 'traditionally' German imperialist Nazis like Goering seem to have been more interested in occupying the rich resources areas of the USSR and establishing themselves more that way. The thing is the B-L areas are the most resource and industrially, as well as most populated areas outside of Leningrad/Moscow/the Urals (the extent of industrialization of that region wasn't known until significantly after the invasion), so the feeling was depriving the USSR of that would be crippling and collapse the regime sooner or later (remember that was effectively the premise of the 1942 campaign the Urals, Moscow, Murmansk, and Leningrad held out, but the capture of East Ukraine to the Volga and the Caucasus was thought to be the final death blow, not taking the capital). So I'm thinking that the Germans would assume that at B-L peace would disable the USSR for a long time to come as a threat and certainly the UK would see that (and probably would) especially without L-L (though I'm sure the Soviets would try and purchase like made to make good their losses, exploiting the newly discovered gold mines of Siberia to the hilt).

IIRC the areas of B-L (plus Belarus and say Kuban, plus Finland getting the rest of Karelia plus Kola) were about 40% of Soviet industry and population as of 1940.

Michele

The evident difference between conquering the foodstuff-producing areas and conquering, in addition to those, a salient that reaches Grozny, Majkop and Baku. is what you find in those three locations.

The Soviet Union and its armies would lose both the bread and the oil. That's why it would be a death blow the Germans wanted the oil, or at least to take it away from the Soviets. Additionally, yes, Leningrad did hold out historically, it's not as if the Germans had planned to ignore Leningrad. They wanted to take that in 1942, too.

See Hitler's Directive 41. In conclusion, no, the premise is effectively different.

Deleted member 1487

The evident difference between conquering the foodstuff-producing areas and conquering, in addition to those, a salient that reaches Grozny, Majkop and Baku. is what you find in those three locations.

The Soviet Union and its armies would lose both the bread and the oil. That's why it would be a death blow the Germans wanted the oil, or at least to take it away from the Soviets. Additionally, yes, Leningrad did hold out historically, it's not as if the Germans had planned to ignore Leningrad. They wanted to take that in 1942, too.

See Hitler's Directive 41. In conclusion, no, the premise is effectively different.

The US military wrote a monograph about German military planning for the eastern war from 1940-42 and in the part dedicated to 1942 planning, the assumption was that the USSR was on it's last legs and taking the country to the Volga would push over the regime and collapse it by cutting their national highway, the river Volga. The oil was incidental to that effect, they needed the oil for themselves to be able to turn and fight the Anglo-Americans it was assumed the Soviets would fall incidentally to taking the oil for campaigns in the West. The assumption they had was that the Soviet regime was about the collapse anyway, so I could see them in an ATL convincing themselves that the USSR would be neutered by a peace deal that gave them the majority of Soviet agricultural lands and coal, plus some of their oil. Clearly thought changed in German planning circles and with Hitler himself between December 1940 and January 1942 when Directive 21 was issued and the realities of the long Eastern Campaign set in. It is likely that assumptions would have changed by October 1941 especially with Hitler dead and someone else in power.

Goering was rather famously against the war in the East in the first place, so it would seem that if given the chance to make a major territorial gain and get out of the war which was not going as planned, he could convince himself that it was safe to do so, as the belief among the generals at the time was that the campaign was effectively won as it was. Rather than having to fight it to the bitter end to the A-A line like Hitler wanted and planned on per Directive 21, Goering could well decided that Stalin asking for terms was better than good enough, because it wrapped the war up in less than 6 months and he could then turn to the Brits and present that a Fiat Accompli in the East and claim his position was unassailable, while the Soviets had been neutered for the foreseeable future. I'm just trying to predict the thought process of Hiter's successor in potentially accepting the peace deal, rather than saying that is exactly how things would be.

Pattersonautobody

My guess the peace would be roughly lands where the Germans advanced to in 1941 and a deal for reparations paid in resources such as oil and access through Turkey without Russian opposition. Crimea may stay Russian and Odessa would be granted to the Axis. A peace deal is plausible enough for both sides in the case of Hitler chokes on a fish bone. Goering needs time to establish himself and it gives him a victory to go on (troops home by Xmas, etc). For Stalin, German strength was unknown so it gave him time to get ready to fight another day.

So, for both sides, a peace can actually work. Due to real-world contingencies, Stalin could not automatically invade a German army that looks undefeatable. He may actually think that his building of defensive lines brought upon the attack to begin with. So, Stalin may actually favor a much more mobile army with reserves. Unlike what Obsessed says, I'd agree with Dr. Citino that the 1941 Russian strategy WAS NOT defense in depth. The Russians through their reserves into the front lines and into idiotic counter attacks every chance they had. It was DE FACTO defense in depth because the Russians were calling up so many reserves that the Germans moved quick enough that they would essentially run into fresh reserves seemingly waiting. Not until 1942 in case blue did the Russians deliberately undergo a strategic withdrawal. The strategic withdrawal would probably become part of Russian planning after peace ITTL because of standing and fighting failing.

The Germans would then adopt a Mediterranean strategy in 42. The US would not be in the war, but Britain would hold out for US participation. Russia will refuse to participate but will accept Lend Lease to build up their army. Eventually the US joins the war, but by then the Germans may have pressured Turkey for access into the Middle East and Malta has fallen. WW2 will be a peripheral campaign fought in Africa and the Middle East. I would not be surprised to see side shows in Norway and even Spain. THe idea would be to strat-bomb the Axis to death and attrite them in the battlefield. When the A-Bomb comes, perhaps Britain can secure some sort of peace where they and Germany can save face, because having atomic weapons would not be enough to beat Germany as the Luftwaffe would be too strong to make it a guarenteed thing.

Thaddeus

they were on Crimea (barely) by Oct. denying Soviets use of it as base and control over it being influential with Turkey? my view they would withdraw from important areas of Ukraine before Crimea.

if Germany could retain shipbuilding at Mikolaiv, Crimea, and gain Soviet bases on Kuban coast? plausibly gain control of Soviet Black Sea fleet. they could move oil and grain from Kuban by sea to Danube unobstructed.

Michele

Your timing and numbering seem to be off here. I again recommend that you read Directive N. 41 (Fall Blau not 21, Barbarossa). The purpose was to destroy the remaining defensive forces of the Soviets, and to deny them their main centers of war industry: that said, Hitler goes ahead mentioning the capture of Leningrad, the oilfields of the Caucasus, and the capture or attack on Stalingrad, which should at the very least be taken under heavy artillery fire in order to make it meaningless as an industrial center and communications node. Those were the main Soviet centers of war industry: Leningrad, Stalingrad, and the Caucasus oilfields (as well as other raw materials available there), in the mind of the man who signed that Directive.

Now, it is entirely possible that back in 1940 somebody else, or even Hitler himself, might think that taking the Ukrainan cupboard, its coal, and its negligible oil sources could be enough. But the point is that you argued that the 1942 campaign was in some measure comparable to this much more limited objective. It just was not, either in fact or in the knowledge of the planner, as Weisung 41 shows.

Anarch King of Dipsodes

Let's make it happen in the period between the end of the Vyazma fighting and the start of the final drive toward Moscow when the ground froze the first two weeks of November. Hitler by this time was determined to crush the USSR absolutely by taking Moscow. But let's remove him. Idunno how: he trips and breaks his neck on 2 November? That is going to paralyze Germany for a while, even if Goering steps right into power. Goering had major doubts about BARBAROSSA beforehand. By this time, he is probably as victory-dizzy as anyone else, but. Maybe during his initial briefings, the quartermasters manage to get to him and show just how awful the supply situation is. And someone else points out that all German estimates of Soviet resources to date have been way low.

And Stalin decides to try to exploit the change of leadership in Germany (trying to redirect Germany against Britain again). He gets a message to Goering via. Japan? Which is the only country with embassies in Berlin and Moscow that would help, ISTM. Japan would certainly welcome Germany putting increased pressure on Britain, especially as Japan has pretty much decided on war with Britain and the U.S.

The offer has to be a mix of defiance and compliance: pointing out that Soviet resistance is still fierce, that the Red Army still has huge numbers, and cornered rats will fight. But recognizing that Germany has inflicted huge losses and overrun vast areas. Therefore, a deal. Germany may have the Baltic republics, Belarus, Ukraine, Crimea, and and the Leningrad area. Romania gets Bessarabia back, Finland gets everything west of the White Sea. The USSR will supply unlimited oil to the Axis.

This last clause tickles Goering the Luftwaffe is, as always, starving for gasoline. And then yet another British raid hits Berlin, sending him to the bomb shelter. This is personally humiliating. Yet he knows that the Luftwaffe can't smash Britain while it's fighting in the east. At this point Japan hints strongly that it's about to attack Britain and seize the Far East. That's fine with him, and he asks for two more conditions - unlimited transit of goods between Japan and Europe via the USSR, thereby providing Germany with rubber and stuff, and and an additional slice of land - Russia east of 35E, from Lake Onega to Ukraine. All Axis PoWs (there aren't many) will be returned the Axis may keep any PoWs they want to hold for labor and return the rest. Since they were just planning to kill most of them to save feeding them (and had already killed hundreds of thousands), this appeals to Goering too.

Stalin agrees like a flash. The Soviet War ends on 20 November. He conducts a purge to eliminate all "the traitors responsible for the defeats of 1941". Goering knows Stalin will break this peace when circumstances seem favorable, and will build up strength for this but figures that Stalin is cowed for quite a long while, and in the meantime Germany can force Britain out of the war, and secure its positions in the east (e.g. build a proper railroad net, housing and fortifications for the troops, pave some roads, get the conquered population properly regimented).

There may be some kind of garboil in Iran, where British and Soviet troops are in joint occupation. The Soviets may pull back to their border. This however brings British forces dangerously near the Soviet oil fields around Baku. These fields are no supplying the Ais, and at some point the Allies will start thinking about Operation Pike again. Not right away though, as the situation in the Middle East/North Africa is going to get very ugly.

The Pacific War still starts in December, and plays out largely as OTL.

In Europe. Goering orders the Luftwaffe to resume the blitz of Britain. As in OTL, Germany and Italy declare war on the U.S. The Axis has already sent more aircraft and fuel to the Mediterranean and North Africa, where Rommel is being defeated in Operation CRUSADER. By mid-December, Malta is neutralized, and substantial Axis reinforcements land at Benghazi the British relieve Tobruk, but can't advance past Gazala.

Hmm. One could get really bogged down trying to extrapolate the whole war at this scale. Let's snap it up.

Axis reinforcements drive the British back into Egypt but are held at the Suez Canal and upper Nile as Britain and now the U.S. throw every available resource into the Middle East.

Britain gets hurt bad by the Second Blitz. The Allies bombed Germany from 800 km away the Germans bomb Britain from 150 km away. London gets wrecked. I don't know what the Allies can do about it night fighters can't stop it, or even bleed the bombers enough, especially when the raid distance is so short. Massive intruder raids on German airbases in France and Belgium?

The Germans expand production of U-boats, since the army is mostly idle. So the Battle of the Atlantic is uglier too.

The thin sliver lining to this mass of dark clouds is that what was shipped to the USSR OTL is available to US and British forces.

In early 1943, Allied forces finally counterattack, retaking lower Egypt. Another Allied force lands in Morocco. Massive Axis forces immediately move into Tunisia and Algeria, while the Vichy French are still fighting in Morocco.

(Here's a weird question: without the "Darlan deal" how long would the Vichy French fight the Allies in North Africa? What would happen if Axis forces attacked Allied forces while they were still fighting with the French? Would the Vichy forces dissolve, or become Axis satellite troops?)

NOTE: unlike OTL, the invasion of Africa is not because the US and UK have to Do Something to keep the USSR in the war in the two years before OVERLORD can go. The Axis pressure in North Africa has to be opposed. The Allies cannot ignore a million enemy troops. Morocco, because trying to run a major theater at the end of a 30,000 km sea line is too hard.

NOTE: Spain stays neutral. Franco has no quarrel with the US, and barely with the UK, and he can see that Spain would become a battleground between the Axis and Allies. He wants no part of that.

The Allies win the Battle of the Atlantic in late 1943 (six months later than OTL). The US pours forces into Morocco, and pushes across North Africa, taking Tunis in early 1944.

By this time the US is also building up in Britain for a cross-Channel invasion. There is a ferocious ongoing air battle first, followed by intense suppression raids on the Luftwaffe in France. Meanwhile German resources are poured into fortifying the Atlantic coast, and panzer troops are massed in France for counter-attacks against any landing.

The Allies land in France in September 1944. They gain a toehold, but the beachhead is contained, and just barely held against heavy German counterattacks, much like Anzio OTL. Over the next several months, the Allies slowly expand the beachhead by sheer firepower and costly attacks.


HMS Royal Oak is sunk in Scapa Flow

On this day in 1939, the battleship HMS Royal Oak was torpedoed and sunk in Scapa Flow with the loss of 833 lives. Coming just weeks after the outbreak of World War Two, it was one of Britain’s worst naval disasters. It was an even worse shock because it happened inside a famous and supposedly impregnable naval base. Scapa Flow, in the Orkney Islands, was the Royal Navy’s home base in World War One. It’s well-organised defences gained it a reputation as a secure anchorage, where British ships were completely safe. But in the interwar years, the defences were neglected, and when war broke out with Germany in 1939 they were in bad shape.

There were not nearly enough men, searchlights, guns or patrol ships to make Scapa Flow secure. Blockships, which obstructed the narrow channels into the Flow, had rusted away to nothing. Kapitanleutnant Günther Prien, commander of the German submarine U-47, exploited this weakness and entered the anchorage shortly before midnight on 13th October 1939. He found the Royal Oak lying at anchor, oblivious to any danger. His first four torpedoes caused only small damage, due to a number of misses and malfunctions. But the crew of Royal Oak - most of whom were below decks asleep in their hammocks - thought there had been a small internal explosion.

They couldn’t conceive that they might be under attack. So Prien reloaded his torpedo tubes and attacked again. This time three explosions amidships sealed the Royal Oak’s fate. A massive hole was torn in her side. She quickly began to roll over, and then the cordite magazines caught fire, sending balls of flame racing through the ship. The electricity failed within minutes, plunging the ship into darkness. Only the very quick-witted, or very lucky, got out from inside the ship. As U-47 escaped from Scapa Flow undetected, more than 300 British sailors jumped into the dark, freezing water of Scapa Flow. Some had terrible burns. Thick fuel oil covered, choking and blinding them.

But thanks to the heroic work of Daisy II (the battleship’s tender which was moored alongside at the time of the attack) 386 men were pulled from the water alive. It was less than a third of the Royal Oak’s crew. Günther Prien and the crew of U-47 were welcomed as heroes in Germany, and Hitler sent his private plane to fly them to Berlin so he could congratulate them personally. Prien was awarded the Knight’s Cross, Germany’s highest military award, and became a celebrity. The Nazi propaganda machine cranked into overdrive, and milked this admittedly brilliant achievement for all it was worth. In Britain, the loss of Royal Oak caused shock and grief, particularly over the large loss of boy-sailors.

There had been 163 of them aboard the ship, some as young as 15. 126 went down with the Royal Oak. It would contribute to the end of this ancient tradition of boys serving their apprenticeships on fighting ships. The loss of Royal Oak was a tragic and demoralising event for Britain, but on the context of the war, it was soon overtaken by events. The Royal Navy, and the survivors of HMS Royal Oak, got on with fighting the war, as did the fathers, brothers and wives of those who’d perished. But none would ever forget the loss of Royal Oak and so many men. Today they still rest within her upturned hull - a protected war grave 100 feet beneath the water of Scapa Flow.


About 30% of smallpox cases of the variola major type ended in death, typically in the second week of infection. Most survivors had some degree of permanent scarring, which could be extensive. Other deformities could result, such as loss of lip, nose, and ear tissue. Blindness could occur as a result of corneal scarring. Variola minor was less severe and caused fewer of those infected to die.

Some estimates indicate that 20th century worldwide deaths from smallpox numbered more than 300 million.


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318 South Court Street in Cherryton was mentioned in the March 1928 Herald as being a four room shingled cottage. An instructor an two seniors lived in the home for a three week rotation. The February 1929 College Heights Herald reported the use of a three bedroom cottage located on the Ogden Campus that could house an instructor and three students at a time.

By 1941 the Rock House which could accomodate six students who stayed in the home for a nine week rotation. A home at 1563 Normal was used in 1948. It could house six students and their supervisor. The Home Management House rotation was decreased to six weeks. Later a home at 1526 State Street would be used for an eight week rotation. Eventually two apartments in Bates-Runner Hall were converted for use in home management training.

1962 Home Management House at 1526 State Street, razed 1973

College Heights Herald:
March 1928 318 South Court Street in Cherryton
February 1929 Ogden Campus
"Home Ec. House to relocate," Sept. 11, 1973, p. 11.
"Home Ec. majors get new, larger practice house," Nov. 14, 1941, p. 8.
"Home Management house at Western," Jan. 9, 1963.
"Home Management house undergoes changes, repairs," Nov. 7, 1958, p. 9.
"Home Management house," photograph, Jan. 9, 1963, p. 1.
"Home Management," April 9, 1948.
Madison, Stephanie. "Home Management now in Bates-Runner," Jan. 11, 1974, p. 7.
"Studio is now home Ec. House," Oct. 3, 1941, p. 12.

Park City Daily News:
"Management House to Hold Formal Opening tomorrow," Jan. 16, 1963.

Documents & Primary Sources:
UA1F Articles on Western Buildings - http://digitalcommons.wku.edu/dlsc_ua_records/1827/

UA2/1 Board of Regents Meeting Minutes - http://digitalcommons.wku.edu/bor/

Quarterly Meeting Oct. 27, 1962 - http://digitalcommons.wku.edu/bor/1962/qtrly/1/

UA3/3/4 Kelly Thompson Construction File - inventory - http://digitalcommons.wku.edu/dlsc_ua_fin_aid/103/

UA30/1/1 Planning Design & Construction - Blueprints - inventory - http://digitalcommons.wku.edu/dlsc_ua_fin_aid/81

UA60/1 Home Economics & Family Living - inventory - http://digitalcommons.wku.edu/dlsc_ua_fin_aid/269


Russia was a poor country. She had great resources but these were 'locked in’ by the vast size of the country and the extreme climate. She had produced cheap raw materials for other manufacturing countries and a growing surplus of grain, but it was the policy of the Tsars from 1855 to compete as a manufacturing power.

  • In 1914 85 per cent of the population were still peasants.
  • Peasants had to practise subsistence farming.
  • Economically, the vast majority of the population contributed very little to Russian society.
  • Under a succession of Tsarist ministers (Bunge, Witte and Stolypin) railways were built, foreign investment attracted and landholdings reformed.
  • Economic growth rates averaged 9 per cent from 1894–1900 and 5 per cent from 1900–1914. These were huge rates of change.
  • Industrial growth was centred on armaments because Tsar Nicholas II wanted to protect Russia’s position as a great power. However, oil, textiles, minerals and iron and steel were the industries most affected by economic growth.

Subsistence farming means that they produced what they needed, took little to market, did not use much money and could not easily be taxed.

By 1914 the Russian economy had grown more slowly than those of Germany, the USA, France and Britain. However, Russia put a huge army of 3 million troops on to the front against Germany and Austria. This meant that Russia was unable to equip her troops as well as her enemies. The strain of supplying them would be immense.


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