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20 September 1942

20 September 1942


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20 September 1942

September 1942

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Eastern Front

German troops forced back across the mountain passes in the Caucasus.



September 24, 1942

It was the 39th Thursday of 1942. If you were born on this date your birthday numbers 9, 24 and 1942 reveal that your life path number is 4. Your zodiac sign is Libra with a ruling planet Venus , your birthstone is the Sapphire , and your birth flower is the Aster/Myosotis . You are 78 years old, and were born in 1940s, in the middle of Silent Generation. The generation you are born into makes an impact on your life. Swipe up to find out what it all means.

→ September 24, 1942 was a Thursday
→ Zodiac sign for this date is Libra
→ This date was 28,739 days ago
→ 1942 was the Year of the Horse
→ In 2021, September 24 is on Saturday

View interesting September 24, 1942 birthday facts that no one tells you about, such as your life path number, birthstone, ruling planet, zodiac sign and birth flower.

People born on this day will turn 79 in exactly .

If you were born on this date:

You have been alive for . You were born in the Year of the Horse. Your birth sign is Libra with a ruling planet Venus. There were precisely 974 full moons after you were born up to this day. Your billionth second was on was on June 2, 1974.

→ You’ve slept 9,580 days or 26.25 years.
→ Your next birthday is away
→ You’ve been alive
→ You were born in the Year of the Horse
→ You have been alive 689,752 hours
→ You are 41,385,159 minutes old
→ Age on next birthday: 79 years old


Denton Record-Chronicle (Denton, Tex.), Vol. 42, No. 20, Ed. 1 Monday, September 7, 1942

Daily newspaper from Denton, Texas that includes local, state, and national news along with advertising.

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six pages : ill. page 23 x 18 in. Digitized from 35 mm. microfilm.

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Denton's first public library opened on June 6, 1937, in Denton County Courthouse. It quickly outgrew the space and in 1949, the City of Denton donated a tract of land on Oakland Street for a new library.

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  • Main Title: Denton Record-Chronicle (Denton, Tex.), Vol. 42, No. 20, Ed. 1 Monday, September 7, 1942
  • Serial Title:Denton Record-Chronicle

Description

Daily newspaper from Denton, Texas that includes local, state, and national news along with advertising.

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six pages : ill. page 23 x 18 in.
Digitized from 35 mm. microfilm.

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Published every afternoon except Sunday.

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  • Library of Congress Control Number: sn86088888
  • OCLC: 14198299 | External Link
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metapth1312784

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  • Volume: 42
  • Issue: 20
  • Edition: 1

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Denton Record-Chronicle

While Denton has had many newspapers, the Denton Record-Chronicle has had the longest history and is considered the city's paper of record. The Denton Chronicle was established in 1882 as a weekly newspaper. In 1899, the paper became the Denton Record and Chronicle, when the Denton Chronicle combined with another local newspaper, the Denton County Record.

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Documenting the history of Denton County and its county seat from 1892-1911, the Denton County Newspaper Collection offers a detailed view into the growth and expansion of the county as an agricultural and educational hub.

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This Day in Susanville History – September 2nd, 1942

A widespread hunt is being continued for Virgil Lewis, 20-year-old youth, who sawed his way out of the Lassen county jail and escaped in a stolen auto after successfully running a police blockade, Sheriff Olin S. Johnson said today.

Opening his way to freedom by sawing a bar from the exercise room of the jail, while three other prisoners watched Lewis’s successful escape was discovered at 4:00p.m. of the same day when officers went to lock the men in their cells. The other three men, all of whom were facing felony charges, refused to accompany Lewis.

Blockade Set
The sheriff’s officers immediately set up a blockade on all the county’s main roads. Shortly after 1:00a.m. of the following morning a car bearing Lewis and his bride of only a few weeks, sped through the blockade on Highway 395 near Wendel, narrowly missing one of the officers.

Giving chase the sheriff’s officers charged up to the fugitive auto which had stopped a mile further down the road only to find Lewis had taken to the woods, leaving his wife in the car.

Leaves Bride
Taking advantage of the heavily wooded area and the darkness the youth eluded the officers, and up until a late hour today had not been apprehended.

Taking the 20 year-old bride, who was the former Grace Collins of Clatskanie, Oregon, into custody, Sheriff Johnson reports that she admitted providing her husband with the saw blade to make his escape and taking the runaway auto from a Susanville resident.

We are always looking for new pictures to preserve and share in our historical photo collection and we would love to see yours.Your picture will be added to our digital archive for future use and we will make sure you receive credit whenever possible. Email your contribution along with your name and a short description of what you’ve sent to [email protected] A digital copy of every submission will also be donated to the Lassen Historical Society for preservation in their files.

Don’t know how to scan your photos?

Our friends at the UPS Store have offered to professionally scan your vintage photo submissions for free. Just stop by 2850 Main Street in Susanville and they will be happy to help you.


The Madagascar Plan

Jewish mother before execution, Byelorussia © With the defeat of Poland, around 1.7 million Jews came under German rule. The Nazi leadership now planned to establish a 'Jewish reservation' for all Jews from Poland and other parts of the German 'Reich'. It was to be located in the Lublin district of Poland, in the newly established 'General Government'. This plan formed a part of an extensive resettlement project that Adolf Hitler had appointed Himmler, also chief of the SS, to lead.

The Nazi leadership planned the death by starvation of 30 million people

Hundreds of thousands were expelled from Poland in order to make room for 'ethnically German' settlers. Yet all these plans for an 'ethnic new order' in Poland were to fail, made impossible by the scale of their megalomania. Thus the 'Jewish Reservation' remained a phantom, despite the fact that by the spring of 1941 several thousand Jews had already been deported to the 'General Government'. After the conquest of France in June 1940 these plans were largely replaced by another project designed to provide a 'territorial solution' to the 'Jewish question'.

As part of the so-called 'Madagascar Plan', all Jews under German rule were to be deported to the French colony of Madagascar. However, this plan was rendered unworkable as long as Great Britain's Royal Navy retained control of the seas.In the winter of 1940 to 1941, Hitler commissioned a third variation of the 'territorial solution', in which the Jews would be deported to the Soviet Union after it had been conquered.

Whether in Poland, Madagascar or the Soviet Union, these plans show unambiguously that the deported Jews would have succumbed to a combination of malnutrition, disease, forced labour and general abuse. Thus even the 'territorial solutions' were effectively conceived to bring about the physical end of the Jews in Europe.

In June 1941, the invasion of the Soviet Union began. It was conceived from the first by the Germans both as a racist war of extermination and as a campaign intended to exploit the occupied territory economically. The Nazi leadership planned in advance the death by starvation of 30 million people in the territory they hoped to conquer, in order to create additional 'living space' (Lebensraum) for Germans.

Significantly, no preparation of any kind was made for a supply of food and other essentials to the large numbers of prisoners of war they expected to capture. Around 60% of the 5.7 million Soviet soldiers captured were to die in German custody.


Canadian Army Training Centres of World War II

ALBERTA
No. 131 Canadian Army (Basic) Training Centre – Camrose
No. 132 Canadian Army (Basic) Training Centre – Grande Prairie
No. 133 Canadian Army (Basic) Training Centre – Wetaskiwin
No. 2 Canadian Women’s Army Corps – Vermilion
A20 Royal Canadian Army Service Corps Training Centre – Red Deer
A16 Canadian Infantry Training Centre – Calgary

BRITISH COLUMBIA
Officers Training Centre – Gordon Head
No. 110 Canadian Army (Basic) Training Centre – Vernon
No. 112 Canadian Army (Basic) Training Centre – Camp Chilliwack
A6 Canadian Engineer Training Centre – Camp Chilliwack

MANITOBA
No. 100 Canadian Army (Basic) Training Centre – Portage La Prairie
No. 103 Canadian Army (Basic) Training Centre – Winnipeg
A3 Canadian Artillery Training Centre – Camp Shilo
A4 Canadian Artillery Training Centre – Brandon
A15 Canadian Infantry Training Centre – Camp Shilo

A35 Canadian Paratrooper Training Centre – Camp Shilo

A30 Canadian Infantry Training Centre (Camp Utopia) – Pennfield Ridge
A34 Special Officers Training Centre – Sussex
No. 70 Canadian Army (Basic) Training Centre – Fredericton
No. 71 Canadian Army (Basic) Training Centre – Edmunston
A30 Canadian Infantry Training Centre – Sussex

NOVA SCOTIA
No. 60 Canadian Army (Basic) Training Centre – Yarmouth
No. 61 Canadian Army (Basic) Training Centre – New Glasgow
A-23 Coast Defence and Anti-Aircraft Artillery Advanced Training Centre – Eastern Passage & Camp Debert
A14 Canadian Infantry Training Centre – Camp Aldershot

ONTARIO
Royal Military College – Kingston
No. 30 Officers’ Training Centre – Brockville (1940-1945)
No. 6 Canadian Army (Basic) Training Centre – Stratford (1942-1943)
No. 10 Canadian Army (Basic) Training Centre – Kitchener (1940-1943) (re-designated No. 3 CWAC B TC)
No. 11 Non-Permanent Active Militia Training Centre – Woodstock (1940-1941) (re-designated S11 AD&MS)
No. 12 Canadian Army (Basic) Training Centre – Chatham (1940-1945)
No. 13 Canadian Army (Basic) Training Centre – Listowel (1942-1943) (re-designated No. 3 CAC B TC)
No. 20 Canadian Army (Basic) Training Centre – Brantford (1940-1945)
No. 21 Non-Permanent Active Militia Training Centre – Long Branch (1940-1941) (re-designated A25 CSA TC)
No. 23 Canadian Army (Basic) Training Centre – Newmarket (1940-1943)

No. 24 Canadian Army (Basic) Training Centre – Brampton (1940-1945)
No. 25 Canadian Army (Basic) Training Centre – Simcoe (1942-1945)
No. 26 Canadian Army (Basic) Training Centre – Orillia (1942-1943) (re-designated No. 26 CAC B TC, then 26 CI B TC, then 13 Infantry Training Battalion until 1946)
No. 31 Canadian Army (Basic) Training Centre – Cornwall (1940-1944)
No. 32 Canadian Army (Basic) Training Centre – Peterborough (1940-1943) (re-designated No. 32 CAMC B TC)
No. 33 Canadian Army (Basic) Training Centre – Ottawa (19)
No. 102 Canadian Army (Basic) Training Centre – Fort William (1940-1943)
A25 Canadian Army Small Arms Training Centre – Long Branch (1941-1945)
No. 3 Canadian Army Women’s Corps (Basic) Training Centre – Kitchener (1943-1945)
No. 22 Canadian Army Educational (Basic) Training Centre – North Bay (1940-1944)
A13 Canadian Armoured (Basic) Training Centre – Listowel (1943)

A23 Canadian Armoured (Basic) Training Centre – Newmarket (1943-1945)
A26 Canadian Armoured (Basic) Training Centre – Orillia (1943-1944)
A33 Canadian Armoured Corps Training Establishment Camp – Camp Borden
A19 Canadian Army Service Corps Training Centre – Camp Borden
A1 Canadian Artillery Training Centre – Camp Petawawa
A2 Canadian Artillery Training Centre – Camp Petawawa
A5 Canadian Engineer Training Centre – Camp Petawawa
A10 Canadian Infantry Training Centre – Camp Borden
A11 Canadian Infantry Training Centre – Camp Borden
A13 Canadian Infantry (Basic) Training Centre – Listowel (1943)
A25 Canadian Infantry (Basic) Training Centre – Simcoe (1943-1945)
A26 Canadian Infantry (Basic) Training Centre – Orillia (1944-1945)
A29 Canadian Infantry Training Centre – Listowel (1942) Camp Ipperwash (1942-1945)
A32 Canadian Infantry Training Centre – Peterborough (1945)
A22 Canadian Army Medical Corps Training Centre – Camp Borden
A32 Canadian Army Medical Corps Training Centre – Peterborough (1943-1945)
No. 1 Canadian Ordinance Corps Proving Ground Detachment – Ottawa (1941-1944) (after going through several name changes, eventually re-designated Land Engineering Testing Establishment)
A21 Royal Canadian Ordinance Corps Training Centre – Camp Barriefield
A32 Canadian Provost Corps Training Centre – Camp Borden
A7 Canadian Signal Corps Training Centre – Camp Barriefield
S11 Advanced Driving & Maintenance School – Woodstock (1941-1946)
Special Training School 103 (Camp X) – Oshawa (1941-1944) (re-designated No. 3 Oshawa Wireless Station 1944-1969)
Canadian Army Trades School – Hamilton (1941-1946)
Standard Barracks – Hamilton (1940-1942)
S48 Canadian School of Army Administration – Kemptville (1941-1943) (re-designated S7 Canadian Army Administration School 1942-1944)

No. 62 Canadian Army (Basic) Training Centre – Charlottetown

QUEBEC
Officer Training Centre – Trois-Rivières
No. 41 Canadian Army (Basic) Training Centre – Huntingdon

No. 42 Canadian Army Educational (Basic) Training Centre – Joliette
No. 43 Canadian Army (Basic) Training Centre – Sherbrooke

No. 44 Canadian Army (Basic) Training Centre/Canadian Officer Cadet and Basic Training Centre – St Jerome
No. 45 Canadian Army (Basic) Training Centre – Sorel
No. 47 Canadian Army (Basic) Training Centre – Valleyfield
No. 48 Canadian Army (Basic) Training Centre – St. Johns
No. 51 Canadian Army (Basic) Training Centre – Chicoutiimi
No. 53 Canadian Army (Basic) Training Centre – Lauzon
No. 54 Canadian Army (Basic) Training Centre – Montmagny
No. 55 Canadian Army (Basic) Training Centre – Rimouski
No. 1 Canadian Woman’s Army Corps Advanced Training Centre – St. Annes
A12 Canadian Infantry Training Centre – Camp Farnham
A13 Canadian Infantry Training Centre – Camp Valcartier
A17 Canadian Machine Gun Training Centre – Trois-Rivières

SASKATCHEWAN
No. 120 Canadian Army (Basic) Training Centre – Regina
No. 121 Canadian Army (Basic) Training Centre – Maple Creek
No. 122 Canadian Army (Basic) Training Centre – Prince Albert
A27 Canadian Reconnaissance Training Centre – Camp Dundurn

Source Material: “Sixty Years of War – The Official History of the Canadian Army in World War II Volume 1” by Colonel C.P. Stacey & The Canadian Army WWII Training Establishments web site – www.canadiansoldiers.com/wwiitrain.htm.

In July 1942, network of radio stations was established on the both the west and east coasts for surveillance. The the East Coast line was in November 1943. Both were active until mid 1945. There is no military presence at the former East Coast Radio stations today. The Radio units were:

The Pacific Coast Air Defence Radar System – World War II

In July 1942, network of radio stations was established on the both the west and east coasts for surveillance. The East Coast line was in November 1943. Both were active until mid 1945. There is no military presence at the former East Coast Radio stations today. The Radio units were:

No 1 Coast Watch Unit RCAF was established in 1942 in the uninhabited west coast of the Queen Charlotte Islands to provide visual surveillance. In 1943 when radar coverage permitted the coast watchers were withdrawn. 1 CWU had eight detachments (each with a “woodsman”, two radio operators and a man with “some cooking and camping ability”) at:

  • Frederick Island
  • Hippa Island
  • Kindakun Island
  • Marble Island
  • Hibben Island
  • Tasoo Harbour
  • Barry Harbour
  • Big Bay

In 1942 construction of a chain of radar stations for surveillance of the Pacific Coast began. By November 1943 it was in place. Initially the stations were called “Radio Detachments” and in 1943 the title “Radio Unit” was adopted. The term “RADAR” was not adopted by Canadians until late 1943. The chain ceased operations with war’s end in mid 1945. The units were:


20 September 1942 - History

"At Gila, there were 7,700 people crowded into space designed for 5,000. They were housed in messhalls, recreation halls, and even latrines. As many as 25 persons lived in a space intended for four."
- Personal Justice Denied: Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians.

"In desert camps, the evacuees met severe extremes of temperature. In winter it reached 35 degrees below zero, and summer brought temperatures as high as 115 degrees. Rattlesnakes and desert wildlife added danger to discomfort."
- Personal Justice Denied: Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians.

"When we first arrived at Minidonka, everyone was forced to use outhouses since the sewer system had not been built. For about a year, the residents had to brave the cold and the stench of these accomodations."
- Personal Justice Denied: Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians.


Gila River Camp,Arizona. Credit: Wartime Relocation Authority

More than 120,000 Americans of Japanese Ancestry were incarcerated in the following 10 camps scattered throughout Western states during World War II:

Amache (Granada), CO
Opened: August 24, 1942.
Closed: October 15, 1945.
Peak population: 7,318.

Gila River, AZ
Opened July 20, 1942. Closed November 10, 1945.
Peak Population 13,348.

Heart Mountain, WY
Opened August 12, 1942.Closed November 10, 1945.
Peak population 10,767.

Jerome, AR
Opened October 6, 1942.Closed June 30, 1944.
Peak population 8,497.

Manzanar, CA
Opened March 21, 1942.Closed November 21, 1945.
Peak population 10,046.

Minidoka, ID
Opened August 10, 1942. Closed October 28, 1945.
Peak population 9,397.

Poston (Colorado River), AZ
Opened May 8, 1942. Closed November 28, 1945.
Peak population 17,814.

Rohwer, AR
Opened September 18, 1942. Closed November 30, 1945.
Peak population 8,475.

Topaz (Central Utah), UT
Opened September 11, 1942. Closed October 31, 1945.
Peak population 8,130.

Tule Lake, CA
Opened May 27, 1942. Closed March 20, 1946.
Peak population 18,789.


World History

In the West, Herodotus (left) is called the "Father of History," and Thucydides (right) the "Father of Scientific History."

Human history, unsurprisingly, is very long and full of more details and events than anyone could remember. Even the earliest histories we have today?some dating back thousands of years?grapple with making sense of everything that came before them. Infoplease is here to help you get everything in order.Check out the 100 Most Significant Events of the Last Thousand Years, an ancient history timeline, world history timelines and more.

Pre-Modern 1 History

Beginning with the Earth's formation, throughto the beginning of the modern day,fan favorites like ancient Egypt, Babylon, Harappa, Rome, and Aksum make their debuts. Though they have a less direct impact on the world today, these historic cultures held major influence over the course of history. The inventions of agriculture, fire, megalithic construction, and speech are the foundations of human life, as well as the development of the artsand sciences.Check out our timelines to discover more about these remote (and often unrecognizable) times.

Early Modern 2 History

With the "rediscovery" of Classical learning in the West, the invention of new economic models like mercantilism, and increased contact around the globe, the world begins to take the shape it has today. Early modernity will see the creation of the nation-state, the rise of capitalism and colonialism, and the beginnings of industrialization. Across the entire world, from Mali to the Maratha, this time period will seethe consolidation and rise of thousands of notable polities and countries. Explore some of the highlights from this defining period of human history.

Late Modern 3 History

Late modernity, if it can be meaningfully distinguished from "now" ends with World War II andthe beginning of the atomic era. The late modern period is characterized by industry, locomotion, the peak of colonialism in Africa and Asia, and the beginnings of industrialized warfare. By the end of this time period, the multinational empires of the past will begin to break apart, paving the way for the current nations of the world.

ContemporaryHistory

Contemporary history begins with the splitting of the atom and the rise of computers. These two new technologies more than anything else will fundamentally shape the course of human affairs. The contemporary period is characterized by the end of colonial imperialism, the rise of global capitalism and neocolonialism, and the rapid growth of global communication. Being the present, it's impossible to say when or how this time period may end.

1. The distinction between modern and pre-modern is a bit shaky at times. The most common dispute about when "modern" history begins is whether it starts right before or right after the Middle Ages (being named as such because they fall between Classical history and Modern history). Ultimately the distinction between modern and pre-modern is fairly arbitrary, especially when applied to places outside of Europe.

2.The editors at Infoplease have decided to split the divide around the beginning of the Italian Renaissance.With the Italian Renaissance, things start to look more familiar than in the Middle Ages. Medieval societies were built around systems of government, economic practices, and schools of thought that are often completely alien to today's readers, while by the Renaissance things like standing armies, stock-bond companies, and ethnic states come into play.

3. The division between early modernity and late modernity is also relatively fuzzy, as it's most commonly decided based on industrialization and complex modes of production. These factors arise at different times in different places, and are not universal metrics of "progress." For simplicity's sake, the editors have marked the break with the industrialization of the United Kingdom and the United States.


Peoples settled in what is now Texas thousands of years before European explorers arrived in North America. Some American Indian oral histories recount how their ancestors traveled to the area by water or land. A large amount of stone artifacts made at least 16,000 years ago have been found in Central Texas. For many years, scientists believed that the first Americans came from Asia 13,000 years ago. The discovery of these artifacts suggests that humans came to the Americas much earlier.

Pre-Cloves Projectile Point.
Image courtesy Gault School of Archaeological Research, San Marcos, Texas

Peoples who lived in the area at the end of the Ice Age are referred to as the “Clovis” people by archaeologists. These people shared the land with mammoths, mastodons, and other Ice Age animals. They traveled long distances to hunt these animals with spears. They also used projectile points and other tools made of Alibates flint. Their stone tools have been found more than 300 miles from the stone's source.

Alibates.
Image courtesy Texas Beyond History, a public education service of the Texas Archeological Research Laboratory, The University of Texas at Austin.

The “Folsom” people lived a hunter-gather lifestyle very similar to the Clovis people. With the mammoth and many other big game species from the Ice Age extinct, the Folsom people followed large herds of bison that were larger than the bison of today. They hunted with a weapon called the atlatl and dart. This weapon system consisted of two parts: a "throwing stick" and a dart which looks similar to an arrow but was much longer.

Prehistoric hunters used atlatls to hurl these darts at their prey.
Image courtesy Texas Beyond History, a public education service of the Texas Archeological Research Laboratory, The University of Texas at Austin.

The “Archaic” people that called the present-day Texas Panhandle home lived in an environment that was rich in various plants and animals. They were slowly transitioning from being nomadic hunter-gatherers to farmers. They gathered various types of plant materials: seeds, roots, berries, and anything else that was edible. They would grind the seed into meal using tools called a “mano and matate” made out of sandstone or dolomite.

Striations, stains, and polish cover this limestone tool that may have been used for a variety of purposes, including grinding.
Image courtesy Texas Beyond History, a public education service of the Texas Archeological Research Laboratory, The University of Texas at Austin.

More than 5000 years ago in present-day Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona, people began to grow corn, beans, and squash. The switch from a nomadic hunter-gatherer life style to horticulture contributed to more reliable food sources and settled lifestyles. Populations grew and cultures flourished.

Varieties of maize found near Cuscu and Machu Pichu at Salineras de Maras on the Inca Sacred Valley in Peru, June 2007.
Image credit Fabio de Oliveira Freitas, Courtesy Smithsonian Institute

"Rock art" including pictographs (painted images) and petroglyphs (carved, or incised images) was made by people at least 4,500 years ago throughout the Lower Pecos region of present-day Texas. The symbols in the “White Shaman” mural depict a creation story that can still be interpreted today by Huichol Indians in Mexico.

Panther Cave Rock Art.
Image Courtesy Shumla Archaeological Research and Education Center. Site jointly owned by Texas Parks and Wildlife Department and the National Park Service

Beginning at least 2,000 years ago in a Hueco Mountains’ canyon near El Paso, ancient Puebloans held ceremonies where they placed offerings in a cave. The Pueblo people believed that caves were portals to a watery underworld. Among the artifacts found in Ceremonial Cave were a finely crafted bracelet and pendants made of shells from coastal areas hundreds of miles away. These artifacts are evidence of the vast trade routes that existed between diverse communities.

Turquoise armband, 700–1450 CE.
Image courtesy Texas Archeological Research Lab, The University of Texas at Austin

The bow and arrow replaced the atlatl around 700 C.E. The new technology spread across much of North America around this time. Its precise origin is unknown, but it may have been brought into the region by new migrants. The bow was lighter and required fewer resources to make. The arrow was much more lethal than a spear because of its speed, silence, and accuracy.

Scallorn Points.
Image courtesy Texas Beyond History, a public education service of the Texas Archeological Research Laboratory, The University of Texas at Austin.

It is said that Texas owes its name to the Caddo. "Tejas" is a Spanish spelling of the Caddo word that means "those who are friends." Archaeological evidence in the form of fine ceramic pottery indicates that Caddo communities existed in the area as early as 800 C.E. The agriculture-based Caddoes lived in villages and large fortified towns surrounding large plazas with earthen mounds. Atop of the mounds were temples, council houses, and the houses of the tribe’s elites.

Large settlements with mound centers like this existed up and down the Mississippi River and were interconnected through trade. The largest of these fortified communities was Cahokia, located near present-day St Louis, MO. One of Texas's best examples of a Caddo mound is located in present-day Cherokee County.

Caddo Pot made by Jeri Redcorn, Caddo

The “Antelope Creek” people lived in the present-day Texas panhandle between 1150 and 1450. They lived in pueblo like villages where they practiced horticulture and bison hunting. Over a period of 300 years, they dug hundreds of quarries for better flint to make stone tools. Pottery fragments found at Antelope Creek sites provide evidence of extensive trade. The Antelope Creek people left the area abruptly around 1450 AD, perhaps because of drought conditions, disease, or the arrival of hostile Apaches to the area.

Antelope Creek Pottery Sherds.
Image courtesy Texas Beyond History, a public education service of the Texas Archeological Research Laboratory, The University of Texas at Austin.

Historians believe that the Apache moved down from their native territory in Canada and into North America sometime between 1000 and 1400. They belong to the southern branch of the Athabascan group, whose languages constitute a large family, with speakers in Alaska, western Canada, and the American Southwest.

By the 1600s two groups settled in Texas — the Lipan Apache and the Mescalero. The Mescalero eventually moved on to present-day New Mexico. The arrival of the Apache would begin to alter the trade and territorial claims among the diverse tribes who had settled the area before them.

Lipanes, From the Manuscript Collection: Jean Louis Berlandier, 1827 - 1830. Courtesy Gilcrease Museum, Tulsa OK

On August 3, 1492, Christopher Columbus sailed west from Palos, Spain, to explore a new route to Asia. On October 12, he reached the Bahamas. Six months later, he returned to Spain with gold, cotton, American Indian handicrafts, exotic parrots, and other strange beasts. His tales of the native peoples, land, and resources in North America ignited the era of Spanish colonization.

Spanish explorer Alonso Álvarez de Pineda is credited with being the first European to explore and map the Gulf of Mexico. He set out with four ships and 270 men to find a passage to the Pacific Ocean. There are few records detailing his exploration, although one Spanish document does indicate that he sailed around the coast of Florida, into the Gulf of Mexico, and up a river dotted with palm trees and the villages of native peoples. Earlier interpretations of his voyage identified this river as the Rio Grande, but later data shows that it was probably the Soto la Marina, located in Mexico.

Spanish conquests of the Americas introduced the first enslaved Africans to the region. Among Hernán Cortés’s forces in his siege of Tenochtitlan in 1521 were six Black men, including African born Juan Garrido. Garrido was enslaved in the Caribbean as early as 1503. He participated in the founding of New Spain as a free man and is recognized as the first person to grow wheat in New Spain. While in Mexico City, he established a family and continued to serve with Spanish forces.

A painting of Garrido with Hernan Cortés, Historia de las Indias de Nueva Espana e islas de la tierra firme, Diego Duran, 1579. Image courtesy of Biblioteca Nacional de Espana

In 1527, with five ships, 600 men, and a supply of horses, Pánfilo de Narváez set out for Florida to claim gold and glory for the Spanish empire. His trip seemed doomed from the beginning. Many of his men died, deserted, or were killed by the American Indians whose people and villages the expedition attacked and pillaged. In an effort to escape, Narváez and the remaining members of the expedition set sail in flimsy rafts that were eventually washed up on the Texas Gulf Coast near Galveston. Narvárez drowned on the voyage, but one of the few survivors, conquistador Cabeza de Vaca, wrote detailed memoirs that became the earliest European descriptions of Texas and its people.

Álvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca, one of four survivors of the failed Narváez expedition, washed up on the beach of a Texas Gulf Coast island he named "Malhado," which means "misfortune." The name was apt, because for the next several years, Cabeza de Vaca lived one harrowing moment to another as a captive slave of various Texas American Indians. He kept a detailed diary which has become an invaluable primary source describing the life and peoples of early Texas. In 1536, Spanish soldiers returned Cabeza de Vaca to Mexico City. He eventually made his way back to Spain where he published his memoirs, The Narrative of Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, in 1542.

The Karankawa first encountered Europeans when Spanish explorer Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca washed up on a Galveston beach in 1528. This encounter, which Cabeza de Vaca wrote about in his diary, is the first recorded meeting of Europeans and Texas American Indians. The Karankawa were several bands of coastal people with a shared language and culture who inhabited the Gulf Coast of Texas from Galveston Bay southwestward to Corpus Christi Bay.

Karankawa, From the Manuscript Collection: Jean Louis Berlandier, 1827 - 1830. Courtesy Gilcrease Museum, Tulsa OK

Estevanico was an enslaved African born Mustafa Zemmouri around 1501. He accompanied Spanish explorer Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca in 1528 on a multi-year expedition through present-day Texas. On this expedition he gained great knowledge of the languages spoken by American Indians in the area. In 1539, he was ordered by the Spanish Viceroy to be part of a subsequent expedition. On this expedition he was ultimately killed by Zuni Indians at the Hawiku Pueblo in present-day New Mexico.

Painting of Estavanico. Image courtesy Granger Historical Images

Bartolomé de las Casas was the first priest to be ordained in the Americas. Conscience-stricken by the abuse of American Indians at the hands of Spanish conquistadors, he crusaded on the native peoples' behalf for over five decades. In 1536, de las Casas participated in a debate in Oaxaca, Mexico, where he argued for the American Indians' right to be treated as individuals with dignity and against the Spanish efforts to convert native peoples to both the Catholic faith and the Spanish culture. His blistering work in 1542, A Brief Report on the Destruction of the Indians, convinced King Charles V to outlaw the conversion practices, but riots among land holders in New Spain (Mexico) convinced authorities not to make any changes in their treatment of American Indians.

Finding gold was one objective of Spanish colonization in North America. Following the report of an explorer who claimed to have seen a gold city in the desert, Francisco Vázquez de Coronado organized an expedition that traveled through the Texas Panhandle. Various historical accounts describe the soldiers' astonishment at the Texas landscape, including Palo Duro Canyon, and the huge, hump-backed cows (buffalo) that roamed the grasslands. Coronado never found any gold in the Panhandle, and the expedition returned to Mexico in 1542.

Hernando de Soto led an exploration of the Gulf Coast area from 1539 until his death in present-day Arkansas in 1542. This expedition marked the first European crossing of the Mississippi River. After de Soto's death, Luis de Moscoso led the explorers into East Texas, home of the powerful Caddo Indians, in an attempt to find an overland route back to New Spain (Mexico). Opinions differ as to the exact route the Moscoso expedition took through Texas, but recent scholarship suggests that they traveled south from East Texas toward present-day Nacogdoches and then into the Hill Country before turning back toward the Mississippi River in Arkansas.

Oil springs and tar pits were known to the Texas Indians. They used the oozings to treat rheumatism and skin diseases. Oil was also seen by the Spanish explorers as early as July 1543, when members of the De Soto expedition saw oil floating in the water near Sabine Pass and used it to caulk their boats. Later, settlers used surface oil for axel grease and for lighting and fuel.

Image courtesy of U.S. Geological Survey.

In November, 1552, fifty-four vessels sailed from Spain under the command of Captain-General Bartolomé Carreño. The ships, including six armed vessels, carried cargo and were headed to various parts of the world including New Spain (Mexico) and the Indies. On April 29, 1554, three ships were wrecked in a storm on Padre Island, near present-day Port Mansfield. In the 1960s and 1970s, excavation efforts retrieved thousands of artifacts such as cannons, silver coins, gold bullion, astrolabes, and tools from the wreckage of the San Esteban and the Espiritu Santo. The third sunken ship, the Santa Maria de Yclar, was destroyed during ship channel construction in the 1950s.

The Spanish missionary system was intended to convert American Indians to Christianity and teach them how to live according to Spanish ways. Missionaries often accompanied conquistadors on their explorations in North America. The first missionaries passed through far west Texas in 1581 on their way to the pueblos of New Mexico.

Though unsuccessful in establishing a colony among the Pueblo people, Spanish conquistador Antonio de Espejo left a valuable account of his encounters with the Jumano people of Texas's Big Bend area in 1582 to 1583. The Jumano were trading partners of the Spanish for almost two centuries before famine and war sent their population into a steep decline.

After a difficult march through present-day New Mexico and Texas, conquistador Juan de Oñate and hundreds of settlers finally reached the Rio Grande in April. They were so grateful to have survived the journey that they held what some believe was the first "thanksgiving" feast in what would become the United States. During this stop, Oñate officially claimed all the land drained by the Rio Grande as Spanish territory. With this act, the foundation was laid for two centuries of Spanish control of Texas and the American southwest.

Spanish conquistadors first crossed Texas in search of gold in New Mexico. By 1610, the Spanish had established a capital at Santa Fe. Their primary goals were to convert the American Indians to Christianity and to teach them to live according to Spanish culture. The Spanish crown commissioned Franciscan friars to establish missions. From the pueblos of New Mexico, a few priests began to venture into West Texas.

Almost 50 years after their first encounter, the Jumano were revisited by the Spanish in 1629. This would mark the beginning of their relations with the Spanish. The Jumano lands stretched from northern Mexico to eastern New Mexico to West Texas. Some Jumano lived nomadic lifestyles, while others lived in more permanent houses built of reeds or sticks or of masonry, like the pueblos of New Mexico. The Jumano were renowned for their trading and language skills. In time, these expert traders helped establish trade routes as well as diplomatic relationships among American Indians, the Spanish, and the French.

Jumano, Drawing by Frank Weir.
Image courtesy Texas Beyond History, a public education service of the Texas Archeological Research Laboratory, The University of Texas at Austin.

María de Jesús de Agreda was a nun who lived in Spain and had visions of sharing Christianity with people living in distant lands. Her visions were regarded as religious miracles. She was known as the "Woman in Blue" because of her blue Franciscan clothing. 17th century Spanish explorers describe the Jumano as asking for religious instruction to continue the teachings they had received during "visits" from the Woman in Blue. There is no evidence that Sister María left her convent in Spain to visit the Jumano in west Texas, which adds to the mystery of how the Jumano acquired their knowledge of Christianity before the Spanish arrived in Texas.

Fray Juan de Salas and Fray Diego León were the first Spanish missionaries in Texas. In 1629, they traveled to evangelize the Jumanos. In 1632, Juan de Salas and Juan de Ortega established a mission near present-day San Angelo. They were unable to supply or defend the outpost, and after six months, they were forced to abandon the mission.This arrow point is believed to be of Jumano origin.

Spanish shipwreck survivors under the leadership of Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca were the first Europeans to visit "La Junta de Rios," the junction of the Rio Grande and Rio Conchos, near present-day Presidio. Franciscans traveling through La Junta in 1581 performed the first Catholic mass in Texas. In 1670, Franciscans established a mission, but they were expelled after just two years.

Led by the religious leader Po’pay from the Pueblo of Ohkay Owingeh, Pueblo people revolted against the Spanish colonists and drove them out of present-day New Mexico. After the revolt, Pueblo people began trading the horses they had taken control of. The acquisition of horses, and the ability to travel longer distances more easily, would transform the territorial politics between tribes throughout America.

"Po'pay" by Artist Cliff Fragua, 2005.
Image courtesy Architect of the Capitol.

In 1680, the Pueblo people rose up, killed 400 Spanish colonizers, and drove the remaining 2,000 Spanish out of New Mexico. The village of El Paso became the base of Spanish operations for the next 12 years. During this time, the Franciscans established the first successful missions in the El Paso area: Corpus Christi de Isleta, Nuestra Señora de la Limpia Concepción de Socorro, and San Antonio de Senecú.

The Mayeye, a Tonkawa Tribe, first encountered La Salle and his French colonists in 1687. The Tonkawa belonged to the Tonkawan linguistic family that was once composed of a number of small sub-tribes that lived in present-day Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico. The word "tonkawa" is a Waco term meaning "they all stay together." In the years to come the Tonkawa would have changing relationships with the Spanish and the French.

Tancahues, From the Manuscript Collection: Jean Louis Berlandier, 1827 - 1830. Courtesy Gilcrease Museum, Tulsa OK

In 1683 and 1684, the people of La Junta (near present-day Presidio) petitioned for missionaries to return to their area. Franciscans established two missions, El Apóstol Santiago on Alamito Creek and La Navidad en los Cruces along the Rio Grande. By 1688, these missions were abandoned.

The Spanish began making entradas into Texas in the 1690s. They intended to explore and expand into the far reaches of Spanish territory in order to buffer any encroachment from the French. From 1709 to 1722, the Spanish led roughly seven expeditions from Mexico to Texas. These early explorers brought cattle, sheep, and goats to the Texas frontier.

By 1690, the Spanish realized the need to defend Texas against the French and blazed a network of trails from Mexico City to Louisiana. Missionaries traveled to East Texas along El Camino Real (the King's Highway). The missions of San Francisco de los Tejas and Santísimo Nombre de María were established along the Neches River. By 1693, both missions were abandoned.

Circa 1700 In 1706 Spanish officials in New Mexico documented the presence of numerous Comanches on the northeastern frontier of that province. As the Comanches moved south, they came into conflict with tribes already living on the South Plains, particularly the Apaches, who had dominated the region before the arrival of the Comanches. The Apaches were forced south by the Comanche and the two became mortal enemies.

Plains Indian Girl with Melon, 1851–1857. By Friedrich Richard Petri.
Image courtesy Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin

From 1700 to 1713, Spain was involved in a European war, and New Spain (Texas) was not a priority. After the war, Franciscans returned to the Presidio area and established two missions, San Cristóbal and Santa María la Redonda de los Cibolos. Missionaries occupied the sites sporadically until the end of the Spanish era in Texas.

On May 1, 1718, the Spanish established a mission-presidio complex approximately midway between the Rio Grande Valley and the missions of East Texas. This was the founding of the city of San Antonio, the most significant Texas settlement of the Spanish era. The mission of San Antonio de Valero, later known as the Alamo, was moved to its present location in 1724.

The Franciscans turned new attention to East Texas beginning in 1716. They established a mission along the Neches River and built three additional missions in Nacogdoches County. In 1719, French troops attacked a nearby Louisiana mission in an event known to history as the Chicken War because it was little more than a raid on a henhouse. Nonetheless, the Spanish withdrew from East Texas for two years.

The Spanish brought cattle to New Spain soon after they began colonization in the 1500s. The first cattle arrived in Texas in the 1690s. By the 1730s, missionaries were operating cattle ranches around San Antonio and Goliad. Within a few decades, individual ranchers like Martin de León began to build large operations. De León had some 5,000 cattle by 1816.

Ranching in Texas originated near San Antonio and Goliad in the 1730s. As the missions continued to fade into decline, individual ranchers became prominent due to generous land grants received from the Spanish Crown. One large ranch resulted from the Cavazos land grant, which was a sprawling 4,605 acres.

The East Texas missions were difficult to supply, staff, and defend, and most lasted only a few years. In 1730, three missions were relocated from East Texas to the site of present-day Austin. The following year, the missions were moved further south to San Antonio.

The first reference to the Comanche in present-day Texas comes in 1743, when a small scouting band appeared in San Antonio looking for their enemies, the Lipan Apache. The Comanches were to become the most dominant people in the area. The name "Comanche" comes from an Ute word that means "enemy." They refer to themselves as the "Nʉmʉnʉʉ" or the "people." The Comanche were originally a Great Plains hunter-gatherer group, but after acquiring horses, they expanded their territory. They became horse experts and migrated into Texas in order to hunt bison and capture the wild horses that roamed the land. They eventually claimed vast areas of north, central, and west Texas as part of "Comancheria."

Comanche Feats of Horsemanship, 1834–1835, by George Catlin.
Image courtesy Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Mrs. Joseph Harrison, Jr., 1985.66.487

Ever since the Spanish arrived in the San Antonio area, the Lipan Apache have been at war with them. When the enemy Comanche arrived to the area, the Apache agreed to a peace treaty with the Spanish. The two buried a hatchet in the ground in a ceremony in San Antonio. This led the Spanish to move forward with plans to build missions in Apache territory.

Spontoon Tomahawk
Image courtesy of Panhandle-Plains Historical Museum, Canyon, Texas

Originally from the area of present-day Kansas, a band of Wichitas moved from Oklahoma and settled along the Red River near present-day Nocona, Texas. They would live there until about 1810, when they gradually returned to present-day Oklahoma. The Wichita called themselves Kitikiti'sh, meaning "raccoon eyes," because the designs of tattoos around the men's eyes resembled the eyes of the raccoon. They lived in villages of dome-shaped grass houses. They farmed extensive fields of corn, tobacco, and melons along the streams where they made their homes and seasonally left their villages for annual hunts.

Wichita paint bag, 1800s.
Courtesy of The Field Museum, Cat. No. 59357

Once the Spanish formed an alliance with the Apaches, expansion of ranching lands became safer. Missions tended to have the best land, which put them in direct competition with the ranchers. Conflicts developed, and lawsuits between missions and ranchers became common at this time.

In 1757, the Spanish established Santa Cruz de San Sabá as a mission to the Apache. The Spanish also hoped to form an alliance with the Apache against the Comanche and allied northern tribes. In March of 1758, over 2,000 Comanche and allied norther tribes staged a massive attack, burning down the mission and killing all but one of the missionaries.

In response to the destruction of Mission Santa Cruz de San Sabá, forces of 600 Spanish soldiers attacked the Taovaya (Wichita) village on the Red River. With horses and French weapons, the Wichita were a stronger force than the Spanish. The Spanish were defeated and forced to retreat.

French musket, 1700s.
Image courtesy Red McCombs Collection, Georgetown

The Spanish negotiated a treaty with the Comanche, who agreed not to make war on missionized Apaches. Continued conflicts with Apaches made it impossible for Comanches to keep their promise. This ultimately led Spanish officials to advocate for breaking their alliance with the Apache in favor of a Spanish-Comanche alliance aimed at subduing the Apaches.

Comanches, From the Manuscript Collection: Jean Louis Berlandier, 1827 - 1830. Courtesy Gilcrease Museum, Tulsa OK

As a result of British colonial expansion from the east, the Alabama and Coushatta Tribes began to migrate from what is now Alabama to the area of Big Thicket in present-day Texas. By 1780 they had moved across the Sabine River into Spanish Texas.

Cutchates, From the Manuscript Collection: Jean Louis Berlandier, 1827 - 1830. Courtesy Gilcrease Museum, Tulsa OK

With the help of the French Governor of Natchitoches, Spain made treaties with Caddo, Wichita, and Tonkawa tribes. One year later, also with the help of a Frenchman, Spain made a treaty at San Antonio with a Comanche band. Other bands, however, continued to raid Spanish settlements.

Comanche War Bonnet, 1946–1970.
Image courtesy Panhandle-Plains Historical Museum, Canyon

Since they first arrived to the Americas in the early 1500s, European diseases decimated diverse indigenous communities. In 1775 a smallpox epidemic killed hundreds of thousands of Europeans and Native peoples in North America. The virus was carried by people along the trade routes from Mexico City and moved north to Comancheria and farther north to the Shoshone. An estimated 90% of the American Indian population died from epidemics. The deadly diseases greatly shifted the balance of power between American Indians and Europeans.

Detail of Cabello to Croix, reporting smallpox epidemic, 1780.
Image courtesy Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin

This painting by Francisco Clapera depicts a Spanish father and African mother playing with their son in colonial Mexico. This image exemplifies the Casta system established in Spanish territory by the late 16th century. The Casta system classified any genetic connection with Black Africans as a “stain” on the purity of Spanish blood. This created the classifications of Mulatos (children of Spaniards and Africans) and Mestizos (children of Spaniards and American Indians). Under Spanish law, marriage between the races was legal as long as the individuals were Catholic. It was common in the Spanish colonies for people from different racial groups to intermarry and have families.

Francisco Clapera, De Espanol, y Negra, Mulato, circa 1775 Denver Art Museum Collection: Gift of the Collection of Frederick and Jan Mayer, 2011.428.4 Image courtesy of the Denver Art Museum

According to a newly enacted law, all wild animals and unbranded livestock were the property of the Spanish treasury. The law also established the "Mustang Fund" which imposed a tax on ranchers for all the branded livestock they rounded up.

El Mocho, a Lipan Apache who as a child was captured and adopted by the Tonkawa, became a chief of the Tonkawa after a small pox epidemic killed most of the tribe’s elders. Hoping to free his people from Spanish control, he formed a loose confederacy of groups that included the Tonkawas, the Lipan Apaches, and some Comanches and Caddos.

Hand-colored stone lithograph of a West Lipan Apache warrior sitting astride a horse and carrying a rifle from Emory's United States and Mexican Boundary Survey, Washington, 1857.
Image courtesy Star of the Republic Museum

Trade between Texas and Louisiana had been prohibited early in the 18th century. That ban was lifted in 1779. Ranching became more profitable as Spanish ranchers were able to drive their cattle along the Old San Antonio Road into the French territory of Louisiana. New Orleans soon became a major new market for ranchers.

Shortly after the trade ban was lifted in 1779, the Spanish colonial government reversed their decision because of the surge of smuggling. Since trade with Louisiana was hugely profitable, however, illicit trade continued. In a rare moment of unity, ranchers and missionaries became allies in their opposition to Spain's regulation of trade.

The Comanche accepted a peace deal with the Spanish, allowing Spaniards to travel through their lands. In exchange, Spain offered to help the Comanche in their war with the Apache. Peace between the Spanish and Comanche lasted 30 years. The Comanches were to become the dominate force in the area, both in trade and warfare.

Cabello to Rengel, reporting on visit made to Béxar by Comanche captain to confirm peace treaty, 1785.
Image courtesy Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin

In 1785, rancher Juan José Flores submitted a document to the Spanish government in Mexico. Known as the San Fernando Memorial, the document argued that unbranded livestock belonged to ranchers since those animals were descended from the ranchers' animals. The government agreed and allowed the ranchers to collect and brand the animals.

Due to the San Fernando Memorial ruling, ranchers and missionaries planned a great round-up in 1787. La Bahia was the only mission to actually participate. As many as 7,000 cattle were captured and branded. This event marked a shift in the balance of power between ranchers and missionaries.

By 1795, ranchers were no longer required to pay the Mustang Fund taxes and were given one tax-free year to round up and brand wild livestock. This change in policy resulted in the increased transportation of cattle to markets in Louisiana and northern Mexico where they were sold for their tallow, hides, and meat.

Cattle herds became severely depleted because of continual predator attacks as well as the increased market demands for cattle products. The cattle industry declined and ranchers turned their money-making efforts toward a new livestock source— wild mustangs.

Cherokees were first reported in Texas in 1807, when a small band established a village on the Red River. American expansion had forced them to the west. They were an agricultural people whose ancestral lands covered much of the southern Appalachian highlands, an area that included parts of Virginia, Tennessee, North and South Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama.

In the summer of that year, a delegation of Cherokees, Pascagoulas, Chickasaws, and Shawnees sought permission from Spanish officials in Nacogdoches to settle members of their tribes in that province. The request was approved by Spanish authorities, who intended to use the displaced tribes as a buffer against American expansion.

"Cunne Shote, Cherokee Chief," by Francis Parsons, 1751-1775. Gift of the Thomas Gilcrease Foundation, 1955. Courtesy Gilcrease Museum, Tulsa OK

The Transatlantic Slave Trade involved the forced migration of millions of enslaved African peoples to the Americas throughout the 16th to 19th centuries. Although it was banned by Britain and the U.S. in 1808, it did not decrease the role of slavery throughout the South. The widespread trade of enslaved peoples within the South continued, aided by the self-sustaining population of children born into slavery.

Diagram of a slave ship, 1787. Image courtesy British Library, London, England

In 1820, Moses Austin traveled to San Antonio and negotiated permission to settle 300 Anglo American families in Texas, but he died before his plans could be realized. Moses' son, Stephen F. Austin, traveled to Texas to renegotiate his father's grant and to scout land near Brazoria. In December 1821, the younger Austin began bringing the settlers to their new home.

Image courtesy of Star of the Republic of Texas Museum.

In search of new opportunities in the unsettled territory of Tejas, Moses Austin hoped to bring 300 families to the Mexican province in 1820. With the help of Baron de Bastrop, Austin received approval from the Spanish governor to bring settlers into Tejas. Moses Austin died in 1821, however, and his son, Stephen F. Austin, inherited the land grant for 300 families. Austin settled the land near the Brazos and Colorado in 1824.

The Mexican territory of Tejas was opened to settlers on the conditions that they become Mexican citizens, learn Spanish and adopt the Catholic faith. Moses Austin, a founder of America's lead industry, obtained government permission to bring colonists to the territory. He died before the "Texas Venture" began and his son, Stephen, led 300 families on the journey to establish new colonies along the Brazos, Colorado and San Bernard Rivers.

Stephen F. Austin established a settlement of Anglo Americans who found the ranching system in Texas in decline. The ranching knowledge and outstanding roping skills of vaqueros (Mexican cowboys) helped revive and rebuild the flagging ranching industry.

As the people of Mexico began to feel exploited by Spanish colonialism, a series of revolts began in 1801. On September 27, 1821, the Spanish signed a treaty recognizing Mexico's independence. Since Moses Austin had been granted permission by Spain to bring American families to Texas, his son Stephen had to renegotiate the land grant and settlements with the new Mexican government.

In 1822 Cherokee Chief Bowl sent diplomatic chief Richard Fields to Mexico to negotiate with the Mexican government for a grant to land occupied by Cherokees in East Texas. After two years of waiting to receive a grant, Richard Fields tried to unite diverse tribes in Texas into an alliance and began to encourage other displaced tribes to settle in Texas.

Chief Bowl, Courtesy Jenkins Company.
Image courtesy Prints and Photographs Collection, Texas State Library and Archives Commission. #1/102-661

The Mexican government advised Stephen F. Austin that it would not provide resources to administer or defend the fledgling Tejas colonies. Austin hired ten men to "act as rangers for the common defense" against Indian raids. With that, the legend of the Texas Rangers began.

Mexico established rules for settling colonies in 1824. During this time, they also joined Coahuila and Texas, forming a unified Mexican state "Coahuila y Tejas." With the passage of the Coahuila-Texas colonization law, Mexico encouraged foreign settlers to buy land in the territory with a $30 down payment, without the requirement of paying taxes for ten years after that.

Mexico encouraged Anglo Americans to settle the sparsely-populated Texas territory, both to increase ranching and commerce and to defend against American Indians and aggressive European powers. On March 24, 1825, the Mexican Congress passed colonization laws that stipulated that settlers practice Christianity and take loyalty oaths to the Mexican and state constitutions in order to become citizens.

In 1825, Haden Edwards received a land grant in east Texas for 800 settlers. A dispute for leadership soon broke out in Edwards' colony. He and his allies formed an alliance with the Cherokees and declared the independent republic of Fredonia. Mexican troops restored order, but the incident led Mexico to severely restrict further immigration into Texas from the United States and Europe, a bitter pill for the majority of colonists who had remained peaceable.

Settlers weren't ready to embrace their new Mexican identity upon moving into the country. Largely, they didn't see themselves as Mexican nationals and, in fact, referred to themselves as "Texians." Additionally, many of Austin's settlers came from the American south who brought enslaved African Americans with them, despite Mexico's laws prohibiting slavery. Because of the lack of allegiance to the nation, Mexican officials feared they would lose control of the state. They began encouraging more migration from Mexicans into the area.

Issued by President Vincente R. Guerrero on September 15, 1829, this decree abolished slavery throughout the Republic of Mexico. The news of the decree alarmed Anglo settlers in Texas, who petitioned Guerrero to exempt Texas from the law. The decree was never put into operation, but it made many Anglo settlers worry that their interests were not protected, planting the seeds of revolution.

Decree abolishing slavery in Mexico in 1829. Image courtesy of Newton Gresham Library, Sam Houston State University.

On September 25, 1829, the first issue of the Texas Gazette was published in San Felipe de Austin. Published until 1832, Texas' first newspaper kept settlers informed of news by providing English translations of Mexican government laws and decrees.

Image courtesy of the Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, University of Texas at Austin

Anglo settlers who arrived in Texas in the 1830s brought with them the skills for farming, but many were enticed by cattle ranching instead. In 1837, Charles Morgan established the first steamship line in Texas to transport Texas cattle from the Gulf of Mexico to markets in New Orleans and the West Indies.

Fearing the possibility of losing control of Texas, Mexico banned further immigration from the United States on April 6, 1830. They encouraged immigration from Mexico and European countries, placed more restrictions on slavery, and increased military presence in the region. This initiative angered Texans, who pushed for statehood and self-rule.

On April 6, 1830, the Mexican government passed several new laws that were very unpopular with the Anglo American settlers. These laws increased the presence of the Mexican military, implemented new taxes, forbade the settlers from bringing more slaves into Texas, and banned new immigration from the United States. The grievances that would lead to the Texas Revolution had begun to accumulate.

Image courtesy of the Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, University of Texas at Austin.

The Mexican army established a garrison at Anahuac to collect tariffs, end smuggling, and enforce the ban on immigration from the United States. Tensions rose to a boil when the fort's commander took in several runaway slaves. The unrest culminated at nearby Velasco when a group of settlers tried to take a cannon from a Mexican fort. At least ten Texans and five Mexican soldiers died in the fighting.

General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna led a successful revolt against President Bustamante. Texans were initially okay with this development because of Santa Anna's support for the Constitution of 1824, which was very similar to the U.S. Constitution. However, Santa Anna nullified the 1824 Constitution in favor of a more centralized government and was no longer supportive of Texas self-rule.

At the Convention of 1833, 56 Texas delegates drafted a resolution requesting that Mexico roll back many of the changes in Mexican law that took place in 1830. Texans wanted Mexico to allow immigration from the U.S., provide more protection from native peoples, exempt Texans from anti-slavery laws, improve the mail service, and separate Texas from Coahuila. Stephen F. Austin, along with Dr. James B. Miller, presented the proposals to Santa Anna. Austin was imprisoned in Mexico City on suspicion of inciting insurrection. Eventually, the Mexican government repealed the Law of 1830, but would not grant statehood to Texas. Amidst the conflict, thousands upon thousands of Americans were immigrating to Texas.

"War is declared." So wrote Stephen F. Austin after the Battle of Gonzales, when Mexican authorities tried to seize the town's cannon and were met with the now-famous battle cry, "Come and take it!" After Gonzales, the unrest in Texas spiraled out of control. Santa Anna's determination to quell the rebellion would end with the Battle of San Jacinto on April 21, 1836 and Texas' independence.

Image courtesy of Daniel Mayer, Creative Commons

Tension grew between Texas and Mexico. Texans, with a growing influx of American settlers, pushed for separate statehood, resulting in many minor skirmishes with Mexico. The first notable battle of the Texas Revolution occurred when Texans at Gonzales refused to return a small cannon lent to them by Mexican authorities. On October 2, Colonel John H. Moore and his company famously rolled out the cannon under a flag that read, “Come and Take It.” The short fight that resulted sparked the beginning of the Revolution. Mexicans retreated, but the battle had just begun.

The provisional Texas government passed a resolution officially creating a corps of over 50 rangers. These Rangers engaged in many skirmishes with American Indians and often joined with the Texian Army in fighting against Mexican troops in what became the opening battles of the Texas Revolution.

A large force of mostly Comanches attacked a private fort built by Silas and James Parker near the upper Navasota River. In the attack Silas and two women were killed. His daughter Cynthia Ann (9), son John (6), and three others were taken by the Comanche. In time Cynthia Ann Parker was fully adopted by the Comanche, eventually becoming a wife of Chief Peta Nocona and the mother of Chief Quanah Parker.

"Cynthia Ann Parker" by William Bridgers, 1861.
Image courtesy DeGolyer Library, Southern Methodist University

Written in 1836, the Constitution of the Republic of Texas protected slavery in the new nation. The General Provisions of the Constitution forbade any slave owner from freeing enslaved people without the consent of Congress and forbade Congress from making any law that restricted the slave trade or emancipated the enslaved. This solidified the importance of slavery in Texas from its founding.

Draft of the Republic of Texas Constitution, 1836. Image courtesy Texas State Library and Archives Commission, Austin

The Republic of Texas was born on March 2, 1836, when 58 delegates at Washington-on-the-Brazos signed the Texas Declaration of Independence. The first Texas Congress met at Columbia in the fall of 1836 to set the border with Mexico at the Rio Grande, a decision based on an aggressive interpretation of the Louisiana Purchase. The river remained under the control of Mexico, however, as the Mexican government did not recognize Texas' independence.

Image courtesy of Svalbertian, Creative Commons

On March 1, 59 delegates held the Convention of 1836 at Washington-on-the-Brazos. There they drafted the Texas Declaration of Independence and adopted it on March 2. During the Convention, delegates also drafted the Texas Constitution, outlining their plan for the new Republic. This took place only a month after Santa Anna entered Texas with his army of 6,000 men. Mexico’s army vastly outnumbered the Texas rebels.

The Gonzales Ranging Company answered William B. Travis' impassioned letter asking for reinforcements to defend the Alamo. Thirty-two Rangers reached the fort on March 1. On March 6, all 32 Rangers died. This single troop loss accounted for 20% of all Alamo battle losses. These Rangers are now known in history as the "Immortal 32."

Merely declaring independence was a long way from winning the revolution. On March 6, 1836, Santa Anna led an attack on the Alamo. Under the command of William B. Travis and James Bowie, Texas rebels fought a fierce battle against the Mexican army. Casualties were high on both sides, but Santa Anna’s army ultimately triumphed. The defenders of the Alamo were killed in the attack, including famed frontiersman and former U.S. Congressman David Crockett. Those who did survive were captured and executed by Santa Anna’s troops. News of the defeat spread to Gonzales, where Sam Houston had formed an army. Feeling unprepared for the advancing army, Houston ordered Gonzales be evacuated and burned. The month-long flight, where evacuees headed east with news of Santa Anna’s advance, is known as “The Runaway Scrape.” In Goliad, Colonel James Fannin had been ordered to abandon his position to join Texas forces with General Houston however, he remained at the fort at Goliad. They fought the Mexican Army at the Battle of Coleto, but faced the same fate as the soldiers at the Alamo. They were defeated, and the Santa Anna gave the order to have Fannin's captured army executed.

Independence seemed out of reach after the Alamo and Goliad. General Houston drew criticism for not having yet attacked Santa Anna's advancing army. Ordered to stop his retreat by ad interim President David G. Burnet, Houston returned west, receiving word that Santa Anna's army was encamped on the west side of the Buffalo Bayou and the San Jacinto River, inside the present-day city limits of Houston. At 3:30 p.m. on April 21, outnumbered and facing impossible odds, Houston ordered the attack on Mexican army. With shouts of "Remember the Alamo!" and "Remember Goliad!", the ragtag militia descended upon the Mexican army. It is widely believed Santa Anna and his soldiers were indulging in an afternoon siesta and therefore were not ready to face the attack, which lasted approximately 18 minutes. Nine Texans were killed, and 630 Mexicans lost their lives. Santa Anna was captured after the battle. And so began the Republic of Texas.

In September of 1836, the citizens of the new Republic of Texas quickly elected Sam Houston as their first president, and Mirabeau B. Lamar as vice president. Houston appointed Stephen F. Austin to be Secretary of State. Austin died in office on December 27, 1836, at the age of 43.

Greenberry Logan was a free person of color who arrived in Texas in 1831. He fought and was injured at the Siege of Bexar (December 1835). Despite his military service, the Texas Constitution sought to remove all free persons of color unless they obtained permission from Congress to continue living in Texas. Logan and his wife Caroline submitted their petition to remain in March 1837, asking that they “might be allowed the privilege of spending the remainder of [their] days in quiet and peace.” Congress honored their request.

Greenberry Logan’s petition to remain in Texas, March 13, 1837. Image courtesy Texas State Library and Archives Commission, Austin.

The Texas Legislature passed an act authorizing Rangers to employ the services of "friendly" American Indian tribes as scouts and spies. Flacco, a Lipan Apache chief, served under Ranger John (Jack) Coffee Hays in 1841 and 1842. Hays later credited Flacco with saving his life in more than one battle with the Comanches.

The second president of Texas, Mirabeau B. Lamar, took over a bankrupt and lawless country. Driven by a vision of future greatness, Lamar ruthlessly drove the Cherokee from Texas, waged war with the Comanche, and undertook a disastrous expedition to open a trade route to Santa Fe. He also founded a new capital in Austin and laid the foundation that would one day create schools, colleges, and world-famous universities.

Image courtesy of the Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, University of Texas at Austin

Under the second president of Texas, Mirabeau B. Lamar, the capital was relocated to Austin. Many in Congress believed that Houston was too far from the original Texas settlements, so the commission surveyed land north of San Antonio between the Trinity and Colorado Rivers. Lamar set up a commission to begin researching potential locations for the new capital. They ultimately chose the village of Waterloo and changed the name to Austin to honor the legacy of Stephen F. Austin.

Land was cheap— $.50 an acre compared to $1.25 in the U.S.— but settlement was difficult in the rugged and dangerous Republic of Texas. As a result, land sales attracted more speculators than actual settlers. To encourage settlement, the Texas Congress passed a homestead law. President Sam Houston opposed the bill because of rampant fraud and illegal claims on land titles, and kept the General Land Office closed throughout his term.

Image courtesy of Texas General Land Office

The flag you know today as the official State flag of Texas was adopted in January of 1839 as the official flag of the Republic of Texas.

Republic of Texas President Mirabeau B. Lamar ordered the expulsion or extermination of all American Indian tribes. In the Battle of the Neches, near present-day Tyler, Cherokees were defeated in their attempt to retain land granted to them by a previous state treaty. Cherokee Chief Bowles died clutching a sword given to him by his close friend, Sam Houston.

Image courtesy of Texas State Library and Archives Commission

In the 1840s, during the Republic of Texas era, individual ranchers organized cattle drives to New Orleans. They also established the Shawnee Trail to Missouri, Illinois, and Iowa, where they could place the cattle on rail cars to be transported to the big markets in New York and Philadelphia.

President Lamar ordered the Rangers to attack Comanche villages in his campaign to drive American Indians out of Texas. War chiefs agreed to peace negotiations with the Rangers at Council House in San Antonio. At the talks, the Comanches entered with an injured hostage and demanded more money for the remaining hostages. Soon bullets and arrows flew. Six Texans and many Comanche war chiefs, women, and children died. The stage was set for the Battle of Plum Creek.

John (Jack) Coffee Hays led a company of Rangers toward Plum Creek. Word had spread of raiding Comanches seeking retribution for the Council House massacre. The Comanches reached Kelly Springs where their war chief, wearing a stovepipe hat and carrying a lady's parasol taken from a Linnville warehouse, was killed immediately. Fierce fighting continued along the San Marcos River with 150 Comanches killed.

Zylpha “Zelia” Husk emigrated to Texas by 1838 from Alabama and worked as a laundress in Houston. In 1840, Texas passed an Act Concerning Free Persons of Color that ordered all free Black people living in Texas to leave within two years unless granted an exemption by Congress. Husk petitioned the Republic for permanent residency in 1841. Fifty different white residents from Harris County testified that “we have known Zelp[ha] Husk for at least two or three years as a free woman of color, … she has conducted herself well and earned her living by honest industry.”

Zylpha Husk’s petition to remain in the Republic of Texas, December 16, 1841. Image courtesy Texas State Library and Archives Commission, Austin.

When Texas sought recognition from Great Britain as a sovereign nation, they signed a treaty to suppress the transatlantic slave trade. They mutually agreed that the Royal Navy and Texas Navy could detain and search each other’s ships for enslaved Africans or equipment typically found on a slave-trading vessel. This included shackles, hatches with open gratings, larger quantities of water and food than what the crew needed, and spare planking for laying down a slave deck. If ships were found with any of these things, their crews could be found guilty of illegally participating in the African slave trade.

Treaty Between Great Britain and Texas to Suppress the Slave Trade, 1842. Image courtesy Texas State Library and Archives Commission, Austin

On March 28, 1843, a number of Indian tribes including the Caddos, Delawares, Wacos, Tawakonis, Lipan Apaches, and Tonkawas attended the first council between the Tribes and Texas officials on Tehuacana Creek just south of present-day Waco.

Minutes of Indian Council at Tehuacana Creek, March 28, 1843, Texas Indian Papers, Courtesy of Texas State Library and Archives Commission

In 1836, the Republic of Texas voted in favor of annexation by the United States, but the U.S. wasn't interested because of concerns over the Republic's pro-slavery stance and an impending war with Mexico. By 1843, with the threat of British involvement in the Texas issue, U.S. President John Tyler proposed annexation. Texas drew up a state constitution in October 1845 and was admitted as the 28th U.S. state by the end of the year.

Texas' annexation to the United States was blocked over concern about slavery and debt. James K. Polk was elected President of the United States in 1844 on a promise to annex Texas (slave state) and the Oregon Territory (free state). The final obstacle to annexation was removed when Texas was allowed to keep its public lands to pay off its debt. Texas became the 28th U.S. state on December 29, 1845.

Image courtesy of Texas State Library and Archives Commission

Head chiefs for the Comanche including Buffalo Hump, Santa Anna, and others signed a treaty with John O. Meusebach, who acted on behalf of German settlers. The treaty allowed settlers to travel into Comancheria and for the Comanche to go to the white settlements. More than three million acres of land opened up to settlement as a result.

1972/141, Courtesy of Texas State Library and Archives Commission

Almost ten years after winning independence from Mexico, and after a long and controversial diplomatic struggle, Texas was annexed to the United States under the administration of President James Polk.

The annexation of Texas bolstered westward expansion of the United States. Settlers moved to Texas in droves. President Polk defined the border between Texas and Mexico at the Rio Grande, but Mexico did not agree. Diplomatic solutions failed. Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor to position troops along the north bank of the Rio Grande to protect the Texas boundary. The Mexican government saw this as an invasion and thus an act of war, resulting in the Battle of Palo Alto in Brownsville on May 8, 1846—the first major battle of the U.S.-Mexican War. War was officially declared by U.S. Congress on May 13.

On February 2, 1848, the U.S.-Mexican War was brought to an end with the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo. The treaty established boundaries between the United States and Mexico, with Mexico officially recognizing Texas as a part of the United States. Additionally, the treaty included the acquisition of Mexico's northern territory—which included California, Nevada, Utah, New Mexico, and Arizona, as well as parts of Wyoming and Colorado—for $15 million. The United States added more than 25% of its present day size, and Mexico lost over half its land as a result of the treaty.

"Four newly raised ranging companies, have all been organized, and taken their several stations on our frontier. We know they are true men and they know exactly what they are about. With many of them, Indian and Mexican fighting has been their trade for years. That they may be permanently retained in the service on our frontier is extremely desirable."

- Victoria Advocate newspaper

When the California gold rush began in 1849, Texas ranchers organized cattle drives to provide food for the "Forty-Niners." The drives left from San Antonio and Fredericksburg and took a perilous six-month journey through El Paso to San Diego and Los Angeles. The California cattle drives ended after the market there went bust in 1857.

On December 10, 1850, representatives from the U.S. government and the southern Comanche, Lipan Apache, Caddo, Quapaw, and various Wichita bands met for treaty negotiations at the Spring Creek Council Grounds. The tribal representatives agreed to stay west of the Colorado River and north of the Llano River, to abide by U.S. laws, and to turn over fugitive enslaved people and individuals being held as prisoners. The agent for the U.S. agreed to regulate traders in American Indian territory, establish at least one trade house, and send blacksmiths and teachers to live with the tribes.

This stone is one of two placed at the meeting site near Fort Martin Scott in Fredericksburg to commemorate the signing of the treaty. However, the treaty was not ratified by the U.S. government and neither side honored its provisions.

Treaty Stone, 1850.
Courtesy Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin

As the United States grew, so did the need for a more reliable transportation system. Travel was difficult in antebellum Texas, worsened by the expansive and unforgiving terrain in the west. Businesses also needed a way to ship their goods through the expanding area. This prompted the construction of the first railroad in Texas, which opened in 1853. Known as the "Harrisburg Railroad," the Buffalo Bayou, Brazos, and Colorado Railway ran about 20 miles from Harrisburg to Stafford's Point.

On October 29, 1853, Alabama Chief Antone, the tribal subchiefs, and prominent citizens of Polk County presented a petition to the Texas legislature requesting land for a reservation. In part to thank the tribes for their support of the Texas Revolution in 1836, the petition was approved. The State of Texas purchased 1,110.7 acres of land for the Alabama Indian reservation. About 500 tribe members settled on this land during the winter of
1854–55. In 1855 the Texas legislature appropriated funds to purchase 640 acres for the Coushattas.

J. De Cordova's Map of the State of Texas Compiled from the records of the General Land Office of the State, New York: J. H. Cotton, 1857, Map #93984, Rees-Jones Digital Map Collection, Archives and Records Program, Texas General Land Office, Austin, TX.

Upper and Lower Brazos Reservation was created in northern Texas. About 2,000 Caddo, Keechi, Waco, Delaware, Tonkawa, and Penateka Comanche, lived on the reservation. Five years later, attacks by white settlers and encroachments on the reservation resulted in the diverse tribes being forcibly removed to Indian Territory in present-day Oklahoma.

J. De Cordova's Map of the State of Texas Compiled from the records of the General Land Office of the State, New York: J. H. Cotton, 1857, Map #93984, Rees-Jones Digital Map Collection, Archives and Records Program, Texas General Land Office, Austin, TX.

Modern communication is something we all take for granted, but 19th-century Texans weren't so lucky. In 1854, the Texas and Red River Telegraph Company established service in Marshall, connecting to parts of Louisiana and Mississippi. By 1866, over 1500 miles of wire connected Texas.

As the number of settlers to Texas increased, so did the number of attacks as the Americans Indians were driven off their tribal lands. Texas Governor Hardin Runnels appropriated $70,000 to fund a force of 100 Rangers led by the legendary Senior Captain John "RIP" Ford. The Rangers spent the next several years fighting pitched battles with American Indian tribes as well as Mexican soldiers.

In the 1860s, the center of Texas cattle ranching shifted from South Texas to the frontier northwest of Fort Worth. Here settlers from Tennessee, Missouri, Kentucky, and Arkansas established new ranches in the rough brush country. These settlers, many of whom opposed secession, faced vigilante violence during the Civil War, but eventually expanded the cattle business into a true industry.

The election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860 prompted the secession of Southern, slave-holding states. The majority of Texans feared the election of a Republican would threaten slavery, which they believed was a vital part of the economy of the young state. Not all Texans bought into the idea of secession, most notably Sam Houston, the Unionist governor of the state. Although Houston himself was a slave-owner and opposed abolition, he actively worked to keep the state from seceding. However, the State Legislature voted in favor of an Ordinance of Secession on February 23, 1861. Governor Houston was evicted from office when he refused to take an oath to the Confederacy. Houston was replaced by Lieutenant Governor Edward Clark. This would mark the beginning of a long, bloody battle between the North and South. The Union would prove victorious four years later.

By a vote of 166 to 8, the Secession Convention of Texas voted to withdraw from the Union. Independence was declared on March 2, and on March 5, Texas joined the Confederate States of America. Governor Sam Houston refused to take an oath of loyalty to the Confederacy. When the Convention removed him from office on March 16, Houston's political career was over. The statesman retired to Huntsville where he died two years later.

All able-bodied men were required to report for service to the Confederate Army. This left many Texas colonies and forts with no defense from continual Comanche and Kiowa raids. The Texas Legislature passed an act authorizing the formation of the Frontier Regiment. These Rangers patrolled 18 forts located along a 500-mile line from the Red River to the Rio Grande. By 1863, all Frontier Regiment Rangers were drafted into the Confederate Army.

Early in the Civil War, Texas ranchers supplied the Confederate army with beef. Federal troops seized control of the Mississippi River and New Orleans in 1863, cutting Texas off from its southern markets. With most men involved in the war, cattle were left to roam. By 1865, there were thousands of unbranded "maverick" cattle throughout the state.

Large-scale cattle raids by Comanche became common with attacks in Cooke, Denton, Montague, Parker, and Wise counties. In December, some 300 Comanches attacked settlements in Montague and Cooke counties and escaped after driving off soldiers from the Frontier Regiment.

Saddle pad, 1870s
Image courtesy Heritage Society, Houston, Gift of Mrs. Herman P. Pressler

U.S. Army Col. Kit Carson led 350 California and New Mexico volunteer cavalry against Comanche and Kiowa camps near the abandoned "Adobe Walls" trading post in the Texas Panhandle. After a battle of several hours, Carson and his troops narrowly escaped, outnumbered by about 1,400 Comanche, Kiowa, and Apache warriors.

The Freedman's Bureau was a federal agency created to assist African Americans in the South with their transition to freedom following the Civil War. It was established by Congress in March 1865 as a branch of the United States Army and operated in Texas from late September 1865 until July 1870. The agency assisted newly freed African Americans with legal matters, education, and employment. The Bureau was also tasked with curbing the violence inflicted upon African Americans, especially by the KKK, a newly founded hate group.

Illustration of The Freedmen's Bureau distributing rations

On June 19, 1865, federal authority was established in Texas when General Gordon Granger arrived in Galveston. Granger proclaimed the end of slavery for 250,000 African Americans as well as the end of the Confederacy. "Juneteenth," celebrating that declaration of emancipation, was declared an official holiday in the state of Texas in 1980.

The economic devastation of the South after the Civil War meant Texas ranchers had to look elsewhere for profitable markets. In the North and East, cattle that were worth just $4 a head in Texas could be sold for $40. The challenge was getting them there. Cow folk and their cattle traveled the famed Chisholm Trail that crossed the Red River and headed into Kansas in order to reach the rail heads that could take the cattle to market.

The Army Reorganization Act authorized Congress to form the 9th and 10th Cavalry and the 38th, 39th, 40th, and 41st Infantry units. The soldiers signed up for five years and received three meals a day, a uniform, an education and $13.00 a month pay. These African American troops become known as "Buffalo Soldiers" because of their bravery in battles against Native Americans. The term eventually became a reference for all African American soldiers.

Buffalo Soldiers: The Unknown Army

Cathay Williams was a cook for the Union Army. When the Civil War ended, Cathay needed to support herself. She signed up with the 25th Infantry Buffalo Soldiers as William Cathay. When she was hospitalized, the doctor discovered her secret. On October 14, 1868, "William Cathay" was declared unfit for duty and honorably discharged. In 1891, Cathay applied for a military pension, but was denied because women weren't eligible to be soldiers.

885 men of the 9th Cavalry Buffalo Soldiers regiment took up stations at Fort Stockton and Fort Davis. When not engaged in skirmishes with the Apache and Comanche Indians, the soldiers guarded civilian and government stagecoaches traveling along the San Antonio to El Paso road.

Fort Lancaster 9th Cavalry Company K soldiers were moving their horses to pasture. 400 Kickapoo Indians advanced toward the fort. The Buffalo Soldiers scurried to fire at the invaders while herding their valuable horses back toward the fort's corral. Bullets and arrows flew throughout the night. By the time the battle ended the next morning, Company K had lost 38 cavalry horses and two soldiers to the Kickapoo.

Pennsylvania-born Mifflin Kenedy began sheep ranching in Texas after the Mexican-American War of 1846. In the aftermath of the Civil War, Kenedy made his move into cattle ranching with the purchase of Laureles Ranch near Corpus Christi. Kenedy fenced his ranch with smooth wire in 1869, marking the beginning of enclosed ranching in Texas. In 1907, Laureles was incorporated into the mighty King Ranch.

After the Civil War, the United States entered the era of Reconstruction, during which former Confederate States had to meet certain conditions for readmission into the Union. This included recognizing the U.S. constitutional amendments that ended slavery and rewriting their state constitutions. Nine African Americans were delegates to the 1868 Constitutional Convention. One of these delegates, George T. Ruby was elected to the Texas Senate a year later, becoming the first African American to serve in the legislature. Texas was readmitted to the United States on March 30, 1870.

Hyrum Wilson and several others between 1869 and 1872 owned and operated a pottery company on land granted to them by their former enslaver, John Wilson. Years of experience in John Wilson’s pottery shop provided the newly freed men the knowledge and skills needed to establish and operate their own pottery company. The enterprise’s success provided a livelihood for the potters that differed from sharecropping and tenant farming, both of which tied African Americans to landowners in a manner much like slavery.

George T. Ruby (left) and Matthew Gaines (right). 1/151-1. Courtesy of Texas State Library and Archives Commission

When the Twelfth Provisional Legislature began in February 1870, it included Texas’s first two African American legislators. Elected in 1869 to serve in the Texas Senate were George T. Ruby, a former Freedmen’s Bureau agent originally from New York, and Matthew Gaines, a Baptist preacher. Together, these men pushed for resolutions to protect African American voters and supported bills for public education and prison reform.

George T. Ruby (left) and Matthew Gaines (right). Image courtesy Texas State Library and Archives Commission, Austin.

The original four infantry units of Buffalo Soldiers were reorganized into two regiments. The original 38th and 41st regiments became the 24th regiment, and the 39th and 40th were combined to become the 25th regiment. From that point on, the Buffalo Soldiers troops were comprised of the 9th and 10th Cavalry regiments and the 24th and 25th Infantry regiments.

A new technique for tanning bison hides became commercially available. In response, commercial hunters began systematically targeting bison for the first time. Once numbering in the tens of millions, the bison population plummeted. By 1878, the American Bison were all but extinct. This was a terrible blow to the American Indians whose livelihood depended on the bison and to whom the bison is a sacred animal.

Pile of buffalo hides obtained from hunting expeditions in western Kansas, April 4, 1874.
Image courtesy Kansas Historical Society

Following the end of the Civil War, the cattle industry began to rebound. Cattle were turned loose in south Texas and their populations rapidly increased. With cattle numbers on the rise again, ranchers drove their herds toward the new markets in the northern U.S. The cattle industry in Texas was back and booming.

During Reconstruction, southern states were required to nullify acts of secession, abolish slavery, and ratify the 13th Amendment in order to be readmitted to the Union. Texas balked on the slavery issue, which prompted Congress to require that the Texas Legislature also pass the 14th and 15th Amendments before being considered for readmission. When Texas finally met all conditions, President Ulysses S. Grant readmitted Texas to the United States.

Sergeant Emmanuel Stance of the 9th Cavalry left Fort McKavett to rescue two children captured in an Apache raid. Stance and his men fought off the Apaches multiple times. Both children and over a dozen stolen horses were recovered. For his valor, Stance was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor and became the first African American soldier to win the country's highest civilian medal in the post-Civil War period.

Under the command of General William T. Sherman, the 10th Cavalry conducted an inspection tour of Texas frontier to determine the safety of white settlers against Indian threats. They traveled over 34,000 miles, mapping significant geographical features as they went. The information they gathered was used to develop highly detailed maps of the unsettled territory.

Kiowas and Comanche attacked a freight wagon train on the Salt Creek Prairie of Young County and killed the wagon master and seven teamsters. In response U.S. Army Gen. Sherman ordered operations to arrest any Comanche and Kiowa found away from their reservation. Chiefs Satank, Satanta, and Big Tree were arrested and put on trial. They were the first Native American leaders to be tried for raids in a U.S. Court.

Photograph 518901, "White Bear (Sa-tan-ta), a Kiowa chief full-length, seated, holding bow and arrows" William S. Soule Photographs of Arapaho, Cheyenna, Kiowa, Comanche, and Apache Indians, 1868 - 1875 Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, 1793 - 1999 National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD.

In 1871, Ransom and Sarah Williams purchased 45 acres in southern Travis County, despite the discriminatory labor practices that kept most African Americans from earning enough money to purchase land. The Williams family supported themselves by raising horses and farming. Objects left behind at the farmstead show that the family was successful enough to have money to spend on toys, costume jewelry, manufactured dish sets imported from England, and mass-produced patent medicines and extracts.

Transfer-printed whiteware saucer owned by the Williams family (reconstructed), c. 1875–1897. Image courtesy Texas Archaeological Research Laboratory, The University of Texas at Austin.

While on an expedition to the Llano Estacado, US Cavalry companies and Tonkawa scouts attacked a Comanche village on the North Fork of the Red River. About 13 women and children and their horse herd of some 800 animals were captured. Three soldiers were killed and seven wounded. The Comanche suffered 50 killed and seven wounded. The prisoners were sent to Fort Sill in Indian Territory.

Johnson, Chief of Tonkawa Scouts, United States Army, 1870–1875.
Image courtesy DeGolyer Library, Southern Methodist University

As the United States recovered from the Civil War, the nation's industrial capacity developed at a revolutionary pace. The overheated economy crashed in the Panic of 1873, causing the value of cattle to plummet. The resulting depression caused many cattle ranchers to go bankrupt and temporarily sidelined the industry.

Six companies of the 4th Cavalry, along with 24 Black-Seminole scouts led by Lt. John Bullis, crossed the Rio Grande and attacked a village of Lipan and Kickapoo near Remolino, Mexico. The survivors were deported to the Mescalero Reservation in the Sacramento Mountains of New Mexico.

A Black Seminole regiment, c. 1885. Image courtesy Archives of the Big Bend, Sul Ross State University, Alpine, Texas.

Black troops in the U.S. Army were stationed throughout Texas, the Southwest, and the Great Plains. They were given the name "Buffalo Soldiers" by Native Americans. Four regiments served in Texas: the 9th and 10th Cavalry, and the 24th and 25th Infantry. The Buffalo Soldiers participated in many frontier campaigns and were responsible for a variety of military tasks, including building roads and escorting mail parties through the frontier.

Beginning in 1868, a series of patents was issued to several inventors for strong, mass-produced fencing made from interlocking strands of wire, outfitted with sharp barbs that discouraged even the toughest cattle from muscling through it. In 1876, two salesman demonstrated barbed wire in the Alamo Plaza in San Antonio. Within a few years, the simple, revolutionary invention had ended the open range.

By the winter of 1873‒1874, the Southern Plains Indians were in crisis. The reduction of the buffalo herds combined with increasing numbers of settlers and military patrols had put them in an unsustainable position. Led by Isa-tai and Quanah Parker, 250 warriors on June 27th attacked a small outpost of buffalo hunters at Adobe Walls in the Texas Panhandle. This would start the Red River (or Buffalo) War.

Red River War Kiowa Prisoners, Fort Marion, Florida, c.1875. Kiowas.
Image courtesy Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University.

Alex Sweet, editor of the nationally-circulated humor magazine Texas Siftings, wrote in 1882: "The Rangers have done more to suppress lawlessness, to capture criminals, and to prevent Mexican and Indian raids on the frontier, than any other agency employed by either the State or national government."

The U.S. Army began a campaign to remove all Comanche, Kiowa, Southern Cheyenne, and Arapaho from the southwest plains and relocate them to reservations in Indian Territory. Led by Comanche Chief Quanah Parker, the Indian tribes fought one last battle for their native lands. The U.S. Army, including all regiments of the Buffalo Soldiers, engaged the Indians in over 20 battles from 1874 to 1875 in the Texas panhandle around the Red River.

The cattle drives faced the constant threat of attack by American Indians. In a series of battles known as the Red River War, the U.S. Army defeated a large force of Kiowa, Cheyenne, and Comanche at Palo Duro Canyon, by capturing and killing their horses. Without their ability to make war, the Indians were forced to relocate to reservations in Oklahoma, opening up the Staked Plains to cattle ranching.

The Red River War officially ended in June 1875 when Quanah Parker and his band of Quahadi Comanche entered Fort Sill and surrendered. They were the last large band in Texas. The United States had now defeated the unified Cheyenne, Arapaho, Comanche, and Kiowa and forcibly confined them to reservations.

Photograph 530911, "Quanah Parker, a Kwahadi Comanche chief full-length, standing in front of tent" Photographs of American Military Activities, ca. 1918 - ca. 1981 Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer, 1860 - 1985 National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD.

Created in 1876 as a result of legislation in Texas that mandated higher education opportunities for African Americans, Prairie View A&M became the first state supported institution of higher learning for African Americans in Texas. The school’s original curriculum was the training of teachers, but in 1887 it expanded to include agriculture, nursing, arts and sciences, and mechanical arts, and by 1932, the college initiated graduate programs in agricultural economics, rural education, agricultural education, and rural sociology.

Birds-eye view of Prairie View State Normal College, ca. 1900. Image courtesy of Prairie View A&M University, Special Collections/Archives Department, Prairie View, TX

Since Texas gained independence from Mexico in 1836, the Texas Constitution has undergone five revisions. The Constitution of 1876 was the sixth revision of the document and established the foundation for the law still in effect in Texas today. The 1875 constitution, in part a reaction to Reconstruction, shortened terms and lowered salaries of elected officials, decentralized control of public education, limited powers of both the legislature and governor, and provided biennial legislative sessions. The new constitution also created the University of Texas and confirmed the creation of Texas A&M, setting aside one million acres of land for the Permanent University Fund.

Henry O. Flipper was the first African American cadet to graduate from the United States Military Academy at West Point.


Events of 1939 - WW2 Timeline (January 1st - December 31st, 1939)

While the start of World War 2 was marked by the German invasion of neighboring Poland, it was - at its core - fallout remaining from what became World War 1 decades earlier. A rearmed Germany looked to right-the-wrongs of the armistice of 1918 and its military might was showcased to the world in September of 1939. What lay ahead would become a bloody and years-long conflict that would ensnare the rest of the world - leaving Germany a shell of its former self and ultimately divided by the conquerers.

The Kingdom of Italy and the Empire of Japan, the primary co-members of the Axis powers and both to be soundly beaten in the war, would fare no better.


There are a total of (75) Events of 1939 - WW2 Timeline (January 1st - December 31st, 1939) events in the Second World War timeline database. Entries are listed below by date-of-occurrence ascending (first-to-last). Other leading and trailing events may also be included for perspective.

Sunday, September 3rd, 1939

Athenia, a British passenger liner originating from Glasgow and traveling to Montreal, is targeted and sunk by German U-boat U-30 resulting the loss of 112 people. Athenia becomes the first naval casualty of the U-boat scourge in the Atlantic.

Tuesday, September 5th, 1939

The Bosnia becomes the first merchantman to be sunk by the German U-boats.

Wednesday, September 6th, 1939

Thirty-six Allied ships set out across the Atlantic in the first coordinated convoy crossing attempt.

Saturday, September 2nd, 1939

The governments of Britain and France deliver their ultimatums to German officials in regards to the German invasion of Poland.

Sunday, September 3rd, 1939

France declares war on Germany.

Sunday, September 3rd, 1939

The government of Australia declares war on Germany.

Sunday, September 3rd, 1939

New Zealand declares war on Germany.

Sunday, September 3rd, 1939

The British transatlantic passenger liner SS Athenia is sunk by German U-boat U-30, killing 128 aboard.

Monday, September 4th, 1939

The British Royal Air Force launches its first bombing missions against German targets - these being warships stationed off of the northwest coast of Germany.

Tuesday, September 5th, 1939

The government of South Africa declares war on Germany.

Tuesday, September 5th, 1939

The United States government declares its neutrality in the European conflict.

Wednesday, September 6th, 1939

The Polish government and military command flee Warsaw.

Wednesday, September 6th, 1939

German forces advance beyond Lodz.

Wednesday, September 6th, 1939

German forces take Krakow.

Thursday, September 7th, 1939

French forces begin light fighting against German elements near Saarbrucken.

Thursday, September 7th, 1939

Britain launches the first of many convoys across challenged Atlantic waters.

Friday, September 8th, 1939

The German Tenth Army reaches the Warsaw perimeter.

Friday, September 8th, 1939

The German Fourteenth Army arrives near Przemysl.

Friday, September 8th, 1939

General Guderian's tank force reaches the Bug River just east of the Polish capital.

Monday, September 10th, 1939

Canada declares war on Germany.

Monday, September 10th, 1939

General Lord Gort and his British Expeditionary Force begin to arrive on French soil.

Wednesday, September 13th, 1939

French Prime Minister Edouard Daladier begins setting up his war cabinet.

Sunday, September 17th, 1939

The British aricraft carrier HMS Courageous is sunk southwest of the Irish coast by German U-boat U-29.

Thursday, September 21st, 1939

Romanian Prime Minister Armand Calinescu is assassinated by elements of the fascist group "Iron Guard".

Saturday, October 14th, 1939

The British Royal Navy battleship HMS Royal Oak is sunk by U-47 with 833 lives lost.

Saturday, November 4th, 1939

The United States government revises its neutral stance and allows for sales of military goods to occur - the buyer responsible for payment and transport.

Sunday, November 26th, 1939

With worsening relations between Finland and the Soviet Union, the Soviets pull out of their non-aggression pact with Finland.

Saturday, December 2nd, 1939

The Finnish government seeks assistance from the League of Nations.

Thursday, December 14th, 1939

The Soviet Union is expelled from the League of Nations.

Saturday, December 23rd, 1939

7,500 Canadian soldiers arrive in Britain.

The German battleship Graf Spee leaves Wilhelmshaven for the North Atlantic. She is commanded by Captain Hans Langsdorff. Her supply ship is the Altmark, which also leaves Wilhelmshaven.

Thursday, August 31st, 1939

Adolf Hitler provides the final orders for the invasion of Poland.

Friday, September 1st, 1939

German airborne elements begin bombardment of Polish defensive targets. At 6:00 AM, 50 German divisions making up Army Group North and Army Group South flood into Poland. Army Group South's mission is the capture of the Polish capital of Warsaw.

Sunday, September 3rd, 1939

Britain declares war on Germany leading British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain to arrange a war cabinet.

Friday, September 8th, 1939

German ground forces arrive at the outskirts of the Polish capital of Warsaw, covering an astounding 200 miles in a single week.

Saturday, September 9th, 1939

Polish Poznan army units launch a counter-offensive against the German army at Kutno on the Bzura.

Sunday, September 10th, 1939

Polish forces at the Modline fortress some 20 miles north of Warsaw fall under siege to the German Army.

Sunday, September 17th, 1939

Soviet army elements begin their invasion of Poland from the east. Attacks occur near Vilnius and Bialystok.

Sunday, September 17th, 1939

Polish resistance at the Bzura River north of Lodz finally surrender to the Germans. Some 170,000 Polish prisoners are taken captive.

Monday, September 18th, 1939

The Polish city of Vilnius falls to the Soviet army.

Monday, September 18th, 1939

The Polish government flees to Romania and is held. A government-in-exile is hastily arranged.

Tuesday, September 19th, 1939

German and Soviet army elements finally meet one another in Poland at Brest-Litovsk.

Friday, September 22nd, 1939

The Polish city of Bialystok falls to the Soviet Army.

Friday, September 22nd, 1939

The Polish City of Lwow falls to the Soviet Army.

Wednesday, September 27th, 1939

The Polish capital of Warsaw officially falls.

Wednesday, September 27th, 1939

The German battleships Deutschland and Graf Spee are let loose on Allied shipping convoys in the North Atlantic.

Thursday, September 28th, 1939

Polish forces fighting it out at the Modline fortress officially surrender.

Friday, September 29th, 1939

The German-Soviet Boundary Friendship Treaty is signed between German representative von Ribbentrop and Soviet representative Molotov. Poland is divided into a western zone under German control and an eastern zone under Soviet control.

Saturday, September 30th, 1939

The Graf Spee claims her first merchant vessel, the British freighter Clement, in the waters of the South Atlantic.

The Graf Spee goes on to sink four more Allied merchant vessels during the month of October.

The last valiant gap of Polish resistance - numbering some 4,500 soldiers under the command of Admiral Unruh - north of Danzig on the Polwysep Helski peninsula falls to the Germans.

Wednesday, November 15th, 1939

The Graf Spee sinks the oil tanker Africa Shell off the coast of Madagascar.

Monday, November 20th, 1939

The Graf Spee begins her return to a pre-designated waiting area in the South Atlantic. British cruisers Ajax, Achilles, Exeter and Cumberland begin pursuit.

Thursday, November 30th, 1939

Five Soviet armies cross into Finland, beginning the Winter War.

The Soviet Union installs a Finnish-Soviet puppet government in Terijoki to be led by Otto Kuusinen.

Tuesday, December 5th, 1939

After some initial advances, the Soviet Army if forced to stop by the Finnish defenses at the Mannerheim Line.

Saturday, December 9th, 1939

As the Finnish winter worsens, Soviet attacks on Helsinki stall.

Saturday, December 9th, 1939

The Soviet 44th and 163rd Divisions take the Finnish town of Soumussalmi.

Wednesday, December 13th, 1939

The Graf Spee adds three more vessels - the Doric Star, Tairoa, Streonshalh - to its list of sunken Allied targets. She begins her voyage towards River Plate near Uruguay for a final combat patrol.

Wednesday, December 13th, 1939

The Graf Spee is spotted in the early morning hours by Commodore H. H. Harwood's British cruiser squadron.

Wednesday, December 13th, 1939

At 6:14 AM, the Graf Spee opens fire on the British heavy cruisers Ajaz and Exeter.

Wednesday, December 13th, 1939

At 6:40 AM, the British cruiser Achilles is damaged by shell splinters from the Graf Spee's guns.

Wednesday, December 13th, 1939

At 6:50 AM, the British cruiser Exeter is heavily damaged by the Graf Spee, leaving only one turret functional and in flames.

Wednesday, December 13th, 1939

At 7:25 AM, the British cruiser Ajax loses two of her turrets to the Graf Spee.

Wednesday, December 13th, 1939

By 7:40 AM, the British cruisers Ajax and Achilles break battle and trail out of range of the Graf Spee's guns, though still in pursuit.

Wednesday, December 13th, 1939

At 8:00 AM, Captain Langsdorff orders his lightly damaged Graf Spee towards the port at Montevideo in Uruguay with British ships in close pursuit.

Wednesday, December 13th, 1939

At approximately 12:00 PM, Graf Spee enters the harbor at Montevideo, Uruguay, with the intention on having her damaged repaired. With political pressure from Britain, the Uruguayan government offers the Graff Spee only 72 hours rest.

Friday, December 15th, 1939

The deteriorating conditions of a Finnish winter protect Helsinki from additional Soviet attacks.

Friday, December 15th, 1939

The Mannerheim Line holds as Soviet Army elements are kept at bay.

Friday, December 15th, 1939

Valliant Finnish forces repel the Soviet Army out of Soumussalmi, retaking the town.

Friday, December 15th, 1939

The Soviet 14th Army takes Petsamo.

Friday, December 15th, 1939

Finnish defenders keep the town of Nautsi from falling under Soviet control.

Sunday, December 17th, 1939

Graf Spee Captain Hans Langsdorff mistakenly believes there to be a large Royal Navy contingent waiting for his exit out of Montevideo harbor. As such, he orders the Graff Spee scuttled. The German vessel is effectively eliminated from the war.

Sunday, December 17th - December 31st, 1939

Finnish Army elements cross into Soviet Karelia, unleashing hell on the Russian 44th and 163rd Divisions. Some 27,000 Russian soldiers are killed.

Wednesday, December 20th, 1939

Choosing honor over justice, Captain Hans Langsdorff commits suicide, officially ending the reign of the Graf Spee.


. of famous people, actors, celebrities and stars born in 1942

77
Terry Jones

Welsh comedian, screenwriter, actor, film director and author (1942-2020)

*February 1st, 1942, Colwyn Bay January 21st, 2020, North London

78
Joe Biden

46th and current president of the United States

*November 20th, 1942, St. Mary's Hospital

78
Katherine Justice

*October 28th, 1942, Sacramento

78
Dietrich Hollinderbäumer
76
Stephen Hawking

British theoretical physicist, cosmologist and author (1942-2018).

*January 8th, 1942, Oxford March 14th, 2018, Cambridge

78
Wolfgang Schäuble

German lawyer and politician

*September 18th, 1942, Freiburg im Breisgau

Raman Ghosh
79
John Cale

Welsh composer, singer-songwriter and record producer

74
Muhammad Ali

American boxer, philanthropist and activist

*January 17th, 1942, Louisville June 3rd, 2016, Scottsdale

74
Daliah Lavi

Israeli actress, singer and model

*October 12th, 1942, Shavei Tzion May 3rd, 2017, Asheville

78
Amitabh Bachchan
79
Paul McCartney

English singer-songwriter, bassist of The Beatles

*June 18th, 1942, Liverpool

Urs Herzog

*June 24th, 1942, Zug September 24th, 2015, Zürich

69
Muammar Gaddafi

Libyan revolutionary, politician and political theorist (1942-2011)

*June 7th, 1942, Qasr Abu Hadi October 20th, 2011, Sirte

75
Pierre Seron

*February 9th, 1942, Chênée May 24th, 2017, Gard

74
Sven-Erik Magnusson

Swedish singer and musician

*October 13th, 1942, Säffle March 22nd, 2017, Karlstad

27
Jimi Hendrix

American guitarist, singer and songwriter

*November 27th, 1942, Seattle September 18th, 1970, Kensington

71
Bob Hoskins

*October 26th, 1942, Bury St Edmunds April 29th, 2014, Bury St Edmunds

70
Roger Ebert

American film critic, author, journalist, and TV presenter

*June 18th, 1942, Urbana April 4th, 2013, Chicago


Watch the video: The Dhekiajuli Uprising 20th September, 1942 (October 2022).

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