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Apr 1081 - Aug 1118
1088 - 1099
Reign of Pope Urban II.
1095 - 1102
The First Crusade is formed to recapture Jerusalem for Christendom. It is successful in its primary aim.
27 Nov 1095
At the Council of Clermont, Pope Urban II calls for the First Crusade to form and retake Jerusalem for Christendom.
The people's army led by Peter the Hermit departs for Constantinople during the First Crusade.
21 Oct 1096
The "People's Crusade" led by Peter the Hermit is wiped out by a Seljuk army near Nicaea.
21 Oct 1096
The 'People's Crusade' is wiped out near Nicaea by a Seljuk army.n
The First Crusaders arrive at Constantinople.
The First Crusaders capture Nicaea.
1 Jul 1097
A Crusader army wins a great victory against a Muslim army at Dorylaion.
Baldwin of Boulogne takes control of Edessa and the County of Edessa is formed, one of four Crusader-created states in the Levant.
3 Jun 1098
The First Crusaders capture Antioch after an 8-month siege.
28 Jun 1098
The Crusaders defeat a large Muslim army sent to recapture Antioch.
7 Jun 1099
The Crusader army arrives at the walls of Jerusalem, the objective of the First Crusade.
17 Jun 1099
A small fleet of Genoese and English ships arrives at Jaffa bringing essential supplies for siege weapons to the First Crusaders at Jerusalem.
10 Jul 1099
Siege towers are built by the First Crusaders to better attack Jerusalem.
15 Jul 1099
Jerusalem is captured during the First Crusade.
10 Aug 1099
A Muslim army is sent to recapture Jerusalem but is defeated by the Crusaders at the battle of Ascalon.
The Crusader state, the Kingdom of Jerusalem is created.
17 May 1101
Caesarea is captured by the Crusaders.
26 May 1101
Acre is captured by the Crusaders.
The Knights Hospitaller are recognised as a religious order by Pope Paschal II.
Foundation of the military order the Knights Templar.
Albert of Achen's account of the First Crusade, the 'Jerusalem History", is written based on soldiers accounts.
24 Dec 1144
The Muslim Seljuk Turks, led by Imad ad-Din Zangi, capture Edessa.
1 Dec 1145
Pope Eugenius III calls for the Second Crusade.
Joscelin II's attempt to retake Edessa fails and the city is sacked by Nur ad-Din.
1147 - 1149
The Second Crusade is launched to recapture Edessa for Christendom. It is not successful.
1147 - 1148
Campaigns against pagans in the Baltic are led by Germanic and Danish nobles during the Second Crusade.
The Knights Templar's first military engagement during the Second Crusade.
Jun 1147 - Oct 1147
The siege of Lisbon during the Second Crusade.
Jun 1147 - Sep 1147
Dobin and Malchow in northeast Germany are captured during the Second Crusade.
Sep 1147 - Oct 1147
The armies of the Second Crusade arrive in Constantinople.
17 Oct 1147
Almeria in northern Spain is captured from the Moors during the Second Crusade.
21 Oct 1147
The capture of Lisbon by the Second Crusaders.
25 Oct 1147
At Dorylaion a force of Muslim Seljuk Turks attacks an army led by Conrad III during the Second Crusade.
An army led by Louis VII defeats a Seljuk army in Asia Minor during the Second Crusade.
7 Jan 1148
An army led by Louis VII is defeated by the Seljuks as it crosses the Cadmus Mountains during the Second Crusade.
24 Jul 1148 - 28 Jul 1148
The unsuccessful siege of Damascus during the Second Crusade.
Conrad III, one of the leaders of the Second Crusade, returns to Europe.
30 Dec 1148
Tortosa in eastern Spain is captured from the Moors during the Second Crusade.
29 Jun 1149
The Muslim Seljuk leader Nur al-Din captures Crusader-held Antioch.
A new Church of the Holy Sepulchre is completed in Jerusalem.
1174 - 1193
Reign of Saladin, Sultan of Egypt and Syria, and founder of the Ayyubid dynasty.
1186 - 1192
Guy of Lusignan reigns as king of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
3 Jul 1187 - 4 Jul 1187
Saladin defeats the Franks army at the Battle of Hattin.
Saladin captures Jerusalem.
Pope Gregory VIII calls for the Third Crusade to recapture Jerusalem.
Saladin besieges the Knights Hospitaller castle of Krak des Chevaliers but withdraws to meet the Third Crusade.
1189 - 1192
The Third Crusade is formed with the aim of recapturing Jerusalem for Christendom. Although some cities were recaptured, Jerusalem was not one of them.
Aug 1189 - Jul 1191
The siege of Acre during the Third Crusade.
Richard I of England captures Messina on Sicily during the Third Crusade.
10 Jun 1190
Frederick I Barbarossa, Holy Roman Emperor, drowns in the Seraph River in Cilicia on his way to the Middle East during the Third Crusade.
Richard I of England captures Cyprus during the Third Crusade.
The Crusader armies of Philip II of France and Richard I of England arrive at the siege of Acre.
12 Jul 1191
Richard I of England captures Acre during the Third Crusade.
Philip II leaves Acre and returns to France during the Third Crusade.
20 Aug 1191
Richard I of England orders the execution of 2,500 Muslim prisoners after the siege of Acre during the Third Crusade.
7 Sep 1191
Richard I of England defeats Saladin's army at Arsuf during the Third Crusade.
The Crusader army led by Richard I of England arrives within sight of Jerusalem but decides not to attack for fear of a counter-attack by Saladin.
Saladin takes Jaffa during the Third Crusade.
Richard I of England retakes Jaffa from Saladin during the Third Crusade.
Richard I of England, returning home from the Third Crusade is shipwrecked and eventually imprisoned by the German emperor Henry VI.
4 Mar 1193
Death of Saladin, Sultan of Egypt and Syria.
1197 - 1198
The German Crusade led by Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI.
A Crusade army captures Beirut.
28 Nov 1197
A Crusade army begins the siege of Toron.
2 Feb 1198
A Crusade army abandons the siege of Toron on hearing of the death of Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI.
The Order of Teutonic Knights is officially sanctioned by Pope Innocent III.
Pope Innocent III calls for the Fourth Crusade to liberate Jerusalem from Muslim rule.
Marquis Boniface of Montferrat is selected to lead the Fourth Crusade.
1202 - 1204
The Fourth Crusade is formed to recapture Jerusalem for Christendom. Instead, the Crusaders attack Constantinople.
The Fourth Crusade fleet leaves Venice.
24 Nov 1202
The armies of the Fourth Crusade capture Christian Zara on the Dalmatian coast.
A small force of Crusader knights arrives in the Middle East during the Fourth Crusade.
24 Jun 1203
The army of the Fourth Crusade arrives at Constantinople.
12 Apr 1204
Constantinople is sacked by the Fourth Crusaders.
9 May 1204
Count Baldwin of Flanders is made the first Latin Emperor of Constantinople.
1209 - 1229
The Albigensian Crusade against Cathars heretics in southern France.
The Children's Crusade when Nicholas of Cologne leads a children's army to Jerusalem but many die of hunger crossing the Italian Alps and the Pope tells them to go home.
Pope Innocent III calls for the Fifth Crusade.
1217 - 1221
The Fifth Crusade is formed to attack Muslim-held cities in North Africa and Egypt. It is not particularly successful.
The Château Pèlerin ("Pilgrim Castle") is built in Israel by the Knights Templar.
The army of the Fifth Crusade arrives in Egypt.
Jun 1218 - Nov 1219
Damietta in Egypt is attacked and conquered after a long siege during the Fifth Crusade.
28 Aug 1221
After a failed attack on the Sultan of Egypt's army at Mansourah, hit by floods from the river Nile and with another two Muslim armies blocking their escape, the army of the Fifth Crusade surrenders.
The Fifth Crusaders surrender Damietta.
1228 - 1229
The Sixth Crusade is formed by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. It achieves through diplomacy Christian control of Jerusalem.
7 Sep 1228
Frederick II arrives in the Levant on the Sixth Crusade.
18 Feb 1229
The Treaty of Jaffa is signed between Frederick II and al-Kamil to hand over Jerusalem to Christian rule.
The Teutonic Order adopts a white surcoat and black cross insignia for all knights.
17 Oct 1244
An army of the Ayyubid dynasty defeats a large Latin army at the battle of La Forbie (Harbiya) in Gaza.
Louis IX, king of France, takes up the cross and vows to embark on a Crusade.
1245 - 1249
Al-Salih is the Sultan of Egypt and Syria, leader of the Ayyubid Dynasty.
Al-Salih, Sultan of Egypt and Syria, captures Ascalon from the Franks.
1248 - 1254
The Seventh Crusade is formed to attack Muslim-held cities in North Africa and Egypt. Led by Louis IX, it is not successful.
25 Aug 1248
The army of the Seventh Crusade sets sail for Egypt from Aigues Mortes in Southern France.
The army of the Seventh Crusade lands in Egypt.
The army of the Seventh Crusade captures Damietta in Egypt.
20 Nov 1249
The army of the Seventh Crusade marches from Damietta to Cairo.
5 Apr 1250
The army of the Seventh Crusade is defeated at Mansourah. Louis IX is captured.
6 May 1250
Louis IX, leader of the Seventh Crusade, is released by his captors, the Ayyubid Dynasty.
The Eighth Crusade is formed to attack Muslim-held cities in North Africa. Led by Louis IX, it is not successful.
The army of the Eighth Crusade lands at Tunis in North Africa.
25 Aug 1270
Louis IX dies of dysentery at Tunis during the Eighth Crusade, which is, consequently, abandoned.
Charles of Anjou leads the withdrawal of the Eighth Crusade army from Tunis to Sicily. Many ships are lost in a storm.
With the fall of Acre, the Crusader States, including the Kingdom of Jerusalem, are absorbed into the Mamluk Sultanate.
18 May 1291
Acre, the last Christian stronghold in the Middle East, falls to the Mamluks.
Pope Clement V officially abolishes the medieval military order the Knights Templar.
25 Sep 1396
The Battle of Nicopolis, aka the Nicopolis Crusade, where a western Christian army is defeated by the Ottoman Turks.
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