Selinus Silver Didrachm

Selinus Silver Didrachm

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Ancient Coins

Attica. Athens. Ca. 454-404 BC. Silver AR Tetradrachm, 17.00 g., 26 mm. Obv. Helmeted head of Athena right. Rev. Owl standing to right, olive sprig and crescent behind, all within incuse square. Kroll 8 SNG Copenhagen 31 Dewing 1591-1598. A superbly centered specimen with unusually high relief. NGC graded as Ch AU★ 5/5, 5/5, Fine Style.

SICYONIA. SICYON (SIKYON). Ca. 400-323 BC. Silver AR Stater. 25mm, 12.20gr. BCD Peloponnesos 218 BMC 57. Obv: Chimaera standing left with forepaw raised, ΣE below, wreath in right field. Rev: Dove flying left within wreath. A truly beautiful coin with one of the most fascinating mythological monsters of classical antiquity. NGC AU★ 5/5, 5/5, Fine Style.

MACEDONIAN KINGDOM. Alexander III, the Great. 336–323 BC. AR Tetradrachm, 26mm, 17.27gr., lifetime or early posthumous issue minted at "Amphipolis", Macedonia , ca. 323-320 BC. Obv. Head of young Herakles right in lion skin headdress. Rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, Zeus enthroned left, holding eagle and scepter, Athena Promachos right in left field. Price 109. Superb coin for the type. NGC MS★ 5/5, 5/5.

Alexander III the Great (336-323 BC). AR tetradrachm. 26mm, 17.15 gr. Pella Mint, posthumous issue under Cassander as regent, ca. 317/6-315/4 BC. Obv: Head of Heracles right wearing lion-skin headdress / ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, Zeus seated on backless throne left, holding eagle on outstretched right hand and scepter in his left. Rev: Boeotian shield in left field, coiled serpent under throne. Price 249. Cleanly struck in choice metal, finely styled and fully lustrous. NGC Ch AU★ 5/5, 5/5. Fine Style

SICILY. Syracuse. Agathocles (317-289 BC). AR Tetradrachm. 26mm, 17.09gr ca. 310-305 B.C. Pre-royal coinage, Agathocles as Tyrant, ca. 310-305 BC. Obv: Wreathed head of Arethusa facing left wreathed with grain ears, wearing triple-pendant earring and necklace, three dolphins around, "NI" below neck truncation. Rev: Charioteer holding kentron and reins driving a fast quadriga left, triskeles above, AI monogram in exergue. An absolutely stunning example, leaving little to be desired. Great centering, allowing for a good portion of the obverse beaded border and the full reverse design evoking the finely styled decadrachms of Euainetos struck a century earlier. What really elevates this exquisite piece is the toning, with gorgeous cerulean toning amongst Arethusa's hair seems to reinforce her presence in an aquatic realm. The reverse also features beautiful toning, with similar cerulean and some azure hues melding with breath-taking sunset and rose surrounding the vigorous horses. NGC Ch. AU★ 5/5, 5/5. Fine Style.

Purchased from Catherine E. Bullowa-Moore in 1987.

SICILY, Syracuse. Philistis, wife of Hieron II. 275-215 BC. AR 16 Litrai – Tetradrachm (26mm, 13.27gr). Struck circa 240-215/4 BC. Obv: Diademed and veiled bust left torch behind. Rev: Nike driving galloping quadriga right E to lower right. Burnett 47 SNG ANS 884. NGC Ch AU, 5/5, 5/4, Fine Style.

SICILY. SICULO-PUNIC COINAGE OF ENTELLA, ca. 300-289 BC. Silver tetradrachm, 16.46 g., 25 mm. Obv. Head of Herakles right, wearing the lion skin. Rev. Horse head left, palm tree behind, Punic inscription below. Jenkins, Punic 372 (O115/R302). Perfectly centered with all the pertinent details on planchet. NGC graded AU★ Strike 5/5, Surface 5/5, Fine Style.

SICILY, Syracuse. Fifth Democracy. 214-212 BC. AR 8 Litrai (22mm, 6.8gr). Obv: Head of Athena left, wearing crested Corinthian helmet, single-pendant earring, necklace, and aegis. Rev: Winged thunderbolt ΣYPAKOΣIΩN above, ΞA below. Burnett 28. SNG ANS 1046. SNG Lockett 1023. ex CNG 32 (12/1994), Lot 100. NGC Ch AU★ 5/5, 5/5, Fine Style.

SICILY. SELINUS. Ca. 540-480 BC. AR Didrachm. 20mm, 9gr. Obv. Selinon leaf. Rev. Incuse square with linear patterns. Arnold-Biucci Group I Selinos Hoard 20 (same dies) SNG ANS 676 (same dies) HGC 2, 1207 (same dies as illustr.). Attractively toned and well struck. NGC graded Ch AU 5/5, 5/5.

From the Elwood Rafn Collection.

SICILY. SYRACUSE. Ca. 480-470 BC. AR Obol (litra), 8mm, 0.69gr. Obv. Head of Arethusa right, within dotted circle. Rev. Four-spoked wheel. Boehringer 279-285 HGC 2, 1371. A small coin almost never encountered in such an exceptional grade and degree of preservation. NGC MS★ 5/5, 5/5.

EGYPT. PTOLEMAIC KINGDOM. PTOLEMY VI, 180-145 BC. AR Tetradrachm, 26mm, 14.03gr, struck at Alexandria 180-170 BC. Obv. Diademed bust of Ptolemy I right, within dotted circle. Rev. ΠΤΟΛEMAIOY ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ, eagle standing on thunderbolt to left, within dotted circle. Svoronos 1489 SNG Copenhagen 267 Dewing 2766. Exceptional iridescence. NGC Ch AU★ 5/5, 5/5.

Celts - Middle Danube Area. Imitation of Audoleon. Pannonia (Burgenland). Ca. 2nd CENTURY BC. AR Tetradrachm. 23mm, 12.50gr. Kroisbach mit Reiterstumpf type. Obv: Diademed head right of male with heavy brows and prominent protrusion on bridge of nose. Rev : Diademed head and torso left of rider on prancing horse above right, eye-shaped device twisted exergual line terminating in torques. Lanz 743–5 OTA 469 CCCBM I 152-4 KMW 1391. NGC Ch AU★ 5/5, 5/5, Fine Style.

Ancients: SICILY. Selinus. Ca. 540-480 BC. AR didrachm (27mm, 8.66 gm). NGC MS 5/5 - 2/5, brushed.

SICILY. Selinus. Ca. 540-480 BC. AR didrachm (27mm, 8.66 gm). NGC MS 5/5 - 2/5, brushed. Ca. 540-515 BC. Wild parsley (selinon) leaf / Incuse square composed of twelve alternating raised and sunken triangles. HGC 2, 1208. SNG ANS 671-3. Medium cabinet toning on obverse. Bright reverse, retoning with rainbow hues.

From the Paramount Collection. Ex Leu Numismatik AG, private sale with old dealer tag

Situated on a vast plateau in southwestern Sicily, Selinus was founded in the late seventh century BC by Dorian colonists from Megara in mainland Greece. Named after a river god, Selinus was one of the earliest Sicilian cities to embrace the invention of coinage. Its first coins, struck on the Corinthian standard in circa 540 BC, bore a selinon (celery) leaf as a canting pun on the city name.

(2) Miletus · Laureate Head of Apollo Left / Lion Statant Regardant Left · Silver · About 310–300 BC

Included under this heading is the compact group of reduced-Rhodian-standard silver didrachms (about 6.5 g ) that Deppert-Lippitz places in her Period III (1984: #436–496, pls. 14–16). The types on these coins face to the left, as in the Rhodian-standard silver tetradrachms, drachms, and hemidrachms of her Period I, but unlike the coins of Period I, the silver didrachms of her Period III always possess an exergue line on the reverse. Specimens naming magistrates ΜΝΗΣΙΘΕΟΣ, ΖΕΥΞΙΛΕΟΣ, ΑΝΤΙΠΑΤΡΟΣ, ΤΙΜΟΘΕΟΣ, ΦΑΙΔΙΜΟΣ, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΙΔΗΣ, ΛΥΚΟΣ, ΠΡΩΤΑΡΧΟΣ, ΑΝΤΙΛΕΩΝ, ΑΝΑΞΙΚΡΕΩΝ, ΤΙΜΩΡΟΣ, ΚΛΕΙΤΟΜΑΧΟΣ, ΠΙΤΘΙΣ, ΜΝΗΣΕΑΣ, ΑΝΤΙΑΝΔΡΟΣ, ΒΑΚΧΙΟΣ, ΕΧΕΒΟΥΛΟΣ, ΑΘΗΝΑΙΟΣ, ΠΥΘΩΝ, ΑΡΙΣΤΟΚΡΑΤΗΣ (corrected from D-L’s ΑΡΙΣΤΟΚΑΤΗΣ), ΛΑΜΙΟΣ, ΜΟΙΡΙΑΣ, ΕΡΓΙΝΟΣ, ΑΠΟΛΛΟΔΟΤΟΣ, ΔΑΜΑΣΙΑΣ, ΜΝAΣΕΑΣ, ΗΡΑΓΟΡΑΣ, ΔΗΜΟΣΘΕΝΗΣ, and ΧΑΡΜΗΣ are recorded by Deppert-Lippitz, and Kinns (1986: 239–240) adds the names ΤΙΜΕΑΣ and ΦΙΛΙΔΑΣ. One example is included in this collection.

The complex die linkage [of these reduced-Rhodian didrachms] certainly indicates a compact and short-lived issue, despite the thirty known magistrates’ names. Her chronology depends firstly on the bronze hoard IGCH 1289/90, secondly on the fact that ten of the magistrates can plausibly be identified in Milesian inscriptions of the 280s and 270s, and she makes a tentative association with the loan raised in 283/2 from the citizens of Cnidus, to pay off an indemnity to Lysimachus. As many as seven of the didrachm magistrates appear among the list of seventy-five guarantors for this loan. This is good evidence, but an alternative slightly earlier chronology can also be proposed. D-L herself refers in passing (p. 70, note 133) to didrachms on the same standard struck at Samos [Kinns’ footnote: “See J.P. Barron, The Silver Coins of Samos (1966), pp. 124–40.”], and the comparison should perhaps have been pressed. For the Samian didrachms exhibit a fabric and pattern of die use remarkably similar to that seen at Miletus, and one wonders if the two series are not connected. Using epigraphical and historical evidence, Barron suggested c. 310–300 as the date for the Samian coins, and the Milesian series could equally well belong to that decade, representing the years of Antigonus’s relatively liberal control of Miletus, between the much-vaunted ‘liberation’ from Asander in 313/12 and Ipsos in 301 (D-L, p. 61). Significant also is the fact that the ‘royal’ mint at Miletus was apparently closed between 318 and 300. Conversely, in the 280s payments to Lysimachus are much more likely to have been made in ‘royal’ silver, possibly Milesian Alexanders, than in local didrachms. Nor is such a conclusion inconsistent with the activity of seven of the didrachm names as guarantors in 283/2—these men (with over twenty colleagues, let it be remembered) could well have been involved with the coinage twenty or twenty-five years beforehand, for their inscriptional mention gives only a floruit. [Kinns, 1986: 252]

In more recent writings, Kinns has continued to express a preference for a date in the vicinity of 310–300 BC for these issues (Ashton and Kinns, 2003: 18, n. 81), and his chronology has been adopted here.

(2a) AR Reduced-Rhodian Didrachms (6.5 g ) · About 310–300 BC

These issues are known only in the didrachm denomination no tetradrachms, drachms, or hemidrachms have been recorded. Interestingly, however, the apparently parallel series of didrachms from Samos, described by Barron (1966: 125–140, pls. 23–25) and noted above by Kinns (1986: 252), does appear to have been accompanied by a small number of drachms (3.2–3.6 g ), hemidrachms (1.3–1.7 g ), and trihemiobols (0.6–0.7 g ). Perhaps Milesian issues in these smaller denominations are waiting to be discovered.

Additional didrachm specimens recorded by Kinns (1986: 239–240) but not yet subjected to die analysis and not yet incorporated into the table above (with the exception of the corrected ΦΙΛΙΔΑΣ specimen) include the following:

  1. ΤΙΜΕΑΣ · “A.S. Dewing (no. 2297) (Obverse = D-L 436–8)”
  2. ΦΙΛΙΔΑΣ · “Paris (Waddington 1829 = D-L 469 ‘ΕΧΕΒΟΥΛΟΣ’: The reverse illustrated duplicates that of D-L 470) Evelpides”
  3. ΑΝΤΙΛΕΩΝ · “ SNG Lewis 937 (cf. D-L 449–50, 485–6, 494–5)”
  4. ΑΠΟΛΛΟΔΟΤΟΣ · “Kress sale 149.244 (cf. D-L 478–9)”
  5. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΙΔΗΣ · “Glendining sale 7/3/57.280 Glendining sale 3/10/73.123 (cf. D-L 445–6)”
  6. ΔΑΜΑΣΙΑΣ · “ SNG Berry 1077 Ratto sale 4/4/27.1966 (ex Ratto sale 13/5/12.952, Ratto sale 26/4/09.3906) (cf. D-L 480, 484, 487–8)”
  7. ΔΗΜΟΣΘΕΝΗΣ · “M.G. Lee sale 10/5/54.369 Vinchon sale 7/11/77.96 (cf. D-L 491, 496)”
  8. ΚΛΕΙΤΟΜΑΧΟΣ · “Thorvaldsen (no. 1453) (cf. D-L 454, 460)”
  9. ΠΙΤΘΙΣ · “ SNG Lewis 938 Platt FPL 6/30.465 (cf. D-L 456–9)”

The Cilician region occupied the eastern half of the southern Turkish coast. Tarondimotos began as a pirate, but made a king of the semi-autonomous Cilician Empire under Marc Antony in 39 B.C. The . (more)

Inventory: Available
Product ID: 38655


A Story of Restoration through Carbon Sequestration

Silenus Winery has been employing healthy environmental practices for many years. The winery firmly believes that sustainable practices for our vineyards and vineyard workers contribute to a better wine and a better life.

Recently Silenus has become one of the first Napa Green properties (the sustainability program from Napa Valley Vintners) to develop a Carbon Farm Plan for the vineyards to become Carbon Neutral. This type of regenerative farming has become the gold standard in sustainability and healthy farming. As other types of farming (organic or biodynamic) maybe be healthy for the grapes, they do not address the use of many fossil fuels or do not consider the backbreaking work that can be required of vineyard workers.

At Silenus the winery practices carbon sequestration, also known as carbon farming, the primary way for a vineyard to become carbon neutral. In addition to replacing fossil fuels with clean energy, Silenus also creates conditions for plants to retain as much carbon in the ground as possible versus releasing it into the atmosphere. This is accomplished primarily by planting specific cover crops in the vineyard in every other row, eventually plowing them back into the soil. Alternating the rows every other year means that the tractor is used half as much, yet the legume heavy blend consistently adds beneficial nitrogen back to the soil which helps with photosynthesis. This lessens the carbon footprint dramatically, as it acts as a natural fertilizer while helping to retain water which means less energy and more sequestration.

This type of farming is supplanted with several other efforts, each aimed at reducing CO2 output. The winery is replanting a grape parcel that lies next to Dry Creek from a producing vineyard to a riparian buffer of native trees, plants and grasses. These local plants help to eliminate invasive species which create problems. In addition, a natural compost (which includes spent skins and seeds from the grapes) is added to the vineyard soil which additionally helps to reduce many tons of carbon.

The efforts at Silenus Winery for Carbon Sequestration have neutralized the carbon footprint of the winery, and has had the net effect of removing 886 tons of carbon from the atmosphere annually, equivalent of taking 188 typical cars off the road for a year – every year, while enhancing our vineyard practices and quality.

AR Didrachm 450-420 BC v. Chr. SICILIA (SICILY), SEGESTA - circa 450-420 BC ss+ / ss

weight 8,36gr. | silver Ø 22mm.

obv. The ″Cirneco of Etna″(coursing hound) standing left with circle of beads
rev. Head of nymph Segesta right, hair bound with tainia and wearing necklace

Segesta (or Egesta), located in the north-west corner of Sicily, was an important trading town from the 7th century BC onwards. Situated on the strategically advantageous slopes of Mt. Barbaro, yet still close enough to the coast to support a trading port, Segesta established itself as the most important regional town of the Elymi people. Trade flourished, Doric architecture from Greece was assimilated, there was an independent army and even a mint. An emporium on the coast allowed for the trade and export of locally produced goods such as wine, corn, wool, walnuts, wood, and olives. Segesta did not have everything her own way, though. The construction of fortification walls suggests a significant threat from enemy city-states and between 580 and 576 BC, the rivalry with Selinus (Selinunte) on the southern coast of the island finally broke out in war. In the mid-5th century BC Segesta reached the zenith of its prosperity and importance. This brought with it an end to the friendly relations which had finally been established with Selinus, and, in circa 458 BC (traditional date), a treaty of mutual cooperation with Athens.

In 416 BC rivalry with Selinus resulted in another war and Athens was called upon (and paid) to give military aid. In addition to a financial incentive, the threat of the east coast polis Syracuse dominating Sicily and becoming an even more powerful ally of Sparta - Athens′ long-time enemy - was another argument used to encourage Athens to increase her sphere of influence. In the spring of 415 BC, Athens responded to Segesta′s request by sending the general Alcibiades and a fleet of 60 ships. However, the help never arrived, as the fleet was re-directed to a disastrous war directly against Syracuse with Segesta even sending 300 cavalry in support. Syracuse was the most powerful city on Sicily and ally of Selinus, and it was perhaps her defeat that really motivated Athenian interest in Sicily. Following the Athenian defeat and as an alternative strategy for self-preservation, Segesta appealed to Carthage, but the response was ambiguous - Selinus was sacked in 409 BC but the Carthaginians, eager to maintain their grip on Mediterranean trade, firmly planted themselves as masters of western Sicily and established a garrison at Segesta. In 405 BC a treaty was signed between Syracuse and Carthage to divide up the island between these two dominant parties.

Things got even worse for Segesta when the Syracusan tyrant Agathocles sacked the city in 307 BC. The changing of the town′s name to Diceopolis was one of the lesser indignities the local population had to put up with under this brutal ruler. The new master was not in charge for long, though, as Carthage quickly re-asserted control of the region. With the first Punic War (264-241 BC), Segesta once more became embroiled in bitter regional politics and power again changed hands, so that by 210 BC the whole of Sicily became a province of the new masters of the Mediterranean: the Romans.

Under Roman rule Segesta once more enjoyed a period of prosperity. The town expanded its territory and was, in 225 BC, given the status of civitas immunis et libera, which resulted in fewer taxes and an increase in political autonomy. Indicators of this return to the good times are the 2nd century BC theatre, agora, bouleuterion (seat of the town council), and city walls. However, from the late 1st century AD the town begins a slow decline and recedes from the historical scene, to be finally abandoned from the 2nd century AD in favour of the nearby Aquae Segestanae.

The ″Cirneco of Etna″, is a very old Sicilian hound race, used for hound coursings and the hunt on rabbits. In mythology it is associated with the origin of Segesta the animal may refer to the founding myth that describes a dog as the personification of the river god Crimisus. It was he who fell in love with a local nymph (Egesta), and their resulting offspring, Egesto, was credited with being the founder of the city.

BMC- | SNG.Copenhagen- | SNG.München- | SNG.ANS.- (cf. 6300) |
McClean- | Coll.Pozzi- | Jameson- | Sear- (cf.897) RRR
Very attractive coin of early classical style. Extremely rare.

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The Reduction Of Silver Content In The Roman Denarius

Since I have been studying so many different areas of ancient history, particularly that of ancient Rome, this subject has been of some interest to me and others for a number of reasons. It has been apparent that the decline in the content of silver in Roman coinage directly related to various factors within the Roman Empire over the course of several centuries namely, through the First Century AD/CE to the Fourth Century AD/CE.

The examination of the part that coins played in history is crucial in helping to make important determinations in a number of areas of the study. For instance, the names used by various emperors, their family members, wives, and sometimes, relatives. It is for much more than simple interest or trivia that we, as historians, examine ancient coins.

We find many things of interest and importance, that is, of value to us in our quest to learn more about the people and times in which they lived. Coins of the various emperors contain information. They give us portraits of the emperors which give us some idea as to how they looked. They tell us things from what they chose to include on their coins, such as symbols, gods and/or goddesses, motto and more. And, at times, we may even find examples of propaganda and historical reference.

But in this instance, we are examining the silver content or the amount of silver contained within the silver denarius (or “denarii” in plural) as minted under the various emperors. Which, may tell us a few things or at least indicate or support various views of certain emperors at particular points in the historical timeline of the Roman Empire.

One of the first things that comes to mind is that as the Roman Empire was expanding and more people and territory was being added to it, the demand for more coinage became a priority. And, one of the easiest ways to make silver coinage ‘stretch’ is to “water it down” so to speak. Or, in other words, reduce the silver content rather than the size of the coins – which, by the way, was another thing that we see happening as time went on (a good example of this can be seen in the reduction of size in both the denarius and the tetradrachm over the course of time).

Coins which were produced under the Emperor Augustus were virtually as pure as they could make them, about 98 percent pure. We see, as time went on, that the silver coins minted under later emperors were reduced to ‘billon’ (a token amount of silver) and essentially copper coins with a silver wash to make them appear to be silver. Of course, with use, the silver washed coins would begin to show the copper as the silver wore off.

Basically, the coins which were produced by the Julian Emperors remained for the most part, stable. The exception to that (and remember, we are focused primarily upon the denarius in this paper), could be coins produced for the various Roman territories in the form of coinage issued for use in the provinces. Once the rule of the Julian Emperors ended with the death of Nero, we begin to see where the rule of successive emperors changed the content of silver in their coins.

The Silver Content In The Denarius Under Various Emperors*:
[Again, remember that we find silver reduction in coins produced for the provinces]

Augustus (ruled : 27 BC/BCE-14 AD/CE) 97/98%.
Claudius (ruled : 41-54 AD/CE) 97%.
Nero (ruled : 54-68 AD/CE) 97%.
Vitellius (ruled: 69 AD/CE) 81%
Domitian (ruled: 81-96 AC/CE) 92%
Trajan (ruled: 98-117 AD/CE) 93%
Hadrian (ruled: 117-138 AD/CE) 87%
Antoninus Pius (ruled: 138-161 AD/CE) 75%
Marcus Aurelius (ruled: 161-180 AD/CE) 68%
Septimius Severus (ruled: 193-211 AD/CE) 50%
Elagabalus (ruled: 218-222 AD/CE) 43%
Severus Alexander (ruled: 222-235 AD/CE) 35%
Gordian III (ruled: 238-244 AD/CE) 28%
Philip ‘The Arab’ (ruled: 244-249 AD/CE) 0.50%
Claudius II [‘Gothicus’] (ruled: 268-270 AD/CE) 0.02%

There was a major coinage reform under the emperor Diocletian (284-305 AD/CE), and various changes occurred afterward, during Constantine’s reign. This paper does not extend into detailing that information. In our listing of emperors (above), we see a steady decline in the amount of silver in the denarii being produced by each of the emperors listed after emperor Trajan from Trajan’s 93% to the 0.02% in those being produced by Claudius II.

More information on later coinage of the Roman Empire can be found in various books, including ‘Roman Coins And Their Values’ by David R. Sear, Seaby Publications Ltd.

The reduction in the amount of silver in a little at a time over the course of the rule of emperors as time went on, seems to beg the question, was their some pre-designed plan for the reduction of silver in coins which was put in place by certain emperors and then instituted by successive emperors according to that plan?

Remember, these emperors, as we are now finding out, were related to each other and had common ancestry with each other. That is, they were already of “royal blood” to begin with, regardless of what they tried to make people think in the histories that they were in control of.

If this was done slowly, over time, as it was in instances that we see here, the populace would not be able to tell what was going on. And, it is most certain that the emperors never announced publicly, just what they were doing when reducing the amount of silver in their coins. That is, they were fooling the public.

Whatever the case, we need to continue to examine and study instances such as this, and compile more data from the reign of more of the emperors. That is, we need to better complete the information that we have to work with and fill in the gaps that have been missing. Also, we should bear in mind that other factors may apply in consideration of the change in silver content from one emperor to another.

One explanation for a change may not be that one emperor or another did not intentionally raise or lower the silver content, but that in changing administration, those working in the silver refining process, may have changed as well. Sources of ore or metal may have fluctuated or changed.

In some instances, new or different mints could have been a factor as well as silver destined for the refinery being hijacked or otherwise lost. Without written records or other confirming information, we simply need more data from which to extrapolate with any certainty, a solid postulate.

* Bear in mind that these are averages for the coins sampled in various studies to date. The studies were controlled to the extent that they could be considering that many million coins were produced within the Roman Empire. Not every denarii of every emperor could be tested currently. So, this information will have to suffice for the time being. It is as accurate as we can be with the tests and studies that have been conducted up to this point.

‘The Decline and Fall of the Roman Denarius’, by Alan W. Pense (Provost and Vice President, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015-3035).

Alan W. Pense has a downloadable PDF document/paper.

‘Roman Coins And Their Values’ by David R. Sear, Seaby Publications Ltd., 1995, etc.

Also do a web search using these search terms: “Roman History Timeline”.

Other papers by Roman Piso can be found here:

This paper posted at Academia(dot)Edu:

[Albanian: ‘Reduktimi i shumës së argjendit në denarin Romak’]
[Arabic: ‘تخفيض الكمية الفضية في الروماني دياريوس’]
[Armenian: ‘Reduktimi i shumës së argjendit në denarin Romak’]
[Bosnian: ‘Redução da quantidade de prata no Roman denário’]
[Chinese: ‘罗马银子中银量的减少’]
[Czech: ‘Snižování množství stříbra v římský Denár’]
[Danish: ‘Nedsættelse af sølv i Romersk denar’]
[Dutch: ‘Vermindering van de zilveren bedrag In de Romeinse Denarius’]
[Esperanto: ‘Redukto De Arĝento Kvanto En La Roma denaron’]
[Estonian: ‘Hõbedane teenari Roman summa vähendamine’]
[Filipino: ‘Pagbaba ng halaga ng pilak sa mga Romanong denaryo’]
[French: ‘Réduction de la quantité d’argent dans le denier Romain’]
[German: ‘Reduktion des silbernen Betrags im Römischen Denar’]
[Greek: ‘Μείωση του ποσού ασημένια με το ρωμαϊκό Denarius’]
[Hebrew: ‘הפחתת סכום כסף ב דנאריוס רומן’]
[Hungarian: ‘A Római dénár ezüst összeg csökkentése’]
[Italian: ‘Riduzione della quantità d’argento nel Denario Romano’]
[Japanese: ‘ローマデにおける銀量の削減’]
[Latin: ‘Summam in reductione Argentum Roman’]
[Latvian: ‘Denarius Romiešu sudraba summu samazināšanu’]
[Lithuanian: ‘Mažinti sidabro kiekį Romos denaras’]
[Norwegian: ‘Reduksjon av sølv beløpet i den Romerske Denarius’]
[Persian: ‘کاهش مقدار نقره در Denarius روم’]
[Polish: ‘Zmniejszenie kwoty srebrny w rzymskiego denara’]
[Portuguese: ‘Redução da quantidade de prata no Roman denário’]
[Romanian: ‘Reducerea cuantumului argint Denar Roman’]
[Russian: ‘Сокращение количества серебра в Римской денариус’]
[Serbian: ‘Смањење од сребрне износа у је Роман Денариус’]
[Sindhi: ‘چاندي رقم جي گهٽتائي رومن Denarius ۾’]
[Slovak: ‘Zníženie výšky striebra v rímsky denár’]
[Slovenian: ‘Zmanjšanje zneska srebro v rimski denar’]
[Spanish: ‘Reducción de la cantidad de plata en el denario Romano’]
[Swahili: ‘Reduktimi i shumës së argjendit në denarin Romak’]
[Swedish: ‘Minskning av Silver beloppet i den Romersk Denar’]
[Turkish: ‘Roma Denarius gümüş tutarının azaltma’]
[Ukrainian: ‘Скороченню срібло в Денарій Роман’]
[Urdu: ‘رومی دانآریوس میں چاندی رقم کی کمی’]
[Zulu: ‘Ukuncishiswa Of Inani Isiliva Ngo ISigungu esiphethe umbuso waseRoma lukadenariyu’]

Roman coins, denominations, coinage, province, Augustus, Claudius, Nero, Vitellius, Domitian, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, Septimius Severus, Severus Alexander, Elagabalus, Gordian III, Philip I ‘The Arab’, Claudius II ‘Gothicus’, denari, denarii, denarius, coins, coin, ancient coins, numismatic, celator, ancient mints, silver, gold, copper, aureus, drachm, didrachm, tetradrachm, follis, antoninianus, antoninianii, potin, billon, error, restrike, restrikes, silver wash, silvered, limes, AE, AE3, AR, AV, miliarense, siliqua, centenionalis, argenteus, dupondius, quadrans, cistophorus, sestertius, quinarius, as, As, Semis, triens, sextans, unica, quadrigatus, moneyer, victoriatus, solidus, scripulum.

History, Ancient History, Rome, Ancient Rome, Roman Empire, Roman Emperors, Popes, Papal History, Christianity, History of Christianity, Origin of Christianity, Emperor, Emperors, Roman Catholic History, Holy Roman Empire, Arrius Calpurnius Piso, Roman Piso Family, Ancient Alias Names, Ancient Pen Names, Gordian Emperors, Emperor Antoninus Pius, Arius Antoninus, Marcus Aurelius, Oligarchy, Royal Supremacy, Royal Language, Aliases, Genealogy, Ancient Genealogy, Ancient Genealogies, Historia, Historia Augusta, Flavius Josephus, Pliny The Younger, Suetonius, Tacitus, Plutarch, Hero of Alexandria, Apollonius of Tyana, Philostratus ‘The Athenian’, Philostratus ‘The Younger’, Herodian, Emperor Constantine, Vespasian, Titus, Domitian, Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Lucius Verus, Commodus, Pertinax, Pescennius Niger, Didius Julianus, Clodius Albinus, Septimius Severus, Severus Alexander, Maximinus, Maximus, Probus, Clodius II, Constantius, Constantius Chlorus, Eusebius, Pope Eusebius, Church Father, Early Christianity, Roman Creation of Christianity, Nero, 666, Julius Calpurnius Piso, Julius Piso I, First 10 Popes, Justin Martyr, St. John ‘The Divine’, The Revelation, gospels, The Gospel of Thomas, Gnostic, Gnostic Gospels, Apocryphal, texts, holy, sacred, free, info, sample, paper, papers, research, research paper, Heron, Herod, Agrippa, Philo, Logos, Talmud, Pharisee, pharisees, sect, Cornelius, Theodosius I, Arcadius, Honorius, Byzantine, Byzantium, Constantinople, ancient literature, forensic history, censorship, Medieval, medieval censorship, Inquisition, Crusade, crusades, Church, Church History, comparative, religion, religious, organized religion, Abelard Reuchlin, Professor, Bruno Bauer, James Ballantyne Hannay, Marcus, Antonius, Cleopatra, Julius, Caesar, Caesars, Antonius Primus, Cestius Gallus, Nero, Vitellius, Otho, Licinianus, Frugi, Piso, Julius Servianus, Julius Severus, Julius Constantius I, Galba, New, New Testament, Bible, gospels, epistles, Panegyricus, Timothy, Justinian The Jurist, Proculus Calpurnius Piso, Silanus Piso, Herodes Atticus, ben Pantera, Scribes, genealogy, genealogies, royal, royal line, royal blood, historiography, philosophy, history of, historical Jesus, Dark Ages, Secular Humanism, Atheism, Atheist, Atheists, Historical Anthropology, Anthropology, Anthropology of Religion, Imperial, Imperial Rome, Roma, Classics, Classical Antiquity, Religion as psychological warfare.

Anthropology, genealogical charts, genealogy, archaeology, Origins of Christianity, Holy, Holy Roman Empire, Imperial Rome, Roman Empire, popes, emperor, emperors, King James, Bible, biblical, classics, classical history, historic, Pliny The Elder, Seneca, Aria, Arria, Arria The Younger, Arria The Elder, Arius, Arrius, Fadilla, Arria Fadilla, Arria Antonina, Antonius, Marcus Antonius, Antonius Primus, of Alexandria, of Tyana, of Rome, of Athens, Gnostics, gospel, Gospel of, Thomas, Mary, Magdalan, magi, three, three days, three wise men, rooster, hen, cock, crow, crew, Alexander, Sabina, Gaius Calpurnius Piso, Constantine, Julius Constantius, Constantius Chlorus, Emperor, emperors, Flavia, Flavian, Flavians, Titus, Domitian, Vespasian, Nerva, Augustus, Julius Caesar, Caesar, Tiberius, Gneius Calpurnius Piso, Gaius, Caligula, Claudius, Nero, Galba, Otho, Vitellius, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, Commodus, Pertinax, Didius Julianus, Clodius Albinus, Septimius Severus, Severus Alexander, Pupienus, Claudius Gothicus, Probus, Gallienus, Tacitus, Florian, Florianus, Balbinus, Postumus, Philip I, Philip II, Pacatian, Jotapian, Aquilia Severa, Annia, Annia Faustina, Julia Soaemias, Julia Maesa, Diadumenian, Elagabalus, Julia Domna, Caracalla, Lucius Verus, Lucilla, Geta, Titiana, Manlia Scantilla, Didia Clara, Pescennius Niger, St. Peter, Saint, Saint Peter, Linus.


For illustrations I have had assistance from many quarters, and I would like to thank the following for their help in procuring prints and transparencies of the vases and statuettes: Rüdiger Splitter (Staatliche Museen Kassel, Antikensammlung) Dr. Nikolaus Kaltsas (National Archaeological Museum, Athens) Michael Slade (Art Resource, for the Antikensammlung, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin) Horst Getter of the Staatliche Museen, who allowed me to inspect the “Berlin Cocks” firsthand Jan Jordan (American School of Classical Studies at Athens, Agora Excavation) Corinne Emery (Ashmolean Museum, Oxford) Alex Truscott (London, British Museum) Jacklyn Burns (Malibu, J. Paul Getty Museum) Elena Stolyarik (American Numismatic Society) Natasha Derrickson (University of Chicago, Smart Museum of Art) Nadia Perucic (Michael and Judy Steinhardt Collection, New York) Eileen Sullivan (New York, Metropolian Museum of Art) Jutta Stroszek and Michael Krumme (German Archaeological Institute, Athens) Erin Schleigh (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston). Dr. Claire Lyons (Getty), and Dr. Carmen Arnold-Biucchi (Sackler Museum, Harvard). Prof. H. A. G. Brijder and Dr. Ellen Reeder helped me locate crucial pieces of information. I would also like to acknowledge my debt to the online Beazley Archive Pottery Database (http://www.

   This book has been longer in gestation than I care to remember. I have not, however, forgotten that it has been aided by many friends and colleagues. I am grateful to Charles Mercier and Rachel Kitzinger for inviting me to present some of my findings at an APA panel on animal noises in Greek Comedy 1992. Ken Kitchell asked me to contribute to a session on animals at the Classical Association of the Middle West and South 2002. Other aspects of this project were presented at annual meetings of the Classical Association of New England. Colleagues at the various schools that I have taught at since I conceived of this project have offered encouragement and advice: I thank Deborah Boedeker (then at Holy Cross College, now Brown University), Mary Lefkowitz (Wellesley College), Ted Ahern (Boston College), and Emily McDermott and Frank Nisetich at the University of Massachusetts, Boston. A sabbatical year in 2002󈝯 granted to me by UMass Boston allowed me finally to pull the manuscript together. I have been especially fortunate that Jeffrey Henderson has been nearby, at Boston University, willing to serve as a sounding board and to offer suggestions. Other friends and colleagues – Phil Ambrose, Kellee Barnard, Fiora Bassanese, John Marincola, Vince Rosivach, and Gretchen Umholtz – have, over the years, alerted me to various pieces of information and posed thoughtful questions. The book has benefited enormously from the input of its readers, and I would like to express my deepest thanks to Prof. John Oakley and Prof. Frank Romer, who read it for Cambridge University Press and offered both learning and sound judgment. They are of course not to blame for my more unfounded conjectures.

   A longer-term debt is owed to two mentors in graduate school. Prof. L. E. Rossi, visiting Columbia from Rome, asked us to consider the context of performance of everything we read Prof. James Coulter kindled my interest in the intellectual life of the fifth century B.C. This book, which falls roughly into halves, reflects precisely those two concerns. Readers will join me in thanking my father, Kenneth S. Rothwell, Sr., professor emeritus of English at the University of Vermont, who read the entire manuscript and identified some twenty or thirty pages’ worth of dispensable verbiage. Beatrice Rehl of Cambridge University Press has been patient and encouraging. Thanks also go to Maggie Meitzler of Techbooks, whose expertise aided the copyediting.

   Much of the time spent writing this book would otherwise have gone to my wife and children my gratitude for their support and forebearance cannot be measured.

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